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APPENDIX I Suggested Standard Procedures for Detection of Tuberculosis ILAR Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Quality Standards L. R. Christensen (Chairman), R. J. Flynn, W. G. Hoag, R. Holdenried, D. L. Huxsoll, H. M. Kaplan, L. M. Kraft, J. B. Nelson, and M. Pollard PREFACE The objective of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources' Subcom- mittee on Laboratory Animal Quality Standards is to recommend sampling and testing procedures for the detection of infectious agents in laboratory animal colonies. In developing the report on tuberculosis, the group con- sidered the advice of several primatologists. Although there is not complete agreement on universally applicable testing procedures for tuberculosis in primates, or on the species and families within the order Primates that should be routinely tested, the subcommittee members feel that the procedure as presented gives the best possible assurance that an individual or colony is tuberculosis-free. The report is presented as "Suggested Standard Procedures" to encourage further comment by specialists in primate medicine. AGENT Mycobacterium tuberculosis ANIMALS All nonhuman primates 44
43 Chimpanzees Chimpanzees reproduce readily in captivity provided they are adapted to their new environment and have been raised with sufficient social stimula- tion to permit ready acceptance of a member of the opposite sex. When one considers that most of the apes are imported as infants and raised in some form of isolation, it is understandable why their reproduc- tion rate is rather low. Observers differ as to the proper male-female ratio, but they agree that a male and a female should "be acquainted" before they are paired. If male and female are customarily apart, pairing is more likely to be effective if they are brought together while the female is in substantial perineal swell- ing and is receptive to the male's advances. Female chimpanzees are at breeding age when they are 9 to 10 years old; males, when they are a year or so older. The menstrual cycle is about 35 days and the gestation period between 245 and 256 days.