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4 Seafood Supplies and Food Security Seafood is an important ecosystem service provided by coastal waters and ocean ecosystems and is a primary source of protein for close to a billion people. The first presentation in this chapter addresses the need to balance human dietary needs and the sustainability of fisheries and the ecosystems that provide them. The second presentation further elaborates on the need to identify and implement responsible strategies for managing ecosystems that provide fish and other seafood. Aquaculture is discussed in the third presentation as a strategy to increase seafood availability and safety. The fourth presentation discusses the use of life-cycle analysis in assessing decision making related to sustainable fisheries. Each presentation is followed by a summary of the discussions that ensued. FISH, FISHERIES, AND FOOD SECURITY Cynthia M. Jones, Ph.D. A.D. and Annye L. Morgan Professor of Sciences, Eminent Scholar and Director, Center for Quantitative Fisheries Ecology, Old Dominion University Cynthia Jones began by outlining the main topics of her presentationâdietary recommendations for seafood consumption, fish production, and the effect of climate change on fish productivity. Jones highlighted the distinction between food security and food safety, noting that food security means having enough food to feed the nation. Jones noted that eating fish directly is a better option than taking omega-3 fish pills, because, among other factors, someone eating fish may not be eating high-cholesterol foods and, also, fish provides high- 45
46 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH quality protein. Typically, the dietary recommendation for fish consumption is a minimum of two servings a week of about 4 ounces, which adds up to about 26 pounds of fish per person per year. To satisfy this dietary recommendation, the American population (approximately 300 million people) would require 7.2 billion pounds of processed fish (i.e., fish sticks, fish fillets, etc.). What amount of whole fish, Jones asked, would be needed to produce that amount of processed fish? She added that her research indicated that there is no consensus on this question. She interviewed the seafood manager at her local market and learned that he was able to extract one-half the weight of a fish in usable filletsâprobably more than most people would be able to get, but a usable number for making the calculation. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations also suggests that approx- imately one-third to one-half of the weight can be extracted depending on the species. With this ratio of one-half processed to unprocessed fish, the answer is that approximately 14.4 billion pounds of whole fish would be neededâthough in fact, the average American is eating about 15.8 pounds of fish per year (down from about 16.5 previously), which reduces the total needed harvest, Jones said. Fish Production The source of the fish harvest is the commercial and recreational capture fisheries and aquaculture. In passing, Jones pointed out that marine fish are the last commercially captured wild animals in the worldâno other wild animal is hunted commercially for food. The U.S. harvest from capture fisheries is mostly fin fish with a small proportion of shellfish. The total of fish landed (i.e., actually brought into port and to market; a certain amount of the catch is discarded at sea) can be assessed in terms of both weight and value (see Table 4-1). Pollock and menhaden top the weight list, at about half of the total. Pollock is made into fish sticks, fillets, surimi, and other fish products. Menhaden (both Gulf and Atlantic) is not considered an edible fish (though it was eaten in the past) but has many other uses, such as animal feed, oil (for human consumption, manufacturing, and fuel), and fertilizerâthis type of fish use is called reduction fishery. Salmon and other fish, such as flatfish and cod, make up most of the rest, with shellfish providing the remainder. Looking at the list in terms of monetary values presents a different ranking, however, with crabs at the top followed by salmon, scallops, and lobster.
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 47 TABLE 4-1 Major Domestic Species Landed in 2010 Fish Pounds Percent Fish Dollar Value Percent Pollock 1,958,936,000 28.07 Crabs $572,797,000 16.55 Menhaden 1,471,803,000 21.09 Salmon $554,816,000 16.03 Salmon 787,740,000 11.29 Scallops $456,632,000 13.19 Flatfish 625,358,000 8.96 Lobster $442,735,000 12.79 Cod 557,349,000 7.99 Shrimp $413,980,000 11.96 Hakes 378,277,000 5.42 Pollock $291,922,000 8.43 Crabs 349,604,000 5.01 Halibut $206,553,000 5.97 Squid 337,223,000 4.83 Clams $200,657,000 5.80 Shrimp 258,972,000 3.71 Cod $175,060,000 5.06 Herring 253,381,000 3.63 Flatfish $146,243,000 4.22 Total weight* 6,978,643,000 Total value* $3,461,395,000 * This is not the total for all fish landed, only the total for major domestic species landed. SOURCE: NMFS, 2011. So, while 14.4 billion pounds are required to fulfill the U.S. dietary recommendation mentioned above, only about 8.2 billion pounds were landed (NMFS, 2011), from which about 1.7 billion went to reduction fishery. Added to that, aquaculture produced about 1.2 billion pounds, and recreational fishing about 200 million poundsâgiving a total available poundage of less than 7 billion. In fact, concluded Jones, the nationâs needs are not being met by the U.S. harvest. Turning to the fish harvest in the rest of the world, Jones noted that the worldwide production of fish has risen in the past 50 years, but the marine capture component of that has leveled off since the 1980s, remaining at about 80 million metric tons. Marine aquaculture and freshwater inland fisheries have grown steadily during this time, becoming particularly important in China. Jones felt that there could be an ethical issue with the United States buying fish from countries whose populations might go hungry as a result. Expanded aquaculture, said Jones, will produce an increased worldwide fish harvest, though at the same time there are problems to be confronted. Such problems include
48 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH â¢ habitat destruction: shrimp farming in Asia has destroyed acres of mangrove forests; â¢ spread of parasites to natural population: sea lice infect many farmed fish and are easily transmitted to the nonfarm fish; â¢ aquaculture effluent: fish excretion combined with nutrients from excess feed creates pollution of inland and coastal waters; â¢ genetic hybridization: escaped fish can threaten natural biodiversity; and â¢ disease transmittal to natural population. About 60 percent of worldwide fish production is expected to come from aquaculture by 2030, said Jones, with China taking the lead in production. Climate Change and Productivity Marine capture and aquaculture produce most of the world harvest, and increases in the harvest are projected to come from increases in aquaculture. However, environmental degradation may affect these projections. Jones cited a study on climate change effects on marine life which predicted a 25 percent shrinkage in fish size (Cheung et al., 2013). She noted that should this actually occur, there were other results in addition to the obvious one of less edible fish. Reproductive success in fish is proportional to its size: large fish produce more eggs than smaller fish, and therefore more survive to maturity. Thus, the fish populations will shrink along with the size of individual fish, if this prediction is true. The Marine Stewardship Council1 is predicting that climate change will have a significant impact on fisheries from â¢ ocean acidification, â¢ warmer water temperatures, and â¢ changes in oxygenation levels in the oceans. 1 The Marine Stewardship Council develops standards for sustainable fishing and seafood traceability to increase the availability of certified sustainable seafood. For more information see http://www.msc.org/about-us/what-we-do (accessed September 9, 2013).
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 49 Jones provided three examples of the impacts of climate change on fishery productivity, which the Center for Quantitative Fisheries Ecology, which she directs, is studying. Atlantic Menhaden Atlantic menhaden is in the herring family, or Clupiedae, and it feeds on plankton. It serves two important functions: first, as prey for our preferred food fish, and second, as a prime ingredient for industrial fisheries. Declining levels have been documented in the fisheries of this very important fish. A new stock assessment shows that they are not overfished at present; overfishing may be occurring, but it has not yet resulted in the population being overfished.2 Chemical testing in combination with microscopic examination of the fishâs earbones can show where they come from and how old they are. Habitat mapping on Atlantic menhaden has found that the upper Chesapeake Bay area, once the most important productive nursery for Atlantic menhaden, has become much less productive in recent years. Jones theorized that habitat loss might be the cause for the declining levels documented in the fisheries. Atlantic Croaker Climate change and subsequent warming of water will change the ranges of species, Jones added. The Atlantic croaker is a subtropical species, which used to range from the Gulf Coast to the Chesapeake Bay. However, said Jones, Atlantic croakers are now spawning as far north as New Englandâquite a large extension in their range. Jones noted that different fish have different sensitivities to temperature change. Atlantic mackerel, for instance, are now being fished off Iceland and thus extending their range; other fish, such as weakfish, may be contracting theirs. Speckled Trout Speckled trout is a favorite fish for recreational fishing and for food. Their optimal habitat is seagrass, and the variety present in the Chesapeake BayâZostera marina, or eelgrassâis at the edge of its southern range and is being replaced by Ruppia maritima, or widgeon grass, which is a very ephemeral habitat. Jones questioned the continued survival of this 2 Stock that is recruitment overfished has been brought to the point where it cannot sustain its population. Overfishing may be occurring to a stock, but it is not âoverfishedâ until it is at that point where the population can no longer replenish itself.
50 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH fish population should this major nursery habitat disappear from the Chesapeake Bay. The U.S. dietary suggestions for fish exceed our ability to produce, said Jones, and if U.S. production alone is relied upon, food security for the nation will be compromised. The impact of changes in management on diminishing the gap between available food and the amount needed would not be significant, she added, emphasizing that, contrary to common perception, the U.S. fisheries are well managedâespecially when compared to those in other countries. In the United States only 28 stocks of the total of about 230 are overfished; one in five is being overfished but is not yet formally considered overfished. U.S. stocks are in relatively good health compared to stocks worldwide. This means, added Jones, that substantially increasing productivity through better management is not very likely, though an increase of up to 25 percent has been suggested as possible. However, this may not meet the needs of a growing U.S. population. Jones admitted that the effects of climate change are unknown. Species are changing their range: some species are doing better while some are doing worse. The timing of events such as spring blooms is changing, which affects the reproductive process and the survival of juveniles: some may not survive to recruit to the adult fisheries if the season is curtailed. PUTTING THE WORLD ON A FORK Barton Seaver Chef and National Geographic Fellow Barton Seaver explained that his interest in fisheries began with his role as chef, and his deep interest in the ingredients of his craft. In exploring the systems that provided his kitchen, he found himself on a path which led to a Fellowship with the National Geographic, where he works currently, exploring the confluence of ecological and human health. The strategy of making pronouncements about the importance of oceans has not been effective in influencing popular opinion, Seaver noted. His preferred tactic is to ask people for their opinions, and reflect those back. There are two topics guaranteed to engage everyoneâs
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 51 attention: dinner and healthâtopics very much linked together, and linked to the health of the oceans. Reading and food were very important to Seaver as a boy, both in themselves and as an introduction to different cultures and opinions. Food, he said, is a powerful tool, particularly as administered through that great bastion of culture, the family dinner tableâthe communal meal. He quoted a line from John Hersey, âin our quest for food, we begin to find our place in the systems of this world,â noting that we are not sovereign over our resources but rather we are because of them. Declining Fisheries As a boy, Seaver spent his summers by the Patuxent River, fishing, crabbing, and enjoying the amazing bounty of those waters, reeling in blue fish, perch, porgies, croakers, striped bass, and many others. At 25, when he achieved the post of chef he decided to look to his past and serve up the bounty he remembered from his youth. But when he called his supplier, he learned that the crab and fish he remembered were goneâeaten, depleted. It was at that moment that Seaver realized âthat the guiding hand of natural selection is quite firmly holding a fork.â And he started trying to learn about the systems by which food ended up at his back door and from there onto his guestsâ plates, and how food so delicious and popular could disappear. The answer, Seaver discovered, was essentially the tragedy of the commons: the idea that man acting in logical self-interest will ultimately deplete a shared resource, despite understanding that doing so is harmful to everyoneâs best interestsâa narrative he declined to accept. Rather than the story involving human blame and shame, he decided to pursue a different solution. If preventable human error was the cause of this disruption in the ability to feed people, and to maintain jobs and cultural identities, the solution was to prevent that human errorâwhat humans caused, humans could fix. Seaver decided to focus on the impact of the ecosystems on humans rather than the human impact on the ecosystems. This was a more positive dialogue he called the Communion of the Commons: more hopeful and more human that engages people to consider their place in the systems of the world and how to maintain it.
52 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH Failure of Current Environmental Campaigns Many environmental campaigns have traditionally been created in response to acute and isolated issues, Seaver said. They are actionable ideas that engage people to participate in solutions. However, he found that many of these environmental campaigns failed to acknowledge the larger framework of what they were trying to accomplishâto measure the initial cause against the larger context of the action the campaign asked people to engage in. Citing many examples of thisâlow carbon footprint, recycling, organics, sustainable farming, fair tradeâhe noted that initial intent often did not carry through to the ultimate action. For example, organics implied a system by which the earth was not harmed, and profits could be made through products conferring health and wellness on consumers. However, such products as organic cigarettes seem at odds with the original intent of the organic movement. And then there is recycling, oftentimes held up as the pinnacle of success in environmental campaigns. And yet for all the reduce/reuse/recycle mantra, it has done very little or nothing at all to dispel the preference for a disposable goods economyâthe pace of disposable goods entering the market has actually accelerated. Seaver suggested that many of these environmental campaigns actually end up strengthening current systems and current behaviors in many ways. They often forget to ask the larger question inherent in the concern for the environment: what are we trying to sustain? The answer, said Seaver, is that we are trying to sustain ourselves. Seaver acknowledged that this might be the antithesis of the deep green ideology but the bottom line, Seaver said, is âweâre trying to save what we eat, where we live, and the healthful productive lives that nature affords us.â Responsible Policies for Managing Ecosystem Services Seaver then discussed several instances illustrating the need for the development of responsible policies for managing ecosystem services. As food is a primary driver of human interaction with nature and a principal cause of some of the most detrimental forces that have been visited upon nature, logical policies should be developed to protect ecosystem services that protect human needs (food security) more than human desires (monetary gain), Seaver said.
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 53 Food Security Versus Business Profit: Pebble Mine Seaver turned to the tension of human needs versus human desires through the example of the proposed Pebble Mine in the Bristol Bay area of Alaska. Bristol Bay holds 46 percent of the global sockeye salmon population, and the fishery supports 14,000 jobs. About 7,500 native Alaskans rely on the Bristol Bay salmon for food. The fishery makes $500 million per year and is very successful compared to failing global fisheries. Seaver noted that Bristol Bay fishery is an example of how man can act and live in concert with nature. The proposed Pebble Mine will place a large open pit mine at the very headwaters of the bay. The mine will be lucrative, and will employ many people; it will produce porphyry copper, gold, and molybdenumâvaluable minerals with a high demand. There is a great deal of opposition to the mine from fishermen and native Alaskan corporations. Seaver pointed out that the controversy is not about mining per seâthe people opposing the mine, for instance, are fishing from metal boats, using GPS systems that require copper wiring and gold circuitry, all dependent on products of the mining industry. The mining industry is crucial to the economy. But, in this case, Seaver believes that the placement of this mine would be a mistake, adding that he saw it as a choice between food security for the human population versus monetary gain. He added that the country supports a strategic oil reserveâperhaps it could also have a strategic food reserve. The very best candidate for such a reserve would be Bristol Bay. Business Model: McDonaldâs Corporation Fishery Management Another solution to managing ecosystem services is the business scenario, with shareholders whose interests are at stake. McDonaldâs Restaurant Corporation has been very successful in its efforts to restore and manage fisheries, Seaver said. This policy began when one fish supply source after another failed, and the corporation decided that in order keep their restaurants supplied with fish, the best and most economical course would be to make management changes in the fisheries, and thus stabilize their supply source. Over the past 10 years, McDonaldâs has followed a global sustainable fisheries program. They have global purchasing standards and perform annual assessments of all suppliers by the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP).3 Additionally, 100 percent of McDonaldâs 3 SFP available at: http://www.sustainablefish.org/about-us (accessed August 14, 2013).
54 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH fish worldwide currently comes from Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)-certified fisheries.4 The fisheries were saved, and the interests of the shareholders were promotedâa successful and responsible instance of ecosystem services management, said Seaver. Provide Access Points to the Resources Seaver emphasized that it is not enough to protect our resources (the âcommonsâ)âthose who provide these resources also need protection. If there are no farmers there are no farms; if there are no farms, there is no food. Similarly if there are no fishermen, there is no fishery, and without fisheries, there is no seafood. Environmentalism has not come to terms with the idea that human interests and economic systems are vitally important to managing our resources, Seaver said. Seaver noted that currently farms are subsidized, and a farm is an economic system governed by imperatives of increased production and lowered costs. The success of farms is more and more judged by shareholders. Seaver discussed an alternate model in which farmers are valued by society for what they contribute to their communities, rather than for their quarterly profit statements. When consumers shop at local farmers markets for seasonal items, their needs are met, and the farmer is supported. Seaver further noted that fisheries are subsidized commoditiesâ fisheries operating over capacity with fleets much larger than needed to catch the allowable quota, thus constraining a very diverse ecosystem into an economic and efficiency model which demands uniformity. Instead of subsidizing the fisheries, Seaver suggested subsidizing the access points to regionalized or direct-from-source products. Fishermen would thus be able to participate diversely in an ecosystem, and to offer to consumers what the oceans give, not to take only from the oceans what the consumer and market wants. Market demand determines the value of products and in this way ensures that only a few species are profitable and thus are landed and brought to market. But all seafood is equally profitable when looked at in terms of fulfilling human needs. 4 Information on McDonaldâs sustainable sourcing is available at: http://www.about mcdonalds.com/mcd/sustainability/library/policies_programs/sustainable_supply _chain/sustainable_fisheries.html (accessed August 14, 2013).
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 55 Locally Accessible Versus Imported Food The current system creates waste and skews toward demands, and not toward sustaining human health, job security, or the oceanâs health, Seaver said. This is a market issue and a consumer opportunity as well. The system is forced to create what we want, but this has led to a situation in which about 90 percent of the seafood eaten in the United States is imported, and about 65 percent of the seafood caught in this country is exported, Seaver said. Further, 3 percent or less of what we import is inspectedâmuch imported seafood is mislabeled (fraudulently or erroneously). The result has been a complete decoupling of the product from its source, because we get what we want instead of eating what is accessible to us, Seaver said. Consumers should seek what is available locally rather than request exotic food which is unavailable except by importing food. In this way consumers could act in concert with ecosystems, diversifying demands and focusing on ecosystem services rather than on supply chain services, he said. Seaver stressed the importance of understanding how we access ecosystem services and how we use them: not just focusing on production models but also the uses and benefits of the resource. He also stressed the need for a behavioral shift between fulfilling our desires and fulfilling our needs. There is no technical solution to any resource management problem that can succeed in absence of a complementary behavioral shift in how we use that product. The solution, Seaver said, is simple: âtake what you need, share the rest, and leave the system intact.â While the technology of aquaculture and increased crop yields on land may very well give a necessary and vital boost to food production, no alchemy will ever make an âall-you-can-eat buffetâ sustainableâneither for human health, nor for the planet. Taking more than oneâs share and wasting a lot of that is an ongoing human story, Seaver said. Peru, for instance, has the worldâs largest single-species fishery, landing 10 million metric tons of anchoveta (commonly referred to as anchovy) per yearâbut 98 percent of that never goes to feed a human being, it all goes into reduction production, much like the menhaden referenced by Cynthia Jones in her presentation. This is not the highest and best use of the product. The 7 billion people of this earth can be fed and their dietary needs fulfilledâbut the desires of 7 billion people can never be fulfilled, or even half that many. Needs are finite, but desires are infinite. Environmental sustainability in human health is about better nourishing people with the food available, Seaver said.
56 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that 14.5 percent of American households are food insecure (Coleman-Jensen et al., 2013). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that 35.7 percent of American adults are overweight or obese (Ogden et al., 2012). Current resources are not being used for their highest and best purpose, Seaver said. Seaver emphasized that health is very much linked to food, food sustains life, and people can be no healthier than the foods they consume and how they consume those foods, and the food consumed can be no healthier than the environment that it comes from. Therefore, human beings can be no healthier than the environments that sustain them. If humans desire to lead healthy lives they must equally pursue both wellness and environmental resiliency. This principle does not allow for physical and environmental health to be divorced from each other. The danger in a conversation about ecosystem services is that each is analyzed solo, in isolation, Seaver said. Human consumption patterns largely define how the world is used and what is consumed defines the how healthy the community is. Seaver encouraged pursuing the resiliency of people and communities and the planet by taking only what is needed, sharing the rest, and leaving the system intact and celebrating wellness over consumption. In the communion of the commons a cultural dialogue about ecosystem services can occur that encourages people, businesses, doctors, and governments to participate in the highest and best use of the commons, which is simply to maximize the profits of our human experience, Seaver said. AQUACULTURE: ENSURING A FUTURE SEAFOOD SUPPLY FOR A HEALTHY POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT Kevan L. Main, Ph.D. Senior Scientist and Director of Aquaculture Research, Mote Marine Laboratory President, World Aquaculture Society Kevan Main began the presentation by highlighting that fish is a primary source of protein for nearly 1 billion people, and global consumption is rising (from 9 kg/person in 1961 to 17.1 kg/person in 2008) (FAO, 2010; OECD/FAO, 2011). Seafood is a high-protein food that is low in calories, total fat, and saturated fat, high in vitamins and
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 57 minerals, with numerous health benefits. Seafood is the only food source which is still produced from the wild. However, Main predicted future shortages in food and water will not only constrain growth in terrestrial agriculture but will also require freshwater aquaculture to shift to recirculating systems. The task will be to increase global food security, continue the supply of high-quality seafood, and to restore declining fisheries (i.e., stock enhancements) while limiting the environmental impact on the land, water, and fisheries. Historically, the oceans were considered limitlessâwith enough fish to feed the world population. But the ocean harvest has reached the maximum sustainable yield, and the product of capture fisheries has been static for the past 25 years. Aquaculture, on the other hand, is growing and provides an increasingly larger percentage of fishery product every year. The majority of aquacultured seafood is being produced in Asia, with 50 percent from China and another third coming from southeast Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam)âmore than 90 percent of the seafood production occurs in Asia (see Figure 4-1). The U.S. seafood trade deficit exceeded $10 billion annually in 2011 (NOAA, 2013a). This natural resource trade deficit is second only to oil and gas. Main described this as a food security issue for the United States, which resulted in more than 91 percent of U.S. consumed seafood being imported in 2011 and approximately 50 percent of those imports were farmed (NOAA, 2013a). U.S. aquaculture produced only 5 percent of our seafood supply (NOAA, 2013b); however, seafood safety regulations ensure that U.S.-produced seafood is safe and produced in an environ- mentally sustainable manner. There is a real opportunity to increase U.S. production to meet the expanding demand for high-quality seafood. Aquaculture Systems and Environmental Issues There are a variety of different systems that are used to produce seafood around the world, such as ponds, cages, flow-through systems, and recirculating systems. Ponds Ponds are the most common way that seafood is produced around the world. In China, Europe, India, Japan, southeast Asia, and the United States, ponds are used to produce a wide range of different products. The
58 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEAL M D LTH 3% 2% 1% % 4% C China S Southeast Asia and the Pacifi a ic E Europe 28% L Latin America a Caribbean and n 62% A Africa N North America a FIGUR 4-1 World fisheries and aquaculture pro RE a oduction. SOURC Main, 2012. Data from FAO, 2012. CE: F enviro onmental imp pact from pon aquacultur can be su nd re ubstantial if t the ponds are constructe in critical (i.e., wetland) habitats. Also, if ponds a ed ( ) are stocke too heavily and the wa is discha ed y ater arged into riv vers, lakes, aand oceans with poor circulation, there will b detrimental environmen s be l ntal impact There is also potential danger for d ts. a disease to sppread to nati ive species, or of nonnnative (exotic species es cs) scaping (all a aquatic farmin ng system have these problems). ms Near-S Shore Cages Th near-shore cage system is the next most comm production he e m t mon system Adverse en m. nvironmental impact can r cages are put in result if the c the wrrong environm ment. for exaample, if the c cages are loccated in a wat ter body where there is poor circula w s ation, if the c cages are locaated too close ely together, or if they are stocked too heavily. A with other systems, the t As r ere is the potential for disease to spr p d read to native species or fo exotic speci or ies to escaape. Open (Flow-Throug Tank Production Syste ( gh) ems So ome of the en nvironmental impacts are rreduced when fish are rais n sed inside tanks. Howeever, not only are large vo y olumes of wat required f ter for open tank systems, but that wate must be dis er scharged, and if concentrat ted affluen is discharg back into lakes and co nt ged o oastal habitat it can have a ts e negativ impact. Es ve scape of exot and disea spread are also problem tics ase e ms in this system.
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 59 New Production Systems: Offshore Cage Systems Offshore cage systems solve some of the near-shore cage problems by moving cage systems out into deep water where the water currents provide better circulation. Offshore aquaculture cages require deep water (a minimum of 30â45-meter water depth). The use of these production systems is expanding around the world (e.g., China, Europe, South and Central America). The growing need to expand food production, and the problems encountered with the coastal systems in particular, have encouraged expansion into offshore cage systems. There has been a lot of technological development in the open-water offshore cages during the past 10 years, involving very sophisticated engineering. These systems can produce large volumes of fish. Main stressed that it is crucial to ensure these new systems will have limited environmental impact. However, if the cages are placed in the proper locations, and stocked at suitable densities, they will provide large volumes of seafood to meet future demands. She noted that today there are only a few companies that are using offshore cage systems in U.S. waters; it is critical to expand U.S. offshore aquaculture (note that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is working on the permitting and regulations to allow expansion of these production systems). Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Main believes that recirculating land-based aquaculture systems are continuing to grow and this production system is going to play a bigger and bigger role as time goes on. The use of recirculating systems is becoming much more prevalent in European aquaculture and there are a number of facilities that are using the technology in the United States. The disadvantage with recirculating systems is increased production costs, but improved engineering, production of multiple crops, and incorporation of alternative energy can improve the bottom line. Though this technology is relatively new, with the first systems being designed and tested in the 1990s, over the past 10 years there have been a lot of technological improvements in the filtration system components and system designs. In addition, there is expanding support for sustainable environmentally friendly aquaculture and agriculture systems. However, the research needs to focus on reducing production costs and the consumers must be willing to pay more for sustainable products if this technology is to be economically successful.
60 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEAL M D LTH Main stressed that there are a number of advantages associated wi t f ith recircu ulating aquacuulture systems such as con s, nservation of w water resourcees, treatm ment and recyc cling of wasttewater (thus reducing the environmental e impact and the po t), otential to dev velop integrat systems ( ted (producing bo oth fish an plants). At the Mote Aquaculture Research Pa in Sarasota, nd A A ark Florida there is a commercial farm produc a, cing sturgeon and caviar in n freshw water recircula ating systems and a marin research u working on s, ne unit expand ding the recirrculating systtems to produ a wide ra uce ange of mari ine species Figure 4-2 shows a simple schematic fo the freshwa recirculati s. s or ater ing system in which water moves through a se m, w eries of filter the waste is rs, remov using a mechanical and biological f ved m d filtration proc cesses, and th hen the wa is cleaned sterilized, and reoxygen ater d, a nated before i is returned to it the fis system. Th solid waste removed fro the water stream can be sh he e om r used as fertilizer fo plants. The Mote resear unit is dem a or e rch monstrating tthe produc ction of a wid range of co de oastal plants, such as man , ngroves and saalt FIGUR 4-2 Recircu RE ulating aquaculture system: s schematic of a module. SOURC Main, 2012. CE:
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 61 marsh grasses, in the wastewater created by marine fish production unitsâ crops that can provide a secondary income stream in addition to that produced by the fish. Toward Safe and Abundant Seafood The fact that the United States is importing 91 percent of the seafood consumed and that less than 0.5 percent of those imports are inspected each year highlights a seafood safety issue (NOAA, 2013a). There are a number of seafood concerns to be considered, such as its safety for human consumption, its importance as a source of healthy protein, and the environmental impact on coastal fisheries. For aquaculture, one of the primary issues is the availability and use of high-quality water resources to grow the seafood products. Water Quality Standards for Recirculating and Other Land-Based Aquaculture Farms In determining water quality requirements, the water needs to be evaluated at three different points in the system: incoming water, water within the tank or pond, and the water that is discharged from the system back to the environment. 1. Incoming water quality (water entering the animal production system). Before the water enters the system it must be evaluated for potential contaminates, to determine if pre-filtration is required. A bioassay where the proposed species (i.e., fish) is grown for a period of time using the incoming water is also recommended. 2. Water quality in the production system (water where the animals are being grown). There are no established standards for water quality within the production system, but farming practices are based on knowledge of the tolerance of the species to water quality and water chemistry parameters. The goal is to maintain appropriate water quality and chemistry so that the species will thrive. In the United States drugs and chemotherapeutant use is a major concern and is strictly regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Use of approved drugs has required withdrawal periods before harvesting. The limited inspection of seafood imports gives even more importance to U.S. production practices. Florida and many other states in the United States have developed best
62 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH management practices (BMPs) for aquaculture production. In Florida, the BMPs were designed to preserve the environment and reduce duplications of environmental and other permitting requirements. However, one of the biggest limitations to expanding aquaculture in Florida is limited access and availability of freshwaterâdespite heavy rainfall, there is an extreme water shortage in Florida, owing to a large population and their needs. How to best allocate this precious resource is a difficult question which state regulators are tackling today. 3. Effluent water quality (water discharged from the animal production system). The standards in the United States depend on where the water is being discharged and the volume of animals being grown in the production system. These regulations are set by different government organizations (state agencies for smaller farms or by federal agencies for larger farms) and may require an ongoing water quality and environmental monitoring program. Safety in Production Processes The processing of seafood is very strictly regulated in the United States by the USDA and the FDA through a system called Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). This system was introduced as a preventive approach to food safety as the seafood is processed, rather than trying to detect problems by testing the finished product. Regulations associated with HACCP require frequent monitoring and testing. Restoring Fishery Resources Through Stock Enhancement There are several management options for restoring declining fish stocks, such as â¢ reducing the harvest (with size limits, seasons, closures, trip limits, and so on), â¢ developing marine protected areas, and â¢ rebuilding or enhancing the stock through release of cultured animals. Hatchery-based marine stock enhancement has made impressive research gains since the 1990s, when scientific studies of marine fisheries enhancement were initiated. Following publication of those first scientific studies on the potential to restore marine fisheries resources using stock enhancement in 1989 and the 1990s, more evidence was
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 63 presented documenting the potential for stock enhancement to restore declining fisheries. Results of small-scale stock enhancement research in Florida indicates that common snook is an excellent model species for achieving and documenting an economically successful stocking program. However, the use of marine stock enhancement requires a âresponsible approachâ to stocking that is focused on protecting wild fishery resources, Main said. In closing, Main gave an outline of the important issues she had covered in this presentation: â¢ Fish is the primary source of protein for nearly 1 billion people. â¢ Fish is a high-protein food; is low in calories, total fat, and saturated fat; is high in vitamins and minerals; and has been shown to have numerous health benefits. â¢ Future seafood resources will primarily be supplied by aquaculture. â¢ The U.S. seafood trade deficit exceeded $10 billion annually in 2011, resulting in a natural resource trade deficit second only to oil and gas. â¢ About 91 percent of U.S. consumed seafood is imported and about 50 percent of the imports are farmed. â¢ U.S. aquaculture currently supplies about 5 percent of our seafood supply. It is imperative to increase U.S. aquaculture production. â¢ Production and safety regulations ensure that U.S.-produced seafood is safe. â¢ Environmental sustainability is a growing priority in the United States. â¢ Hatcheries can be a tool to rebuild fisheries if done responsibly. â¢ Shortages in water and food will constrain growth in terrestrial agriculture (competitive use of land). â¢ Shortages in water and environmental concerns will continue to shift land-based production to recycle systems. â¢ Incorporating plant production into recirculating systems has synergistic beneficial effects.
64 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS, SUSTAINABILITY, AND CO-BENEFITS Steven A. Murawski, Ph.D. Professor and Downtown Progress - Peter R. Betzer Endowed Chair of Biological Oceanography, University of South Florida Steven Murawski noted that there are different approaches to the notion of general ecosystem services, life-cycle analysis, and its application to fisheries. He explained that his presentation would provide a multidisciplinary perspective on sustainability and ecosystems based on the interactions between people, the water environment, and food supply. His talk would also highlight life-cycle analysis, its operational definitions, its general applications, and its application to fisheries and for addressing sustainability. Interactions at the Triad In terms of the peopleâwater environmentâfood supply triad, Murawski stated, the environment and food production issues are linked to societal well-being and human outcomes as well as general preparedness for environmental catastrophes, including storms, sea-level rise, and harmful algal blooms (see Figure 4-3). The triad presents a sustainability framework to consider what is being extracted from the environment in terms of sustaining people but also in terms of extraction from the feedback loops that develop along the triad. Because there are many varied ecosystem services that people are trying to extract and maintain at the same time, it is important to understand the priority areas for ecosystem services production as well as sustainability. Life-Cycle Analysis Murawski explained that life-cycle analysis is an environmental assessment tool to quantify environmental impact throughout the entire life cycle of a product or process. The life cycle of a product includes all phases from raw material extraction, production, transportation, and waste treatmentâessentially a cradle-to-grave approach. Life-cycle analysis has a history in industrial process control but has many emerging
SEAFOO SUPPLIES AN FOOD SECUR OD ND URITY 65 FIGUR 4-3 Interac RE ctions at the triad of the p people, environ nment, and fo ood product domains. tion SOURC Murawski 2012. CE: i, applicaations relevan to ecosyste nt ems. Some of the general applications of f life-cy analysis include (a) ev ycle i valuation of ennergy inputs and outputs f for biofue production, (b) transport el tation system alternatives, (c) greenhou use gas prooduction and evaluation of carbon footp f prints, and (d human heal d) lth outcom in relatio to a variety of issues an settings. W mes on y nd When looking at all those life-cycl analyses, Murawski noted, there are differing le e perspeectives on the type of âcurr rencyâ includ in the life-cycle analys ded sis. The currency may be energy, toxic and h y hazardous su ubstances, food produc ction or consu umption, wate production or consumpt er n tion, economiics in term of the con ms nsumer or prooducer, huma mortality a well-bein an and ng, carbon footprint or greenhouse ga issues, or n n g as natural resourc sustainability. ce On example at the nexus of health-re ne a elated issues and ecosyste em service is improvi cardiac outcomes for people throu changes in es ing o ugh dietary consumptio A poole analysis o prospectiv studies an y on. ed of ve nd randommized clinical trials from Mozaffarian and Rimm (2 M 2006) evaluat ted the relationship be etween intake of two com e mponents of omega-3 fat tty acids (eicosapentae ( enoic acid and docosahexa aenoic acid) through fish or fish oi consumptio and the resulting rela il on r ative risk of coronary hea art disease death. In th example, stated Muraw e his s wski, as the inntake of the tw wo omega fatty acid increased per week, a b a-3 ds p break point ooccurred at 500 milligrrams where the relative risk of corona heart dise t ary ease death wwas
66 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH reduced and remained somewhat constant even with further intake increases (Mozaffarian and Rimm, 2006). While this is an important assessment, said Murawski, the positive health outcomes need to be balanced against what is referred to as âthe seafood dilemma.â As consumption of seafood increases, he explained, depending on the individual and the type of seafood, one could be taking an increased load of toxic mercury and other contaminants. The balance between improved health outcomes and actual toxic outcome is important to consider and somewhat controversial. A study from Dickoff and colleagues (2007) looking at balancing the health benefits of reduced coronary heart disease from seafood consumption against the contaminant effects of mercury, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls found the benefits outweigh the risks by 300 to 1 (with a few exceptions). However, achieving recommended levels of seafood consumption (which vary between two 3.5-ounce and two 6-ounce meals per week) is putting increased pressure on the natural resource supply. It appears that there is not enough productivity in the ocean to sustain the required supply both nationally or internationally. This creates conflicting international goals in terms of trying to get people to eat more fish and not having enough fish to eat. Murawski described another example of applying the life-cycle analysis to fisheries. In looking across all of the dimensions of the fishery processâincluding fishing, processing, wholesaling, transport, retail, and consumptionâa score can be generated in terms of the impact of these various activities on multiple dimensions of sustainability. Results from a life-cycle analysis looking at Danish fish products showed that the fishing stage created the most environmental impacts, mainly due to the energy requirements and partly due to the continued depletion of fish stocks (Thrane, 2006). Fishery Sustainability While the world annual seafood production is static among wild sources, the proportion from aquaculture sources is increasing. Murawski proposed that at some point the aquaculture sources will be producing more than wild fisheries. In 2008 the total U.S. fish catch was 8.3 billion pounds with first sale value of $4.4 billion. The U.S. fisheries sales totaled $185 billion in the same year (Van Voorhees and Pritchard, 2009). U.S. imported seafood totaled $28 billion in 2008, of which $13.4
SEAFOO SUPPLIES AN FOOD SECUR OD ND URITY 67 billion was edible seafood and the remainder was used as fish meal in a n s t r s n variety of products (Van Voorhe and Pritch y ees hard, 2009). portance of th issue, ther are efforts to As a result of the global imp s his re rank countries in terms of their compliance w the United Nations Co c with d ode of Con nduct for Re esponsible Fisheries.5 Wh the Unite States ran hile ed nks toward the top of ov d verall compli iance on a sca of good, p ale pass, or fail, n not 1 of th 53 countrie landing 96 percent of the global mari catch (bas he es e ine sed on 199 values) achieved a score of good (Pitch et al., 2009 Additional 99 her 9). lly, lookin at Figure 4-4, the Unite States imp ng 4 ed ports seafood supplies fro d om other countries (indicated with a yellow sta in Figure 4-4) with po ar oor record in terms of sustainability scores. ds y Murawski explained that in the United St tates fishery ssustainability is y defined with respec to the size of the stock For examp overfishing ct e k. ple, occurs when âthe rate of harves (percent of stock remov by fishin s r st f ved ng) exceed the pre-def ds fined maximu rateâ (gen um nerally about 20 percent p per year is sustainable) and overfish occurs w s ) hed when âthe curr rrent size of tthe populaation is less than half of the populatio size requir to genera t on red ate maxim mum sustainab yields.â In other words Murawski said, if the ra ble n s, ate FIGUR 4-4 State of global fisheri RE ies. SOURC Murawski 2012. Data adapted from Pitcher et al., 2009. Reprint CE: i, a ted with pe ermission from Nature Publis m shing Group. 5 Unite Nations Co of Conduc for Respons ed ode ct sible Fisheries is available at: s http://w www.fao.org/fi ishery/code/abo out/en (accesse September 9 2013). ed 9,
68 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH of outflow exceeds the rate of inflow required to generate sustainable yields, the use rate is not sustainable. Over the past 12 years, there has been steady progress in rebuilding stocks and meeting requirements for sustainable fishery populations in the United States and this progress is projected to continue. Murawski noted that the sea scallop is a dramatic example of rebuilding a stock that was depleted into one that is now sustainable. Globalization of Fisheries In looking at the globalization of fisheries, Murawski noted, it is important to balance not only the trade of seafood imports but also the protein deficits that may be created. For example, the European Union has become increasingly dependent on fishery landings from Africa (Swartz et al., 2010), which creates a greater need for grain consumption as an alternative food source in populations that may be protein deficient. Movements to value sustainably caught seafood and create sustainable certification programs are also occurring at the global level. Life-cycle analysis is being utilized to assess the sustainability of various fishing methods and stocks as a positive feedback to value sustainable fisheries. Murawski noted that this is a regulatory issue for many nations and a difficult one to solve, but the marketplace is showing strong signals to achieving improved sustainability labeling, particularly in Europe. He stated that there are a large number of fisheries trying to achieve sustainable fishing practices and it is hopeful to see the MSC and others providing a certification process to recognize these fisheries in the marketplace. One of the difficulties to achieving sustainable fisheries, Murawski explained, is the transition cost to society. There are often short-term losses in the life-cycle analysis to achieve long-term gains. In the transition to sustainability, many people will need to change professions, which comes with a major cost. The climate-related aspects of the life- cycle analysis are also very important to consider in terms of greenhouse gas enrichment scenarios and demands on natural ecosystem services, including fish. Murawski summarized by noting that there is an emerging set of tools to operationalize sustainability and aid in decision making. Life- cycle analysis is one of them and can be done from many different perspectives. The notion of quantifying sustainability is important, as is defining the perspectives that are relevant to the kinds of problems that
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 69 require multidisciplinary approaches. Finally, it is important to remember that economics is not the only relevant âcurrencyâ for ecosystem services. DISCUSSION Linda McCauley stated that she was shocked by 91 percent of our fish being imported and 61 percent of domestically produced seafood being exported, and asked the speakers to comment on a local source of fish that may be comparable to locally raised meat in the United States. Main noted that catfish is produced in the southeastern United States and that it is the biggest U.S. food fish production. Additionally, there are smaller-scale producers of tilapia and salmon in the United States and a variety of farms that are trying to develop yellow perch, hybrid striped bass, and other fish. Main stated that the United States is often overly cautious and is not allowing the aquaculture industry to develop and grow. Seaver joined the discussion and noted that it may be best to choose the fish species that farm well, as much of the current aquaculture production in the United States works well in confinement. Unfortunately, he said, we have started down the path of trying to farm what sells well, which is introducing other issues into the system such as genetic modifi- cation and negative impacts on ecosystem services. Christopher Portier from the CDC noted that discussions surrounding climate change, sustainability, and ecosystem services are not even asking questions such as whether people in Atlanta should be eating Dungeness crab, though that is clearly not sustainable. Seaver stated that within the chef community in the United States using frozen fish is still considered taboo even though flash freezing technology has greatly improved. He noted that there are substantial cost benefits to frozen fish in terms of storage, transportation, and consumer usage. Seaver stated that this is an example of how the systematic approaches of sustainability should be acknowledged along with the production aspects. Lynn Goldman asked Main to comment on the amount of fish feed that is required to go into farm fish production and address whether this is the best way to deliver fish protein. She highlighted that much plant protein is required to develop a pound of beef protein, which has broader impacts throughout the world, and wondered if fish production may have similar global impacts. Main noted that the amount of poundage of fish to feed salmon has decreased and approximately less than one pound of
70 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN HEALTH fish is required to grow one pound of salmon. This is a result of research over the past 10 years looking at alternative feeding ingredients and focusing on the alternative protein resources that can be used in fish farming. Main stated that while there have been improvements, this remains an area for further research. Jack Spengler from Harvard University asked Jones to comment on how well fisheries are managed in the United States and on the associated impacts to communities that depend on the fisheries. Jones noted that some communities are doing less well and established catch limits may move to longer-term targets rather than annual targets. The annual targets tend to result in more drastic highs and lows for the fishermen compared to limits that average over 3 years, for example. Additionally, she stated, there have been economic incentives in the United States (e.g., capitalization funds and low interest rates for vessels) that have built the fishing fleets so large that the available fish catch is divided in an unsustainable way. As a result, Jones said, many fishermen are now part-time, rather than full-time, and many boats sit idle for part of the year, which is a terrible use of capital. Jones noted that one potential solution is to decrease to a sustainable fleet size for the fish catch that is available and start circulating new licenses and catch shares as they come along. Paul Sandifer from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration noted that in order to continually meet global seafood protein needs into the future, aquaculture will need to be relied on more. The statistics shown here indicate that aquaculture is providing a significant amount of the seafood consumed by Americans and not nearly enough of this is domestic based. Having spent some time in this arena, Sandifer explained that much of the research is pushed by market forces that drive what a producer is allowed to produce. Sandifer then asked Murawski to comment on whether the United States does indeed take protein away from other places in the world to meet its own demand, and in effect forces a substitution to a less valuable food product (e.g., carbohydrates) in other areas. Murawski responded that there are places where these protein deficits are taking place and the protein source is being converted to export income. The question becomes, what levels of society are benefiting from that export income? He noted that if the generated income does not return to the levels of society where the protein is being removed, then this certainly can be a problem.
SEAFOOD SUPPLIES AND FOOD SECURITY 71 Edward Laws asked Murawski to comment on the current aquaculture production of 48 million tons and if this production is sustainable based on a life-cycle analysis. Murawski noted that the vast majority of aquaculture production in the world comes from China; many of the bays and estuaries in China resemble an industrial park for aquaculture. He explained that in utilizing that space for aquaculture other ecosystem services are pushed out (e.g., recreation, nutrient reduction, etc.). Something to also consider is the feed used for the aquaculture products. For instance, Murawski said, if agriculture is used for feed then there may be nonsustainable supply problems. Additionally, the same health benefits (in terms of omega-3 fatty acids) are not available with a feed of only agriculture compared to using fish feed. Murawski went on to say that he does not know if this system will continue to be sustainable in the future. Bernie Goldstein from the University of Pittsburgh commented on the life-cycle analysis and other sustainability tools presented by Murawski. He asked if some of the economic impacts from fishing and fisheries are included in the life-cycle analysis, as well as further impacts such as the depletion of alternate animal sources in protein-deficient regions and possible emerging infections throughout the world. Goldstein explained that the interagency risk assessment approach within the U.S. government facilitated an opportunity to incorporate issues that were on the borders into the assessments and asked if similar harmonizing efforts could be utilized with life-cycle analysis. Murawski noted that starting with basic metrics, it would be helpful to include these diverse societal goals into the life-cycle analysis without it becoming unwieldy. The classic fishery metrics are how big the stock is, and how fast is it leaving. However, the transition costs bring in a variety of other metrics. In the United States, Murawski said, not only is preventing overfishing a metric but there are nine other national standards that target economic efficiency, balance between the states, impact on coastal communities, and others that layer different dimensions into the analysis. Murawski stated that it will be interesting to see if commonality of metrics develops at the global level. Additionally, one could think about using development tools or a broader set of nonregulatory controls to address income disparities and other impacts on the developing world as incentives to incorporate sustainable practices into fisheries management.
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