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Dehydration and Compression of Foods (1982)

Chapter: NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES

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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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Suggested Citation:"NEEDS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES." National Research Council. 1982. Dehydration and Compression of Foods. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18526.
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NEEDS. OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES A broadly stated objective of the workshop was to identify research guidelines and opportunities for obtaining high-quality, cost- effective, shelf-stable foods offering weight and volume reduction for both military and possible civilian applications. In attempting to develop civilian markets, it is important to identify and compare military and civilian needs for weightand volume-reduced foods, to identify the critical problems that compressed, dehydrated foods solve and the problems that remain to be solved, and to consider the cost/ value relationship of the required technology. The need for weight- and volume-reduced foods for the combat soldier and, to a lesser extent, for the shipboard sailor is easily documented and understood. Ever since the first two soldiers picked up their spears and began to march in step, weight and volume reduction, shelf life extension, and quality improvement have been basic goals for military subsistence research and development. Today, our peacetime defense capability is based on ever-ready, highly mobile, response forces supported with advanced technology and advanced weapon systems. The logistics problems and space restrictions dictate that the weight and volume of food items be minimized. Dehydration and compression processes have been remarkably responsive to meeting these needs. In addition, dehydrated rations are tolerant to, and remain functional under, extremes of temperature. The military has taken a leadership role in the development and adaptation of the sophisticated technologies required to produce de- hydrated and compressed foods that are highly acceptable, safe, and nutritious. A number of items are being procured, primarily for submarine feeding. Their high cost can be justified by those space- premium applications where no alternatives exist. The majority of our peacetime military personnel are fed by various types of food service operations which are like their civilian counterparts and which are governed by the same economic considerations. The food service's need for reduced weight and volume might be questioned even if the costs were comparable. The dehydration and compression process, particularly if based on freeze-drying, is a high-capital, low-volume, labor-intensive, costly process. In addition, special packaging is required. Thus, whether the product would ever be competitive with counterpart products or 26

27 attractive to the bulk of the military or civilian market can be questioned. The cost problem is further aggravated by the military accounting system. There is no single responsibility for gathering all the costs (for instance, military labor) in the entire feeding system, from the point of procurement to the point of preparation and consumption. Dehydration and reduced weight and volume offer potential cost savings in shipping, storage, preparation, and disposal. Studies are now under way to identify and detail costs and savings. Further implications of the current limited usage of compressed, dehydrated foods are the inability to stock small lots—due to the absence of an adequate civilian production base—to allow diversified evaluation and to procure significantly large quantities quickly in the event of a major mobilization. The high capital costs of de- hydration and microwave equipment are a consideration. At this time, the process has been most successful for vegetables and selected meat items which can be obtained from existing frozen stores. Technical needs include: • Improved dehydrated meat pieces. • Good quality, dehydrated salad vegetables. • Precooked, quick-cooking beans. • Dehydrated large pieces of vegetables which rehydrate completely in a reasonable period of time. • Dehydrated and compressed whole cuts of meats, such as steaks and cutlets. • Improved packaging to take further advantage of reduced weight and volume. Technical opportunities include: Sautged freeze-drying for improved stability and flavor. Puff-drying for low-cost, quick rehydration, precooked vegetables. Improved air-drying. Precooking and conditioning to facilitate rehydration. Dehydration and compression of larger pieces of vegetables. Combined freeze-drying with other methods of drying. Formulation of flaked or size-reduced foods, non-freeze-dried into compressable end products. Technical challenges include: • Dehydration and compression of fruits and salad vegetables. • Increased understanding of parameters critical to quality. • Increased understanding of engineering parameters required to optimize existing processes. • A breakthrough to reduce the cost of freeze-drying or to develop a low-cost alternative to freeze-drying.

28 If there is a need, or opportunity, for compressed, dehydrated foods in the civilian sector, it must be based on their logistical advantages and convenience and might entail application of technology to develop items different from the current military items. Perhaps there are opportunities to apply the technology so as to make it economically attractive to distribute certain food items world-wide to compete with locally produced items, or to offer items not available in other local- ities. Continued research is needed. Dehydrated vegetables are distributed internationally to industrial remanufacturers, food services, and fast-food operations, and freight costs are a growing and substantial portion of the total cost. Sig- nificant savings should result if the volume of these shipments could be reduced, and an already substantial volume of business might be increased. Application of compression technology to larger (bulk) units would be desirable. Compressed dehydrated items do offer shipping and storage economies. These should be much more readily recognized and quantified by the in- dustrial or food-service user than by the home consumer. Items de- veloped for the mobile combat soldier are not likely to be right for the food service consumer, military or civilian. But the needs and problems of the food-service operator should be surveyed so that appropriate items can be developed for him. Cost and quality trade-offs must be evaluated for each application. The best quality may not be affordable or necessary for all users. Systems studies of costs underway should resolve these questions. Industry shares the military's concern for the relatively high cost of dehydration. The military should be assured that the civilian sector continues to work to reduce these costs through process improve- ment and innovation, as well to develop process alternatives. This research will be driven by the need for specific civilian products, including items for the food service industry and for international markets. The military must continue to develop the knowledge base through an ongoing research program necessary to meet its particular product ob- jectives. It must share and promote this knowledge base and develop technology with the civilian sector where it can be applied to the solution of problems and meeting of needs of the civilian market segments. Military support must be provided for the research, de- velopment, and production of dehydrated, compressed foods filling essential military operational needs.

APPENDIX 29

30 BIBLIOGRAPHY Arsera, H. B. 1980. "Low Pressure Sublimation in a Hybrid Microwave and Radiant Freeze-Dryer. " Ph.D. dissertation, Worcester Polytechnic- Institute, Worcester, Mass. Bennet, G. R. 1976. "The Effect of Maturation on the Quality of Freeze-Dried Compressed Carrots." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Burns, E. E. , M. C. Smith, and N. D. Heidelbough. 1976. Freeze-Dried and Compressed Food — A Survey of the Literature. Texas Agricultural Experimental Station. (Bulletin MP-1271). College Station, Texas. Burns, E. E. 1980. "Raw Materials and Product Preparation: Effects upon Compressed Foods at U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories." Paper presented at the Workshop on Dehydration and Compression of Foods, October 29-30, 1980, U.S. Array Natick Research and Development Laboratories, Natick, Mass. Coelho, U. J., J. Miltz, and S. G. Gilbert. 1979. "Water Binding on Collagen by Inverse Phase Gas Chroma tography ; Thermodynamic Con- siderations." Macromolecules 12:284. Curry, J. C. 1974. "Rehydration Characteristics of Compressed Freeze- Dried Carrot Tissue." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Flink, J. M. 1977. "Energy Analysis in Dehydration Processes." Food Technology 31(3):77. Food Engineering. 1978a. "Ore-Ida Strikes Spud-oleum; Turns Waste- water into Fuel." Food Engineering 50(4) :92. Food Engineering. 1978b. "Raisin-Grapes Are Solar Dried at 12 Tons per 24 Hours." Food Engineering 50(6) :202. Food Engineering. 1978c. "Size Reduction System Cuts Drying Time by 50 Percent." Food Engineering 50(11) :132. Food Engineering. 1979a. "Energy Forecast: Sunny." Food Engineering Food Engineering. 1979b. "Solar Energy Dries Onions Commercially." Food Engineering 51(11):114. Food Engineering. 1980. "Geothermal Energy Dries Onions; Plant Oper- ates 24 Hours per Day." Food Engineering 52(2) :116. Food Processing. 1976. "Develop Dehydrated Vegetables with 'Fresh- Like' Crispness." Food Processing 37(7): 38. Food Processing. 1980. "Evacuated Tubes, High Pressure Collectors Under Test." Food Processing 41 (7): 98. Griffith, H. E. , K. Stobbe, D. Halseth, and K. Robe. 1977. "Energy Conservation Program Saves TVG $500,000 in 1976." Food Processing Hammond, L. H. 1967. "Economic Evaluation of UHF Dielectric vs. Radiant Heating for Freeze Drying." Food Technology 21:735. Hanson, S. W. F. 1961. The Accelerated Freeze-Drying (AFP) Method of Food Preservation. London, England: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

31 Haralampu, S. G., A. R. Rahman, and D. E. Westcott. 1976. "Develop- ment of a Dehydrated and Compressed Cabbage for Cole Slaw." Paper presented at the First International Congress on Engineering and Food, August 9-13, 1976, Boston, Mass. Hayakawa, K., and J. L. Rossen. 1978. "Isothermal Moisture Transfer in Dehydrated Food Products During Storage." Journal of the Insti- tute of the Canadian Science and Technology 11(3):102. Hruzek, G. A. 1973. "Factors Affecting the Quality of Freeze-Dried Compressed Vegetables." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Jones, R. L., and C. J. King. 1977. "Use of Hydrating Salts to Accomplish Limited Freeze-Drying." American Institute of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series 73(163):115. Judge, M. D., M. R. Okos, T. G. Baker, K. Potthast, and R. Hamm. 1981. "Energy Requirements and Processing Costs for Freeze Dehydration of Prerigor Meat." Food Technology 35(4):61. King, C. J., R. M. Carn, and R. L. Jones. 1976. "Processing Ap- proaches for Limited Freeze-Drying." Journal of Food Science 41:612:618. King, C. J. 1970. "Freeze-Drying of Foodstuffs." CRC Critical Reviews of Food Technology 1:379. (Also published as "Freeze Drying of Foods." Cleveland, Ohio: CRC Press.) Levine, K. F. 1977. "Special Report on Drying Equipment." Food Processing 38(10):122. Longan, B. J. 1973. "Effect of Processing Variables Upon Quality of Freeze-Dried Carrots." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. MacKenzie, A. P., and B. J. Luyet. 1969. Recovery of Compressed Dehydrated Foods. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories (Technical Report 70-16-FL). Macpherson, B. A. 1973. "Compression of Cooked Freeze-Dried Carrots." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Olson, Robert L. 1971. "Inventory Control as Affected by Stability of Frozen Foods." Activities Report 23(1):96. Peltre, R. P., H. B. Arsem, and Y. H. Ma. 1977. "Applications of Microwave Heating to Freeze Drying Perspective." American Institute of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series 73(163):131. Pilsworth, M. N., Jr., and H. J. Hoge. 1973. The Compression of Freeze-Dried Beef to Form Bars; Plasticizing with Water Transferred as a Vapor. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research and Develop- ment Laboratories (Technical Report 73-56-PR). Quast, D. G., and M. Karel. 1972. "Effects of Environmental Factors on the Oxidation of Potato Chips." Journal of Food Science 37:584. Rahman, A. R., Personal Communication. Rahman, A. R., G. Schafer, G. R. Taylor, and D. E. Westcott. 1970. Studies on Reversible Compression of Dehydrated Vegetables. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories (Technical Report 70-36-FL).

32 Riemer, J., and M. Karel. 1977. "Shelf Life Studies of Vitamin C During Food Storage: Predication of L-Ascorbic Acid Retention in Dehydrated Tomato Juice." Journal of Food Processing and Preserva- tion 1:293. ~~ Robe, K. 1980. "Solar Heat for Drying—Technology Works But Econom- ics Are Troublesome." Food Processing 41(7):99. Rushing, J. E. 1975. "The Effects of Temperature, Moisture and Soluble Solids on Rehydration, Fragmentation and Texture of Freeze- Dried and Compressed Carrot Bars." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Saguy, I., and M. Karel. 1980. "Modeling of Quality Deterioration During Food Processing and Storage." Food Technology 34:78. Smith, D. S., C. H. Mannheim, and S. G. Gilbert. 1981. "Water Sorption Isotherms of Sucrose and Glucose by Inverse Gas Chromato- graphy." Journal of Food Science 46:1051. Stinson, W. S. 1980. "Geothermally Heated Onion Dehydrator." Food Processing 41(5):156. U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories. 1967. Military Specification MIL-M43506; Meatballs and Meatball Products, Cooked, Dehydrated. Natick, Mass. U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories. 1969. Military Specification MIL-P-43383A: Pork Sausage, Dehydrated; Pat- ties and Links, Cooked. Natick, Mass. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1963. Composition of Foods. Handbook No. 8 (Revised). Washington, D.C. Villota, R., and M. Karel. 1980a. "Prediction of Ascorbic Acid Retention During Drying I. Moisture and Temperature Distribution in a Model System." Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 4:111. Villota, R., and M. Karel. 1980b. "Prediction of Ascorbic Acid Retention During Drying II. Simulation of Retention in a Model System." Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 4:141. Villota, R., I. Saguy, and M. Karel. 1980. "An Equation Correlating Shelf Life of Dehydrated Vegetable Products with Storage Condi- tions." Journal of Food Science 45(2);398. Webster, R., and K. Robe. 1977. "Uses Waste to Furnish 25 Percent of Plant Steam Requirements." Food Processing 38(5):130. Wisakowsky, E. E. "Factors Affecting the Quality of Freeze-Dried and Compressed Spinach." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, Col- lege Station, Texas. Wisakowsky, E. E. 1977. "Effects of Selected Processing Parameters on Rehydration and Texture of Freeze-Dried Compressed Carrot Bars." Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Zakarian, J. A., and C. J. King. 1978. "Acceleration of Limited Freeze-Drying in Conventional Driers." Journal of Food Science 43(3):998.

33 ADVISORY BOARD ON MILITARY PERSONNEL SUPPLIES Ludwig Rebenfeld President Textile Research Institute Princeton, New Jersey Linda Bartoshuk Associate Fellow Pierce Foundation, and Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology and Psychology Yale School of Medicine New Haven, Connecticut Harold A. Dewhurst Director, Scientific Affairs Owens Corning Fiberglas Granville, Ohio Daniel F. Farkas Chair Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition University of Delaware Newark, Delaware Enio Feliciotti Senior Vice President Research, Development, and Quality Assurance Thomas J. Lipton, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Dee McDonald Graham Director, Central Research Del Monte Corporation Walnut Creek, California Theodore P. Labuza Professor of Food Science and Technology University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota

34 Reiner G. Stoll Consultant and Member of Celanese Science and Technology Advisory Board Celanese Corporation New York, New York Frank R. Fisher Executive Director Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

35 Planning Committee for Workshop on Dehydration and Compression of Foods Chairman: Dr. Daniel F. Farkas, Chairman Chairperson, Food Science and Human Nutrition Alison Hall University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19711 Dr. Dennis R. Heldman Professor of Food Engineering Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824 Mr. Jack R. Linaberry General Foods Laboratory Manager Maxwell House Division 1125 Hudson Street Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 Mr. Hugh W. Symons Vice President, Research and Technical Services American Frozen Food Institute 1700 Old Meadow Road, #100 McLean, Virginia 22102 Liaison Member: Dr. Abdul R. Rahman Head, Product Research and Development Plant Products Group Food Technology Division Food Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command Natick, Massachusetts 01760

36 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR WORKSHOP ON DEHYDRATION AND COMPRESSION OF FOODS Daniel F. Farkas is Chairman of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Delaware. Prior to this appointment, he was a research chemical engineer and head of the Food Engineering Development Group at the Western Regional Research Center of USDA, Berkeley. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Food Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Farkas has served on the faculty of Cornell University. His research has focused on food processing operations and equipment. He is a Registered Professional Chemical Engineer in California. Dennis R. Heldman earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Food Engineering at Ohio State University and a Ph.D. in agricultural engineering at Michigan State University. He authored a textbook entitled Food Process Engineering published by AVI Publishing Company, Westport, Connecticut, in 1975, and coauthored the second edition of the same book which was published in 1981. The book contains a chapter deal- ing with the subject of food dehydration. Jack R. Linaberry received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Chemical Engineering from Bucknell University. He was Research Manager of California Vegetable Concentrates, a Division of General Foods, Modesto, California, prior to becoming Laboratory Manager of the Maxwell House Division of General Foods Corporation, Hoboken, New Jersey. Hugh W. Symons is Vice President, Research and Technical Services, American Frozen Foods Institute. He was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Mr. Symons served as biologist aboard a whale factory-ship during seven whaling seasons in the Antarctic and South Africa. He was in charge of the Quality Control Department for Birds Eye Foods, Ltd. (U.K.). He is a member of Commission C2 (Food Science and Technology) of the International Institute of Refrigeration.

37 WORKSHOP PROGRAM Workshop on Dehydration and Compression of Foods 29-30 October 1980 U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories Natick, Massachusetts Wednesday, 29 October Opening Session Introductory Remarks Welcome Military Needs Dr. Daniel F. Farkas University of Delaware Chairman, Workshop Col. Robert J. Cuthbertson Commander, Natick Laboratories Dr. Abner S. Salant Director, Food Engineering Laboratory, Natick Laboratories Session I: Technical Needs and Opportunities Chairman: Mr. Jack R. Linaberry General Foods Corp.— Introductory Remarks Panel Members: Mr. Holt "Pete" Andrews, Thomas J. Lipton, Inc.; Mr. Donald L. Davies, Swift & Co.; Dr. Enrique J. Guardia, General Foods Corp. This session should identify quantitatively cost-quality parameters for military and civilian users. Projections are desired for future demands and types of new products.

38 Session II: Raw Materials and Product Preparation Chairman: Mr. Hugh W. Symons American Frozen Food Institute— Introductory Remarks Panel members: Dr. Thomas M. Crawford, Stokely-Van Camp, Inc.; Dr. Julius F. Bauerman, H. W. Longacre, Inc.; Dr. Edward Burns, Texas A&M University; Mr. Edward Hirschberg, Innovative Foods, Inc. This session should identify raw materials, preparation, and pro- cessing needs to give optimum weight and volume reduction and reconsti- tution. Animal and vegetable commodities will be considered in addi- tion to problems related to formulated or engineered foods. Also to be considered are factors such as food safety, quality, season, and growing areas. Adjournment Dinner Meeting Presentation: Financial Considerations and Opportunities— Mr. Jerry Graham Right-Away Foods Company New business, venture capital, product development, and technical base requirements in support of increased use of dried and compressed foods will be highlighted. Thursday, 30 October Session III: Weight and Volume Reduction Technology Chairman: Dr. Dennis R. Heldman, Michigan State University— Introductory Remarks Review of recent developments in dehydration technology—Discussion Leader—Dr. C. Judson King, University of California at Berkeley Mechanical cU'wat^ring as an aide for weight and volume reduction for dehydrated foods—Discussion Leader—Dr. John R. Posenau, University of Massachusetts

39 Recent applications of microwave technology to food dehydration— Discussion Leader—Dr. Edward Ma, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts Recent developments in application of the freeze-drying process to food dehydration—Discussion Leader—Mr. Harmon L. Liebman, Eastern Freeze-Dry Corp. Potential energy conservation measures for food dehydration— Discussion Leader—Dr. John M. Krochta, USDA/SEA, Berkeley, California Economic considerations in food dehydration—Discussion Leader— Mr. James C. Craig, Jr., Eastern Regional Research Center, USDA This session should identify new technical developments and re- search needs. Emphasis is to be placed on cost reduction and energy conservation with simultaneous improvement in product quality. All forms of water removal will be discussed. Session IV: Packaging, Transportation and Storage Chairman: Dr. Daniel F. Farkas— Introductory Remarks Panel members: Mr. Marvin Byer, Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc.; Dr. Seymour G. Gilbert, Rutgers University; Dr. Marcus Karel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Dr. Abdul R. Rahman, NLABS; Mr. Hugh W. Symons This session should identify product-package interactions and ap- proaches to reduce packaging, storage, and distribution costs. The ef- fect of product composition and processing methodology on the rate of quality change for various packaging and storage conditions will be covered. The cost-effectiveness of special storage conditions and methods for measuring benefits will be analyzed. Workshop Summaries Chairmen of Sessions Adjournment

40 WORKSHOP ATTENDEES Mr. Holt Andrews Associate Director Product Development Thomas J. Lipton, Inc. 800 Sylvan Avenue Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632 Dr. Julius F. Bauerman H. W. Longacre, Inc. Box 8 Franconia, Pennsylvania 18924 Dr. Edward Burns Adriance Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843 Mr. Marvin J. Byer Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc. P.O. Box 1048 Albany, Oregon 97321 Dr. James C. Craig, Jr. Eastern Regional Research Center USDA-ARS 600 East Mermaid Lane Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19118 Dr. Thomas M. Crawford Stokely-Van Camp, Inc. 941 North Meridian Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 Mr. Donald L. Davies Project Leader, New Products Swift & Company 1919 Swift Drive Oakbrook, Illinois 60521 Dr. Daniel F. Farkas, Chairman Food Science and Human Nutrition University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19711 Dr. Frank R. Fisher Executive Director Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Mr. Edward Gamarekian Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Dr. Seymour G. Gilbert Department of Food Science P.O. Box 231 Rutgers—The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 Mr. Jerry Graham Right-Away Foods Company P.O. Box 1700 Burlingame, California 94010 Dr. Enrique J. Guardia Director of Research for Packaged Convenience Foods General Foods Corporation 250 North Street White Plains, New York 10625 Dr. Dennis R. Heldman Professor of Food Engineering Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824 Mr. Edward Hirschberg Innovative Foods, Inc. 179 Starlite Street Soutft Sun rrancisco, California 94080

41 Dr. Marcus Karel Department of Nutrition and Food Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology 777 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Dr. C. Judson King Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of California Berkeley, California 94720 Dr. John M. Krochta USDA/SEA Western Regional Center 800 Buchanan Street Berkeley, California 94710 Mr. Harmon L. Liebman Eastern Freeze-Dry Corporation Plum and Liberty Streets Lancaster, Pennsylvania 17604 Mr. Jack R. Linaberry General Foods Laboratory Manager Maxwell House Division 1125 Hudson Street Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 Dr. Edward Ma Head Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 Dr. Abdul R. Rahman Head, Product Research and Development Plant Products Group Food Technology Division Food Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories Natick, Massachusetts 01760 Dr. John R. Rosenau Professor Food Engineering Department University of Massachusetts Amberst, Massachusetts 01003 Professor Enrique Rotstein Planta Piloto de Ingeniera Quimica Dept. de Cienqucias Exacgas Universidad Nacional del Sur Argentina Mr. Joseph Sensiba Innovative Foods, Inc. 179 Starlite Street South San Francisco, California 94080 Mr. Hugh Symons Director of Research and Technical Services American Frozen Food Institute 1700 Old Meadow Road McLean, Virginia 22101 Mr. Dan R. Wilkinson Commercial Development Manager Gilroy Foods, Inc. P.O. Box 1088 1350 Pacheco Pass Highway Gilroy, California 95020

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