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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
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B

Committee Biographical Sketches

Jeffrey Kahn, Ph.D., M.P.H. (Chair), is the inaugural Robert Henry Levi and Ryda Hecht Levi Professor of Bioethics and Public Policy at the Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute of Bioethics. Prior to joining the faculty at Johns Hopkins in 2011, Dr. Kahn was director of the Center for Bioethics and the Maas Family Endowed Chair in Bioethics at the University of Minnesota. Earlier in his career, Dr. Kahn was director of the Graduate Program in Bioethics and assistant professor of bioethics at the Medical College of Wisconsin, and associate director of the White House Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Kahn works in a variety of areas of bioethics, exploring the intersection of ethics and public health policy, including research ethics, ethics and genetics, and ethical issues in public health. He has served on many advisory panels, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), among others, and speaks nationally and internationally on a range of bioethics topics. He has published 3 books and more than 125 articles in the bioethics and medical literature. From 1998 to 2002, he wrote the biweekly column “Ethics Matters” for CNN.com. Dr. Kahn earned his B.A. in Microbiology from the University of California, Los Angeles, his M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University, and his Ph.D. in Philosophy/Bioethics from Georgetown University.

Nancy Conrad is the founder and chair of The Conrad Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused on energizing and engaging students in science and technology through unique entrepreneurial opportunities. The foundation was founded as a legacy to Apollo 12 astronaut and entrepreneur, Charles “Pete” Conrad. She is currently the education partner

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

for the SonUS Solar-Sail-Sun Jammer project as well the Inspiration Mars project, and is on the advisory board for the B612 Foundation. Ms. Conrad is a founding partner of the Global Patient Safety Team Advisory Board. She serves on the Social Enterprise Governing Board at Columbia University. Ms. Conrad is a member of the President’s Circle of the National Academy of Sciences. As a leader in transformative education, she has testified before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology on the use of partnerships and mentorship to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Ms. Conrad is affiliated with a number of organizations that emphasize STEM education, including the STEM Education Coalition and STEMconnector.

Peter F. Demitry, M.D., M.P.H., has been president of 4-D Enterprises, LLC, an executive consulting service, since 2006. He served on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board’s quick-look study of the F-22’s oxygen system. Prior to that, he led a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Consortium, an industry-based group focused on transitioning technologies such as sensors, biomarkers, diagnostics, and therapeutics for TBI. Dr. Demitry previously served as the first Assistant Air Force Surgeon General for Modernization from 2002 to 2006, during which time he also served as the Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer for the Air Force Medical Service, a $6 billion global health care system. In that role he was responsible for transitioning all medical technologies into the U.S. Air Force. He retired from the Air Force in 2006 after serving more than 28 years on active duty. Dr. Demitry received his undergraduate degree from the U.S. Air Force Academy, his M.D. from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and a master’s degree in public health from the Harvard School of Public Health. He completed his occupational medicine residency at Harvard University and became certified in occupational and environmental medicine. Dr. Demitry is a certified Air Force test pilot and is the only test pilot physician in Air Force history. He is a Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association and earned membership within the Society of Experimental Test Pilots. He flew the F-4, A-10, F-16, and F-15 in flying assignments and was the director and chief test pilot of the Advanced Fighter Technology F-16 Integration program at Edwards Air Force Base. Among his awards, he has received the Meritorious Service Medal, the Aerial Achievement Medal, and the Legion of Merit Award.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

Bonnie J. Dunbar, Ph.D., is a former astronaut for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She retired from NASA in 2005. She then served as president and chief executive officer (CEO) of The Museum of Flight until 2010. She is now director of higher education and strategic workforce planning for the Boeing Company. Following graduation in 1971 from the University of Washington, she worked for Boeing Computer Services as a systems analyst. Dr. Dunbar has served as an adjunct assistant professor in mechanical engineering at the University of Houston. Dr. Dunbar is a private pilot with more than 200 hours in single-engine land aircraft, has logged more than 700 hours flying time in T-38 jets as a backseater, and has more than 100 hours as a co-pilot in a Cessna Citation jet. She accepted a position as a payload officer/flight controller at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in 1978. She served as a guidance and navigation officer/flight controller for the Skylab reentry mission in 1979 and was subsequently designated project officer/payload officer for the integration of several Space Shuttle payloads. Dr. Dunbar became a NASA astronaut in 1981. Her technical assignments have included assisting in the verification of Shuttle flight software at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL), serving as a member of the Flight Crew Equipment Control Board, participating as a member of the Astronaut Office Science Support Group, and supporting operational development of the remote manipulator system (RMS). In 1993, Dr. Dunbar served as Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences, NASA Headquarters. She spent 13 months training as a back-up crew member for a 3-month flight on the Russian Space Station, Mir. From 1995 to 1996, she was detailed to the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate as assistant director. She was responsible for chairing the International Space Station Training Readiness Reviews, and facilitating Russian/American operations and training strategies.

Barbara J. Evans, B.S.E.E., M.S., Ph.D., J.D., LL.M., is a professor of law and George Butler Research Professor and is director of the Center on Biotechnology & Law at the University of Houston Law Center. She was a Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholar in Bioethics from 2010 to 2013. Her research interests include governance and privacy issues with large health information networks and regulatory uses of scientific evidence to assess and manage health risks in various contexts, including postmarketing drug safety oversight, regulatory approval of novel medical products, environmental regulation of agricultural biotechnologies,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

and oversight of health care quality and patient safety. Earlier in her career, she was a partner in the international regulatory practice of a large New York law firm and subsequently advised clients on U.S. privacy, research, and medical device regulatory matters. Prior to joining the University of Houston Law Center, she was a research professor of medicine and director of the Program in Pharmacogenomics, Ethics, and Public Policy at the Indiana University School of Medicine/Center for Bioethics. She holds a B.S.E.E. from the University of Texas at Austin; an M.S. and a Ph.D. from Stanford University; a J.D. from Yale Law School; and an LL.M. in health law from the University of Houston Law Center. She also completed a postdoctoral fellowship in clinical ethics at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.

Bernard A. Harris, Jr., M.D., M.B.A., is CEO and managing partner of Vesalius Ventures, Inc. Dr. Harris was at NASA for 10 years, where he conducted research in musculoskeletal physiology and disuse osteoporosis. He conducted clinical investigations of space adaptation and developed in-flight medical devices to extend astronaut stays in space. Selected into the Astronaut Corps in 1990, Dr. Harris was a mission specialist on the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-55/Spacelab D-2 in 1993. As payload commander on Space Shuttle Discovery STS-63 in 1995, he served on the first flight of the joint Russian–American Space Program, becoming the “First African American to walk in space.” A veteran astronaut for more than 20 years, he has logged more than 438 hours and traveled more than 7.2 million miles in space. He has had more than 20 years of business experience in various leadership roles, such as CEO, president, and chief medical officer of some of the leading companies and organizations in the nation. In addition, he is on the boards of the Houston Technology Center, National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Board of Scientific Counselors, HealthConnect, and National Math and Science Initiative. Dr. Harris is also the founder of the Harris Foundation, a nonprofit organization that supports math/science education and crime prevention programs for America’s youth. He earned a B.S. in biology from the University of Houston, a master of medical science from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, an M.B.A. from the University of Houston, and an M.D. from Texas Tech University School of Medicine. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the Mayo Clinic, a National Research Council Fellowship in Endocrinology at the NASA Ames Research Center, and trained as a flight surgeon at the Aerospace School of Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base. He is also a

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

licensed private pilot and certified scuba diver. Dr. Harris is the recipient of numerous awards, including honorary doctorates from Stony Brook University, Morehouse School of Medicine, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and University of Hartford; a NASA Space Flight Medal; a NASA Award of Merit; and the 2000 Horatio Alger Award. He is also a Fellow of the American College of Physicians. He is the author of Dream Walker: A Journey of Achievement and Inspiration (Greenleaf Book Group Press, 2010).

David G. Hoel, Ph.D., is a distinguished university professor in the Department of Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina. He also is a principal scientist at Exponent, Inc. Dr. Hoel was at the NIH National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for more than 20 years as director of the Division of Environmental Risk Assessment, which developed methods for quantitatively estimating health risks from low-dose chemical exposures. He has particular interests in estimating the health effects of radiation exposures and spent a total of 3 years working at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, as a program director. His current research is focused on low-dose adverse health effects of gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation as well as plutonium in particular. His research support has included a 5-year project for NASA on the analysis of the potential health risks from high linear energy transfer radiation. International committees on which he has served include a radiation exposure advisory committee for the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer. He is an IOM member and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He earned a B.A. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in mathematical statistics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He completed postdoctoral training in preventive medicine from Stanford University. Dr. Hoel has served on the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee on Evaluation of Radiation Shielding for Space Exploration, Committee on the Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Models, and the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board.

Jonathan Kimmelman, Ph.D., holds a doctorate in molecular biophysics and biochemistry from Yale University and is associate professor in biomedical ethics at McGill University, with a cross-appointment in experimental medicine. His research centers on the ethics of translational

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

clinical research. He leads several funded projects investigating risk-benefit across the research trajectory, and directs the Studies for Translation, Ethics, and Medicine (STREAM) Group. Major publications have appeared in Science, Lancet, BMJ, PLoS Medicine, and Hastings Center Report. His book, Gene Transfer and the Ethics of First-in-Human Experiments (Cambridge Press, 2010), is the first full-length analysis of the ethics of translational clinical research and has been described as “set[ting] a new standard for bioethical scholarship that is at once scientifically well-grounded, politically astute, philosophically original, and a pleasure to read.” Dr. Kimmelman was the winner of the 2006 Maud Menten New Investigator Prize (Institute of Genetics) and received a Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator Salary Award in 2008. He has served in numerous advisory capacities, including ethics committee chairs for the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy (2008-2010) and the International Society of Stem Cell Research (since 2013). He is a member of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Gene and Cell Therapy Data Safety Monitoring Board.

Anna C. Mastroianni, J.D., M.P.H., is professor of law at the University of Washington School of Law. She has additional faculty appointments in the university’s School of Public Health and School of Medicine. Prior to her academic career, she held a number of legal and federal policy positions in Washington, DC, including associate director of President Clinton’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments and study director of the IOM of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). She also practiced health law with two private law firms in Washington, DC. She has served on a number of committees that advise the U.S. government and other entities, including the NRC’s Committee on Institutional Review Boards, Social Science and Surveys; the IOM’s Committee on the Review of the National Immunization Program’s Research Procedures and Data Sharing Program; and the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. In addition, she has been nationally recognized for her contributions to health policy, law, and bioethics as a Fellow of AAAS. Her publications include six books and numerous peer-reviewed articles on law, medicine, and bioethics, with a special emphasis on the legal and ethical challenges in public health, research with human subjects, and assisted reproductive technologies. Professor Mastroianni is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Law (J.D.), The Wharton School (B.S. in economics), College of Arts

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

and Sciences (B.A. in Spanish and Portuguese), and the University of Washington School of Public Health (M.P.H. in health services).

Lawrence Palinkas, Ph.D., is the Albert G. and Frances Lomas Feldman Professor of Social Policy and Health in the School of Social Work at the University of Southern California (USC). He also holds appointments in the Departments of Anthropology and Preventive Medicine at USC and serves as adjunct professor of medicine and family and preventive medicine at the University of California, San Diego. A medical anthropologist, his primary areas of expertise lie within behavioral health, preventive medicine, crosscultural medicine, and health services research. Dr. Palinkas is particularly interested in health disparities, implementation science, community-based participatory research, and the sociocultural and environmental determinants of health and health-related behavior, with a focus on disease prevention and health promotion. Current research encompasses mental health services, immigrant health, and global health. Specific projects explore the mental health needs of individuals in extreme and unusual environments and communities impacted by natural and manmade disasters; cultural explanatory models of mental illness and service use; evaluation of academic–community research practice partnerships; and the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for delivery of mental health services to children, adolescents, and underserved populations. He also provides expertise to students and colleagues in the use of qualitative and mixed research methods. Among his scholarly achievements are the Antarctic Service Medal by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Navy; deputy chief officer of the Life Sciences Standing Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research; chair of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute’s External Advisory Council; and membership on committees of the NRC, NAS, and the IOM. Dr. Palinkas is an elected Fellow of the American Anthropological Association and Society for Applied Anthropology.

Carol E. H. Scott-Conner, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A., is a professor in the department of surgery at the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Scott-Conner received her undergraduate training in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and worked as an engineer before attending medical school at New York University (NYU). She received her M.D. from NYU, where she completed a residency in surgery. After leaving NYU, she joined the faculty at Marshall Universi-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

ty, and then moved to the University of Mississippi. During her tenure there she earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Kentucky, and an M.B.A. In 1995, she became professor and head of surgery at the University of Iowa. Dr. Scott-Conner has been active on 22 editorial boards, and has authored more than 200 original papers, abstracts, reviews, and book chapters. She is certified by the National Board of Medical Examiners and the American Board of Surgery and has a Certification of Added Qualifications in Surgical Critical Care. Dr. Scott-Conner has served on a number of IOM committees and chairs the IOM Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments.

Michael A. Silverstein, M.D., M.P.H., recently retired from his post as the assistant director for industrial safety and health in the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries after directing the state’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program for 10 years. Dr. Silverstein is currently a clinical professor of environmental and occupational health at the University of Washington School of Public Health. Dr. Silverstein also held positions in the Washington State Department of Health as state health officer and epidemiologist and spent 2 years in Washington, DC, as director of policy for OSHA. For 15 years before this, he was assistant director for occupational health and safety with the United Automobile Workers Union in Detroit. Dr. Silverstein has practiced family and occupational medicine in Michigan and California. He has degrees from Harvard University, Stanford Medical School, and the University of Michigan School of Public Health. He is board certified as a specialist in occupational medicine. Dr. Silverstein has been an active member of several professional associations, including the American Public Health Association, where he served as chair of the occupational safety and health section, and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, where he was a member of the Ethics Committee. He spent 2 years as chair of the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health. He has authored numerous scientific research and policy articles, including recent publications on the regulatory process, the aging workforce, the future of OSHA, and asbestos cancer risk assessment. Dr. Silverstein has served on several IOM panels, including the Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Environments, the Committee on NASA’s Research on Human Health Risks, the Committee to Review NASA’s Space Flight Standards, the Committee to Review the National Institute for Occupa-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

tional Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research program, the Committee on the Health and Safety Needs of Older Workers, the Committee on Health and Safety Implications of Child Labor, and the Transportation Research Board Committee on Offshore Windfarm Worker Safety.

Ronald E. Turner, Ph.D., is a Distinguished Analyst at Analytic Services Inc. He has more than 25 years of experience, including expertise in space physics, life science systems, and space policy. He is the senior science advisor to the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Program. He is also an internationally recognized expert in radiation risk management for astronauts, particularly in response to solar storms, and he has frequently been an invited speaker to describe radiation risk management strategies. He has participated in several NRC studies of radiation risk management for exploration missions, both as panelist and as a reviewer, including Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration, Managing Space Radiation Risks in the New Era of Space Exploration, Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk (reviewer), and NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, Human Health and Exploration Systems (panelist). He was on the Advisory Council to the National Space Biomedical Research Institute Center for Acute Radiation Research. He led a NASA Office of the Chief Engineer study to understand NASA’s requirements for operational space weather support. He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, and also belongs to the American Geophysical Union and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He has a Ph.D. in nuclear/particle physics from the Ohio State University and M.S. and B.S. from the University of Florida.

R. Leonard Vance, Ph.D., J.D., is an associate professor in the Center for Environmental Studies at Virginia Commonwealth University. His research interests include exposure monitoring of environmental and occupational contaminants in workers, law and regulation of chemicals, applied industrial hygiene, asbestos and lead control, and engineering controls for toxic substances. From 1982 to 1986, Dr. Vance served as the director of health standards for OSHA. From 1976 to 1982, he served as the Assistant Attorney General of Virginia. Dr. Vance received a Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from the University of Virginia and his law degree from the University of Richmond. He is a licensed professional

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×

engineer and is board certified in industrial hygiene, safety, and hazardous materials management.

Gregory R. Wagner, M.D., is senior advisor to the director of NIOSH and adjunct professor of environmental health at Harvard School of Public Health. He recently returned to NIOSH after serving as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health. While at NIOSH, Dr. Wagner directed the Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, served as Associate Director for Mining, and coordinated a public research priority-setting process resulting in the National Occupational Research Agenda that guided U.S. research for a decade. He served on the Ethics Committee that rewrote the code of ethics for the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, chaired the Ethics Committee of the American Thoracic Society, and also helped develop the original Code of Ethics for the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. He previously served as a medical officer in the National Health Service Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service in rural West Virginia. A graduate of Harvard College and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Dr. Wagner has both taught and practiced internal and public health/occupational medicine, and is board certified in both fields.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities, and Decision Framework. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18576.
×
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Since its inception, the U.S. human spaceflight program has grown from launching a single man into orbit to an ongoing space presence involving numerous crewmembers. As the U.S. space program evolves, propelled in part by increasing international and commercial collaborations, long duration or exploration spaceflights - such as extended stays on the International Space Station or missions to Mars - become more realistic. These types of missions will likely expose crews to levels of known risk that are beyond those allowed by current health standards, as well as to a range of risks that are poorly characterized, uncertain, and perhaps unforeseeable. As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Congress discuss the next generation of NASA's missions and the U.S. role in international space efforts, it is important to understand the ethical factors that drive decision making about health standards and mission design for NASA activities.

NASA asked the Institute of Medicine to outline the ethics principles and practices that should guide the agency's decision making for future long duration or exploration missions that fail to meet existing health standards. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight identifies an ethics framework, which builds on the work of NASA and others, and presents a set of recommendations for ethically assessing and responding to the challenges associated with health standards for long duration and exploration spaceflight.As technologies improve and longer and more distant spaceflight becomes feasible, NASA and its international and commercial partners will continue to face complex decisions about risk acceptability. This report provides a roadmap for ethically assessing and responding to the challenges associated with NASA's health standards for long duration and exploration missions. Establishing and maintaining a firmly grounded ethics framework for this inherently risky activity is essential to guide NASA's decisions today and to create a strong foundation for decisions about future challenges and opportunities.

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