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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1979. Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe: A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18469.
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Climbing the Academic Ladder: Doctoral Women Scientists in Academe A Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy from the Committee on the Education and Employment of Women in Science and Engineering Commission on Human Resources National Research Council National Academy of Sciences Washington, D.C. 1979 NAS.NAE APR 2 71979 LIBRARY

NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. International Standard Book Number 0-309-02880-9 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 79-87666 Available from Order from National Technical Office of Publications Information Service, National Academy of Sciences Springfield Va 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. 22161 Washington, D.C. 20418 Order Printed in the United States of America

COMMITTEE ON THE EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Lilli S. HORNIG, Chairperson Executive Director, Higher Education Resource Services Wellesley College M. Elizabeth TIDBALL, Vice-Chairperson Professor of Physiology George Washington University Medical Center Jewel Plummer COBB Dean Douglass College Eleanor I. FRANKLIN Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Howard University College of Medicine Gertrude Scharff GOLDHABER Senior Physicist Brookhaven National Laboratories Robert G. JAHN Dean, School of Engineering Princeton University William F. KIESCHNICK, Jr. Executive Vice President Atlantic-Richfield Company Vera KISTIAKOWSKY Professor of Physics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Barbara F. RESKIN Associate Professor of Sociology Indiana University David Z. ROBINSON Vice President Carnegie Corporation of New York Neena B. SCHWARTZ Deering Professor and Chairman Department of Biological Sciences Northwestern University iii

Elizabeth L. SCOTT Professor of Statistics University of California, Berkeley Robert J. SLATER Director of Medical Programs National Multiple Sclerosis Society Members of the Committee who served in earlier formative years of this report are: Mildred S. DRESSELHAUS Department of Electrical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Patricia A. GRAHAM Radcliffe Institute and Harvard University Naomi McAFEE Systems and Technology Divisions Westinghouse Electric Corporation Jeremiah P. OSTRIKER Princeton University Observatory Janet T. SPENCE Department of Psychology The University of Texas at Austin IV

Table of Contents PREFACE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS INTRODUCTION Overview Scope of the Study Equal Opportunity in Higher Education Legal Definitions Data Sources Organization of the Report CHAPTER 1 CONSTRAINTS, BARRIERS AND POTENTIAL Sex Differences in Scientific Aptitude Cultural and Structural Barriers Conclusions Study Recornnendations CHAPTER 2 THE SUPPLY OF WOMEN DOCTORATES Comparative Quality of Women and Men at the Doctorate Academic Ability Length of Study and Age at Ph.D. Institutional Origins of Doctorates Plans for .Postdoctoral Study Labor Force Participation and Unemployment Marital Status Conclusions Recommendations CHAPTER 3 POSTDOCTORAL TRAINING The Current Patterns of Postdoctoral Appointments Holding Status Postdoctoral Stipends Conclusions and Recommendations CHAPTER 4 ACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT The Employment Patterns of Women Scientists Rank vs. Tenure as Definitions of Position Changes in Sex Distribution of Faculty Positions Off-Ladder Positions Promotion and Tenure Performance of Male and Female Faculty Faculty Salaries Discussion of Findings Page xi xiii 1 2 4 6 7 9 11 13 17 18 19 23 25 29 32 32 32 38 38 41 44 50 50 54 57 62 62 76 79 82 88 94

CHAPTER 5 PARTICIPATION IN THE NATIONAL SCIENCE ADVISORY APPARATUS Data Sources National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council National Science Foundation National Institutes of Health An Overburden on Women Scientists? Discussion Equality of Professional Opportunities Sex-Balanced Committees? Conclusions and Recommendations CHAPTER 6 PERSPECTIVES AND PROSPECTS Equity in Academic Employment Effectiveness of Affirmative Action Remedial Actions Academic Salaries Advisory Committee Service The Issue of Mobility Recommendations Conclusion REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B Affirmative Action Institutional Classifications 1. Ranking of Institutions by Federal R&D Expenditures 2. Roose-Andersen Ratings of Departments APPENDIX C The Doctorate Records File APPENDIX D The Comprehensive Roster and Survey of Doctorate Recipients Page 99 101 101 107 110 112 113 113 114 115 117 118 119 120 120 120 121 122 126 127 135 138 139 146 151 vi

LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 2.1 Number and Percent of Science and Engineering Doctorates Granted to Women, by Field and Decade, 1920-1977 20 2.2 Ratio of Ph.D.'s Granted in Science and Engineering in 1973-1977 to B.A's Granted 7 Years Earlier, by Sex 21 2.3 Percent Distribution of Undergraduate Grade Point Averages of Graduate Students, by Sex 26 2.4 Baccalaureate-to-Doctorate Time Lapse, by Field and Sex, 1967 and 1977 Science and Engineering Doctorates 27 2.5 Median Age at Ph.D., by Field and Sex, 1967 and 1977 Science and Engineering Doctorates 28 2.6 Science and Engineering Doctorates Granted in 1970-1972 and 1973-1975 by all U.S. Universities and by AAU Universities, by Field, All Degrees and Degrees Granted to Women ' 30 2.7 Number and Percent of Doctorates Granted in Selected Science Fields by Highly-Rated Departments, Out of All Departments, by Sex and Two-Year Period, 1967-1977 31 2.8 Number and Percent of Women Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the Labor Force by Field, 1977 33 2.9 Employment Status by Field of Doctorate and Sex 34 2.10 Number and Percent of 1977 Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients Who Were Married at Receipt of the Doctorate by Field and Sex, 1977 36 3.1 Number and Percent of 1977 Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients Planning Postdoctoral Appointments, by Field and Sex 45 3.2 Percent of 1970-1977 Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients Planning Postdoctoral Study After Graduation, by Field, Sex, and Marital Status 46 3.3 Number and Percent of Women Among Postdoctorals in Science and Engineering, by Field and R&D Expenditures of Post- doctoral Institution, 1973-1977 48 3.4 Number and Percent of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Academe Who Were on Postdoctorals, by Field and Sex, 1973-1977 49 vii

Table Page 3.5 Percent of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients With Signed Contract for Postdoctoral Appointment, by Field, Year of Doctorate, and Sex, 1969-1977 51 3.6 Trends in Postdoctoral Stipends for Doctoral Scientists and Engineers, by Sex, 1973-1977 53 4.1 Percent of Employed Doctoral Scientists and Engineers by Employment Sector and Sex, 1977 58 4.2 Employment Sector and Primary Work Activity of Employed Doctoral Scientists and Engineers, Excluding Postdoctoral Appointees, by Sex, 1973 and 1977 59 4.3 Percent Distribution of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Academe by Faculty Rank, Sex, and R&D Expenditures of Employment Institution, 1977 60 4.4 Number and Percent of Women Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Faculty Positions by R&D Expenditures of Institution, Field and Rank, 1973-1977 64 4.5 Increase in Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Faculty Positions by R&D Expenditures of Institution and Sex, 1973-1977 67 4.6 Increase in Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Faculty Positions at 25 Leading Institutions by Field and Sex, 1973-1977 68 4.7 Changes in Size and Sex Composition of Doctoral Faculty in Engineering, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences, By R&D Expenditures of Institution, 1973-1977 70 4.8 Affirmative Action Faculty Statistics, Past and Present, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University 71 4-9 Changes in Size and Composition of Doctoral Faculty in the Life Sciences, by R&D Expenditures of Institution, 1973-1977 73 viii

Table Page 4.10 Changes in Size and Composition of Doctoral Faculty in Psychology and Social Sciences by R&D Expenditures of Institution, 1973-1977 74 4.11 Employment of Ph.D's from Highly-Rated Departments in Six Science Fields by Sex, 1977 75 4.12 Number and Percent of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Academe at Rank of Instructor/ Lecturer, by Field and Sex, 1973-1977 77 4.13 Number and Percent of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Academe at Rank of Instructor/ Lecturer, by R&D Expenditures of Employment Institution and Sex, 1973-1977 77 4.14 Number and Percent of Women Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Selected Positions in Academic Institutions by R&D Expenditures of Institution, 1973-1977 78 4.15 Changes in Faculty by Rank, R&D Expenditures of Institution, and Sex, 1973-1977 81 4.16 Tenure Status of Science and Engineering Faculty at Four-Year Colleges and Universities by Rank and Sex, 1977 83 4.17 Tenure Status of Associate Professors Holding Science and Engineering Ph.D.'s by Field of Employment and Sex in 1975 and 1977 84 4.ISA Number and Percent of Tenured Associate Professors Holding Science and Engineering Doctorates by Field of Employment, Sex, and Ph.D. Cohort, 1975 85 4.18B Number and Percent of Tenured Associate Professors Holding Science and Engineering Doctorates by Field of Employment, Sex, and Ph.D. Cohort, 1977 86 4.19 Trends in Median Annual Salaries of Science Faculty, 1973-1977 90 A. Full Professors B. Associate Professors C. Assistant Professors 4.20 Median Annual Salaries of Assistant Professors in 1977 by Carnegie Classification, Field, and Ph.D. Cohort 93 ix

Table Page 4.21 Median Salaries of 1971-1975 Ph.D.'s Who Were Full-Time Employed or Held Postdoctorals, by Sex, Marital Status, and Employment Sector 95 5.1 Membership of the National Academies, 1977-1978 103 5.2 Leadership of the National Academies, 1977-1978 104 5.3 Participation in National Research Council Committees 105 5.4 Participation in Executive Committees of Assemblies and Commissions of the National Research Council 106 5.5 Appointments of Women and Minorities to National Research Council Committees 107 5.6 National Science Foundation Advisory Committees 108 5.7 Analysis of Peer Reviews Solicited for NSF 10/01/76- 09/30/77, by Directorate and Reviewer Sex 109 5.8 Number and Percent of Women Participating in Advisory Committees, 1975-1978, NIH and ADAMHA 111 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2.1 Ratio of Ph.D.'s Granted in Science and Engineering in 1973-1977 to B.A.'s Earned Seven Years Earlier, by Sex 21 2.2 Profile of Bioscientists and Social Scientists by Sex and Marital Status at Doctorate, on Six High School Variables 24 4.1 Faculty Rank Distribution of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers by R&D Expenditures of Institution, 1977 61 4.2 Percent of Doctoral Science and Engineering Faculty Holding Tenured Positions, by Rank and Sex, 1977 83

PREFACE This report focuses on the status of women scientists in academic institutions, the major employer of doctoral scientists. It also examines their current situation in postdoctoral training and their role in national science advisory bodies, entities that draw their membership primarily from academe. A future report of this Committee will analyze the employment of women scientists and engineers in government and industry. The Committee on the Education and Employment of Women in Science and Engineering was established by the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council in December 1974. Its charge was to analyze the social and institutional constraints that limit the participation of woman in science and engineering and to examine the problems of sex discrimination in their education and employment. Since its inception, the Committee has been chaired by Lilli S. Hornig, Executive Director of Higher Education Resource Services of New England. She has led the Committee through the processes of formulating specific tasks, obtaining funds and staff, and completing their report. Preparation of the report began in the summer of 1977 when the Committee undertook the task of preparing studies of the education and employment of women scientists and engineers for the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in order to illuminate national policy issues in these areas. Since September 15, 1977, the work of the Committee has been conducted pursuant to Task Order No. 365 (OSTP 77-9) of National Science Foundation Contract C310, under OSTP's first contract in the area of human resources. Gilbert S. Omenn, Associate Director for Human Resources and Social and Economic Services, OSTP, has provided technical liaison for this report. In fulfilling its assignment, the Committee has been primarily concerned with the analysis of the trends of the last few years in the education and employment of women scientists. It has sought to assess the effectiveness of existing remedial practices and to indicate additional measures that would contribute to more balanced faculties and advisory committees. xi

Data for the report were obtained from surveys of the Commission on Human Resources; the files on advisory committee members of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the National Research Council, and the National Science Foundation; and published sources. Acknowledgments Many scientific organizations and individuals have contributed data, advice, and general support to the Committee and staff during preparation of this report. The financial support provided by the Office of Science and Technology Policy has been noted above and is most gratefully acknowledged. Within the National Research Council, the Committee has received guidance, advice, and encouragement from the Commission on Human Resources, especially from Robert A. Alberty and Harrison Shull, successive chairmen of the Commission; and from Albert Clogston, Dorothea Jameson, and Charles Kidd, who served as Commission reviewers for the report. Members of the staff of the Commission on Human Resources who assisted the Committee in the preparation of this report include Nancy C. Ahern, Staff Officer for the Committee since November, 1978; Leila Rosen Young, who served as Staff Officer from January, 1978 through August, 1978; and Milda H. Vaivada, Administrative Assistant throughout the course of the study. Joan Snyder, serving as consultant, edited the report and contributed to its organization. William C. Kelly, Executive Director of the Commission, provided administrative guidance to the Committee and Staff. Helpful contributions and encouragement to the work of the Committee have been made by Gilbert S. Omenn, Associate Director for Human Resources and Social and Economic Services, Office of Science and Technology Policy. To these and many other individuals and organizations who helped, the Committee expresses its sincere thanks. Xll

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The majority of women scientists under discussion in this report received their undergraduate education and were admitted to graduate school well before the advent of equal opportunity mandates in higher education. Women scientists receive their graduate education in the same institutions as men but in much smaller numbers. Similar proportions of men and women are trained in the highest-rated departments. On the average, as measured by college grades and high school test scores, women scientists at receipt of the doctorate show evidence of higher academic ability than men and, in recent years, have completed their Ph.D.s as fast as or faster than men. This finding supports the inference that women may have been more highly selected. Comparisons of research ability cannot be made unam- biguously at this stage since no reliable measures are applicable. Of the new Ph.D.s who were seeking postdoctoral appoint- ments, the men were in general more likely to receive early awards. The universities ranked highest by R&D expenditures, which have traditionally employed the fewest women, have made the greatest relative gains in appointing new women faculty at all ranks, in spite of the fact that this group of institutions sustained the lowest growth rates in the sciences in recent years. Women science faculties increased about three times faster than total faculty growth between 1973 and 1977. Science faculties at ladder ranks in all institutions increased by 22,000 between 1973 and 1977; women's share of that increase was 21 percent, somewhat larger than their share of doctorates since 1970. This finding suggests that some women faculty were recruited from among long-term postdoctorals and research staffs. Women account for all of the net growth in science faculty at the assistant professor rank in the top 50 univer- sities (by R&D expenditures) and for nearly half of the increase in all other institutions. xiii

At full professorial rank, women account for 19 percent of the net growth between 1973 and 1977 in the top 50 universities, but only 6 percent in the remaining in- stitutions. The respective percentages for associate professors are 69 and 16 percent. For all science and engineering fields combined, women's share of faculty appointments (excluding instructor/ lecturer) grew from 12 to 19 percent in the second 25 institutions, and from 12 to 18 percent in all others between 1973 and 1977. Women's distribution among faculty ranks is a mirror image of men's; women are most likely to be assistant professors but men are most likely to be full professors. In the top 25 institutions, women are more than seven times more likely than men to be at the rank of instructor/lecturer; in 1S77 they held 46 percent of these positions compared to 27 percent in 1973. Rank for rank, women faculty continued to be tenured less often than men; for all ranks, 72 percent of the men but only 46 percent of the women hold tenure appoint- ments. This disparity is increasing. Sex differences in salaries remains a serious problem. Median salary differentials between women and men in 1977 varied by fields, ranging as high as 28 percent for full professors of chemistry. In relation to the pools of new women Ph.D.s in the various fields, chemistry and mathematics employ far lower pro- portions of women faculty than do other fields. Wide field variations in rank, salary, and tenure dis- tribution for women faculty compared to men suggest that an assumed lack of mobility of married women is at most a contributory rather than a primary reason for women's evident disadvantage. Research productivity cannot be used yet as an overall comparative measure of male and female academic scientists' performance. In most fields in research universities, there are not yet enough women faculty who have held professional positions with the necessary perquisites long enough to make such comparisons meaningful. The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Science Foundation have shown marked gains in the percentages of women appointed to advisory committees, XIV

while the National Research Council has not yet matched the representation of women in the appropriate doctoral pool. In the past few years women have been 6 to 8 percent of newly elected NAS members, more than twice their share of full professorships in high-ranking research universities, The number of women scientists in tenure-track positions in research universities and in policy advisory functions is slowly increasing as a result of affirmative action. Sex differences in salaries and awarding of tenure persist. XV

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