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REFERENCE COPY FOR LIBRARY USE ONLY WORKSHOP ON BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE Summary Report, Jakarta, Indonesia PROPERTY OF March 13-14, 1986 / NAS MAR <o Jointly sponsored by Indonesian National Research Council Government of the Republic of Indonesia and Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs National Research Council United States of America Order from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161 Order No.. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C 1986
LOJ NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by 'vat? the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are (7 i drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. These proceedings have been prepared by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council, for the Mission to Indonesia, U.S. Agency for International Development, under Contract No. ASB-0333-L-00-5161-00. Copies are available from: Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 USA Residents of Indonesia should request copies directly from: National Research Council (DRN) Office of the Minister of State for Research and Technology Jl. Veteran III P.O. Box 3761 Jakarta 10110, INDONESIA
PREFACE In 1985, the National Research Council of Indonesia (DRN) invited the Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) to join it in sponsoring a workshop on the application of biotechnology to agricultural development. This workshop was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, March 13-14, 1986. The primary objectives of the workshop were to exchange information and experience on applying biotechnology to agriculture, to discuss how the present state of and future prospects for biotechnology could lead to increased agricultural production in Indonesia, and to set priorities for the application of biotechnology to agriculture in four areas: embryo transfer and animal production, plant cell and tissue culture, biological nitrogen fixation, and bioconversion of agricultural by-products. Agricultural development has high priority in Indonesia. It is key to fulfilling the basic needs of its people and providing prosperity for the country. Such development faces great challenges, however, since the demand for food--in relation to both quantity and quality-- continues to rise. The tremendous amount of existing agricultural by-products, now underutilized, could be used to produce food, feed, and other industrial products. Particular attention was given in the workshop to the industrial potential of products that may arise from the application of biotechnology as well as how to increase agricultural output. Attention was focused not only on near-term prospects, but also on the longer term which will be affected by the use of biotechnological techniques. These activities were one activity in a larger program of cooperation between BOSTID and the Indonesian government. Begun in 1968, this program has featured a series of workshops on food policy, industrial and technological research, natural resources, rural productivity, manpower planning, and marine algae biotechnology. BOSTID's participation has been supported in the context of a science and technology loan from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to the government of Indonesia. The current two-year program with BOSTID calls for a number of activities (panel discussions, workshops, follow-up activities, or small advisory groups) to be organized each year. -iii-
ORGANIZATION OF THE WORKSHOP This workshop was organized by the National Committee for Biotechnology of the Office of the Minister of State for Research and Technology under the sponsorship of the Indonesian National Research Council. Prior to the workshop, a one-day visit was made to the Marihat area to meet with officials of the oil palm estate, research center, and palm oil factory located there. The next two days were spent in the Bogor area visiting officials of Bogor Agricultural University, staff of the Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, several dairy farms, as well as Tapos, the personal farm of President Suharto. All of these site visits were arranged by the staff of the Biotechnology Organizing Committee. Dr. A. M. Satari, on behalf of the steering committee, convened the workshop in plenary session on the morning of March 13 (see Appendix A). Mr. Richard A. Cobb, chief of the Office of Agriculture and Rural Development of the USAID Mission in Indonesia, commented on the timeliness of these discussions given that biotechnology will likely become the foundation of a new revolution in agricultural research and development through the remainder of the century (see Appendix B). Dr. Doddy A. Tisna Amidjaja, vice-chairman of the DRN, officially opened the workshop on behalf of Dr. B. J. Habibie, minister of state for research and technology and chairman of the DRN. He then described the long relationship between Indonesia and the U.S. National Research Council. He indicated that Indonesia's future development will depend heavily on its ability to use science and technology effectively, especially in the utilization of its endowment of natural as well as human resources. He expressed his hope that recommendations from this workshop would focus on program priorities, research and development needs, and manpower development (see Appendix C). Papers prepared for the workshop compose Part I of this report. During the workshop, participants broke into four working groups which addressed the four specific areas of concern: embryo transfer and animal production, plant cell and tissue culture, plant nitrogen fixation, and bioconversion of agricultural by-products. On March 14, the conclusions and recommendations of the four working groups were presented by the chairperson of each group. Dr. Charles C. Muscoplat, chairman of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) panel, spoke on behalf of his U.S. colleagues about the various steps needed for Indonesia to further develop its capability in biotechnology. His comments are included in Part III of this report. The workshop agenda and a list of the participants are included as Appendixes D and E, respectively. This workshop report was prepared by Rose Bannigan of the BOSTID staff using papers written by the Indonesian and NRC workshop participants. The papers have been edited to eliminate duplication, but they accurately reflect the discussions. The final draft was reviewed and approved by the members of the NRC panel and the Indonesian organizing committee. Sabra Bissette Ledent, BOSTID consultant, edited the report. -iv-
Participants would like to acknowledge the valuable contribution of the workshop's organizing committee to the final arrangements for the workshop as well as to the site visits to Marihat and Bogor. The organizing committee was chaired by Dr. Haryanto Dhanutirto. Special thanks is due to Ir. Oestara Wiradinata, director of Utama PT Perkebunan, and his colleagues for receiving the visitors to the oil palm estate and industry and for their generous hospitality. Appreciation is also extended to officials at Tapos for hosting the visit to their cattle breeding experiment station. Finally, the participants would like to thank the members of the workshop secretariat for the excellent organization of the workshop. The secretariat was under the supervision of Drs. Jana Anggadiredja. -v-
CONTENTS PART I PART II PART III OVERVIEW 1 National Policy on Biotechnology in Indonesia 3 Didin S. Sastrapradja Assistant II Minister for Research and Technology/ Chairman, National Committee on Biotechnology Biotechnology in Agriculture 8 Charles C. Muscoplat Chairman, NRC Panel, and President, Molecular Genetics, Inc. The Biotechnology Initiative in North Carolina 12 Richard J. Patterson President, North Carolina Biotechnology Center WORKING GROUP REPORTS 17 Embryo Transfer and Animal Production 19 Plant Cell and Tissue Culture 35 Plant Nitrogen Fixation 46 Bioconversion of Agricultural By-products 54 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 85 General Recommendations of the NRC Panel 87 Charles C. Muscoplat Chairman, NRC Panel Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations 90 of the Working Groups -vii-
APPENDIXES 97 A Report of the Biotechnology Steering Committee 99 A. M. Satari, Deputy Chairman B Opening Remarks 101 Richard A. Cobb Chief, Office of Agriculture and Rural Development, USAID Mission in Indonesia C Keynote Address 104 Doddy A. Tisna Amidjaja Vice-Chairman, Indonesian National Research Council D Workshop Agenda 108 E Workshop Participants 110 -viii-