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INAb r IOM ^afionai Aawfcmi/ Press The National Academy Press was created by the National Academy of Sciences to publish the reports issued by the Academy and by the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council, all operating under the charter grante the National Academy of Sciences by the Congress of the United
REFERENCE COPY FOR LIBRARY USE ONtY Managing Tropical Animal Resources Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics ' Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs National Research Council In Cooperation with the Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Papua New Guinea â¢ PROPERTY OF NAS - JUL * 1983 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1983
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the pro- cedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's pur- poses of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the author- ity of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, non- profit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the In- stitute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOST1D) of the Of- fice of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which sci- ence and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. BOSTID's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation publishes topical reviews of technical processes and biological resources of potential importance to develop- ing countries. This report has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Program costs for the study were provided by the Office of Technical Resources, Bureau for Asia, Agency for Interna- tional Development, under Grant No. ASB-0249-SS-00-1026-00 and the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN/5538-G- SS-1023-00. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 83-061910 Order from National Technical ii Information Service, Springfield, Va.
Panel on Crocodile Farming EDWARD s. AYENSU, Director, Office of Biological Conservation, Smith- sonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA, Chairman HOWARD w. CAMPBELL (deceased) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, Florida, USA ARCHIE F. CARR, Jr., Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA F. WAYNE KING, Director, Florida Museum, Gainesville, Florida, USA FRANCOIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA MICHAEL G. MORRIS, Furzebrook Research Station, Institute of Terres- trial Ecology, Wareham, Dorset, England HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, Uni- versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA ROBERT M. PYLE, Species Conservation Monitoring Unit, Cambridge, England SHELDON R. SEVERINGHAUS, Representative, The Asia Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan Contributors Papua New Guinea CAROL GABARA, Wildlife Division, Department of Oro Province, Popondetta WASSAM GABARA, Wildlife Division, Department of Oro Province, Popondetta KAROL K1SOKAU, Director, Office of Environment and Conservation, Waigani NAVU KWAPENA, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Envi- ronment, Konedobu MIRO LAUFA, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environ- ment, Konedobu GREG MITCHELL, Crocodile Farm, Lae LEO NlNG, Division of Wildlife, Department of Lands and Environment, Wewak iii
Other Countries MIGUEL ALVAREZ DEL TORO, Institute de Historia Natural, Departa- mento de Zoologia, Chiapas, Mexico ANGUS D'A. BELLAIRS, Department of Anatomy, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, University of London, England PETER BRAZAITIS, Department of Herpetology, New York Zoological Society, Bronx, New York, USA ROBERT H. CHABRECK, Louisiana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA MAX c. DOWNES, The Game Conservation Centre, Melbourne, Australia KARLHEINZ FUCHS, Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft, Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany CLAIRE HAGEN, Reptile Products Association, New York, USA RENE E. HONEGGER, Zurich Zoo, Zurich, Switzerland TED JOANEN, Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, Chenier, Louisiana, USA JOHN LEVER, Koorana Crocodile Farm, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia WILLIAM MAGNUSSON, Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Amazonia, Brazil HARRY MESSEL, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia FRED PARKER, Kirwan, Queensland, Australia ANTHONY POOLEY, St. Lucia Estuary, Zululand, South Africa CHARLES A. ROSS, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA K. B. SALE, UNDP/FAO Crocodile Breeding and Management Project, Hyderabad, India LUIS VARONA, La Habana, Cuba CHAROON YOUNGPRAPAKORN, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm, Samutprakan, Thailand UTAI YOUNGPRAPAKORN, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm, Samut- prakan, Thailand MYRNA WATANABE, New York Zoological Society, Bronx, New York, USA ROMULUS WHITAKER, Guindy Deer Park, Madras, India IV
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, Professional Associate, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Crocodile Study Director National Research Council Staff F. R. RUSKIN, BOSTID Editor MARY JANE ENGQUIST, Staff Associate CONSTANCE REGES, Administrative Secretary
This publication is dedicated to the memory of panel member Howard W. "Duke" Campbell who devoted most of his professional life to the conservation of crocodilians. Dr. Campbell was Chairman of the Croco- dilian Specialist Group of the Survival Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources at the time of his death in 1981. vi
Preface The panel that produced this report met in Papua New Guinea in May 1981. Its purpose was to consider the principles of the Papua New Guinea crocodile farming program and their implications for economic development and for the management and survival of crocodilians else- where. Crocodiles are an integral part of the tropical fauna; they are ecolog- ically important, biologically interesting, and, potentially, a renewable natural resource of considerable economic value. The panel hopes that through this report the possibility of saving and managing this animal throughout the tropics can be better assessed. Members of the panel consulted officials of the Ministry of Wildlife and Conservation in Port Moresby and visited crocodile farms in Moitaka, Popondetta, and Lae. The panel is grateful to Karol Kisokau, Navu Kwapena, and Miro Laufa of the Division of Wildlife for arrang- ing its itinerary and visits in Papua New Guinea. It also wishes to thank Yano Belo, Minister of Environment, for hosting an evening social at the Moitaka crocodile farm; Greg Mitchell and his wife Judy, who enter- tained the panel at their home in Lae and conducted a tour of their com- pany's crocodile farm; and Wassam and Carol Gabara who acted as guides and hosts in Popondetta. The Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation (ACTI) of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Na- tional Research Council, is assessing scientific and technological ad- vances that might prove especially applicable to problems of developing countries. This report is one of a series that explores promising areas of science previously unknown, neglected, or overlooked. Current titles in the ACTI series on Managing Tropical Animal Resources include: â¢ Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized A nimal (1981) â¢ Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future (1983) vii
VIM CROCODILES AS A RESOURCE FOR THE TROPICS â¢ Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics (1983) â¢ Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea (1983) These activities are supported largely by the U.S. Agency for Interna- tional Development (AID). Program costs for this study were sponsored by AID'S Bureau for Asia, and staff costs by AID'S Office of the Science Advisor, which also made possible the free distribution of this report. How to cite this report: National Research Council. 1983. Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics. National Acad- emy Press, Washington, D.C.
Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Crocodile Farming in Papua New Guinea 9 3 Conclusions 16 4 Regulations, Safeguards, and Research Needs 21 Appendixes 26 A Crocodile Farming Around the World 26 B Practical Crocodile Farming 34 C Selected Readings 43 D Research Contacts 45 E Biographical Sketches of Panel Members 49 Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation 53 Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) 54 BOSTID Publications 55 ix