Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
PART III Conclusions and Recommendations
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE NRC PANEL Charles C. Muscoplat Chairman, NRC Panel The intensive sessions and field trips held with the Indonesian team members and their leaders during this five-day workshop gave the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) panel an excellent opportunity to observe firsthand the capabilities and ongoing projects in the agricultural biotechnology area. This included a stop in central Sumatra where the panel visited a palm oil estate to observe their research activities, as well as a palm oil factory. Visits were also made to Bogor Agricultural University, the Food Research Institute in Bogor, and several dairy farms. The latter included a dairy in a small village as well as experimental research farms such as Tapos. These visits allowed the U.S. panelists to meet with their Indonesian colleagues undertaking research in the four areas of biotechnology that were considered by this workshop: embryo transfer and animal production, plant cell and tissue culture, plant nitrogen fixation, and bioconversion of agricultural by-products. In general, the NRC panel found these individuals to be highly motivated, industrious, tenacious, and, within the limits of their training, very capable. Indeed, the work that these scientists are currently undertaking has provided an excellent training ground for sharpening individual skills. Present capabilities--though limited by the inadequate number of personnel, levels of training, research materials, and laboratory facilitiesâare nonetheless sufficient to undertake important projects and make significant contributions to the progress of the Indonesian economy. To maximize this potential, however, a number of aspects need considerable strengthening. The general recommendations of the NRC panel are listed below. These recommendations are supported by the observations and findings of the working groups, whose specific recommendations follow. 1. In the area of applied agricultural research, a priority-setting mechanism involving both scientists and policymakers should be established to allocate resources correctly. The criteria for setting priorities might include: nature of the problem, economic impact, human impact, technical feasibility within desired time frame, available scientific physical and human resources, environmental factors, and international or national factors. The objectives selected for each priority should be limited, and significant effort should be focused on each - 87 -
- 88 - priority to ensure success. The panel noted that some of the working groups tended to attempt too many diverse projects, thereby diluting efforts to nonproductive levels. 2. Given the relative lack of equipment, laboratory space, and operating capital in the areas the team visited, the panel strongly suggests establishing incentives for collaboration among laboratories to solve common problems. Such incentives should provide for intellectual collaboration, as well as sharing of equipment, supplies, and even facilities. Research grants or equipment can be provided to those groups demonstrating the strongest collaborative program. Research at universities and educational institutions should compete equally with research in other agencies of the government such as the Ministry of Agriculture. The panel believes that over the long term Indonesia must be self-sufficient in providing for training of human intellectual resources. Thus, it is important that agricultural educational institutions receive a significant opportunity for either greater direct financial support or access to facilities, equipment, and human resources via collaboration with other government agencies or the private sector. 3. Because it understands the difficulty of traveling to foreign scientific meetings and the scarcity of literature, the panel recommends that a program of organized scientific exchange be established within Indonesia to provide a forum for collaboration and communication. Such a program may resemble the beginnings of a scientific society. The panel noted that many of the individuals attending the workshop had never had the occasion to meet together except under informal circumstances. The cost of establishing such a scientific interaction would not be great, but the benefits would be substantial. 4. The panel was concerned that the various scholarship programs are burdened with lengthy administrative procedures which can discourage young scientists. Every attempt should be made to streamline the granting of scholarships to deserving students for training abroad. In addition, funds should be sought to support these young scientists and their research while their papers are being processed. We understand that often these individuals cannot afford to wait until the scholarships are awarded. Thus, their services are lost to the research community.
- 89 - A task force should be established to initiate a grants program through the Indonesian National Research Council and to solicit monies such as PL 480 funds for research and collaboration in Indonesia.
SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE WORKING GROUPS EMBRYO TRANSFER AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION 1. Establish priority-setting mechanisms and reasonable, quantitative goals for an embryo transfer and animal production program. 2. Inventory current skills and needs to facilitate making recommendations for future training. 3. Establish by the end of calendar year 1986 an embryo transfer and animal production working group consisting of relevant disciplines. This working group will promote embryo transfer technologies and related biotechnologies as a step toward establishing an inventory, promoting conservation, and improving germ plasm. The germ plasm should then be made available to the end users. This group must meet at least two to three times each year to discuss priorities, results, and manpower allocations. It should propose future manpower needs and training areas and establish collaboration or joint research programs with other countries. The working group should also be responsible for establishing a center to disseminate information on the progress and priorities of research in this area. Such an information center could also promote the sharing of resources and facilities and help establish appropriate collaboration. 5. Establish a national center for embryo transfer and animal production. PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE 1. Establish a mechanism for determining which research and crops should have highest priority and for monitoring research progress. 2. Before research is begun, determine who will use the research results and establish relationships that facilitate the transfer and use of results. - 90 -
- 91 - 3. Provide support and infrastructure to promote research collaboration among universities, government laboratories, and the private sector. Benefits would include rapid progress and minimal duplication. Support is needed in the form of annual professional meetings held in-country, travel funds to permit participation in meetings, and receipt of scientific journals. 4. Hold meetings of the Indonesian plant cell and tissue culture working group at least once each year to review research results, establish new objectives in this area, and review manpower needs. 5. Continually assess manpower needs so that appropriate training both in Indonesia and abroad is provided in a timely manner. 6. Promote increased cooperation between Indonesian and U.S. experts to advise on graduate research, conduct short-term training programs, and exchange ideas and observations. 7. Invite experts from U.S. companies to assist in preparations for large-scale plant production. 8. Explore the possibility of obtaining research grants for work in plant cell and tissue culture and crop improvement. U.S. experts could be involved in the review of proposals and the progress of funded research. 9. Establish criteria for evaluating projects such as the following: o Name of crop o Total value of crop: Monetary value per hectare? Calorie content? Protein content? For animal or human consumption? Export commodity or for domestic use? o Objectives (e.g., plans to breed for drought resistance)? o Amount of time needed for research to accomplish objective? o Resources needed to initiate and accomplish objectives (e.g., personnel, equipment, supplies)? o Which researchers, government organizations, or private enterprises will use the results of successful research? o Is R&D being undertaken elsewhere, either in-country or abroad? PLANT NITROGEN FIXATION 1. Obtain the two most crucial kinds of government support needed to develop and sustain qualified researchers: o Two- to three-year grants to cover the cost of "housekeeping" operations (i.e., ordinary chemicals, glassware, and minor equipment). The lack of such grants currently prevents researchers, particularly at universities, from making reasonably productive use of their training and abilities.
- 92 - o Funding for a national scientific and technical library. The present informational problems are extremely serious, but they could be solved rather inexpensively through establishment of a single national technical library that provides rapid mail distribution of photocopies of title pages of incoming materials and free copies of entire chapters or articles when requested. 2. Establish a government agency to monitor the quality of microbial inoculants provided to farmers and to conduct rigorous tests of inoculant effectiveness. In addition, initiate a system for distributing quality-controlled inoculum to the estates and farms that need it. 3. Consider regional production of inoculant to minimize transportation constraints that might shorten its shelf life. 4. Open inoculant production to private enterprise interested in the venture. 5. Develop existing facilities at the best-equipped institutions so that they can function as culture collection centers. 6. Organize a core group representing the different disciplines supporting biological nitrogen fixation. The group should meet periodically to exchange scientific information (research progress and prospects, constraints), identify relevant research, and establish priorities. In addition, a scientific meeting on nitrogen fixation should be held annually and funds made available for all researchers in this area to attend. 7. Emphasize those areas of plant nitrogen fixation that would have an immediate impact. For example: o Development of microbial inoculants for agriculture includes the question of biocontrol of plant pests and disease and the area of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Given the heavy independence of Indonesia on trees, it would be quite simple and extremely cost-effective to inoculate every seedling with an appropriate mycorrhizal fungus. This step could provide direct economic benefits in addition to those of tissue culture cloning quickly and inexpensively. o Plant pests and diseases routinely cause 15-30 percent losses in crop yields in most countries. Because chemical methods for pest and disease control require expensive imports, the development of inexpensive, locally grown microorganisms for use as biocontrol agents would be a clearly desirable research project.
- 93 - 8. For adequate support of future research and development in biological nitrogen fixation and agricultural microbiology, rapid development of the following scientific disciplines is needed: microbial physiology and molecular genetics, general and plant biochemistry, plant physiology, breeding, and plant molecular genetics and soil sciences. 9. To strengthen current scientific cadres, include departments of microbiology and biochemistry in the leading Indonesian universities. In addition, improve the existing curricula for the undergraduate training for scientists and to produce qualified technicians. 10. Arrange further Indonesia-U.S. cooperation in biological nitrogen fixation through joint cooperative research which could be of mutual benefit and executed in either the United States or Indonesia. This cooperation would involve scientists from both countries, as well as the assistance of U.S. experts. These experts would function as research counterparts; review, evaluate, or direct research; and conduct short courses on specific laboratory techniques. BYCONVERSION OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS 1. Establish a clearinghouse to exchange and provide information on the bioconversion of agricultural by-products. 2. Undertake training of a substantial number of scientists in the various disciplines underlying biotechnology to meet the manpower requirements of the R&D programs as well as the production activities. Qualified technicians must be trained as well. Training in some of these disciplines could be provided by some of the leading universities in Indonesia, but training in molecular biology, biochemistry, and biochemical engineering, for example, must be sought overseas. Priority should be given to training bachelor degree-level problem solvers, particularly chemical engineers who can design and operate pilot facilities and commercial plants. An estimate of the minimal manpower requirements for developing programs in single-cell protein, enzymes, antibiotics, steroid compounds, and vitamins is shown in Table 1. 3. In the meantime, mobilize the available experts to start work on programs that will eventually expand when more manpower and facilities are made available. An on-the-Job training program should be initiated in the overall framework of technology transfer. 4. Equip existing research laboratories, government institutes, and universities with the basic instruments needed to conduct R&D
â¢H O > o U CO â¢H *j cn S3 52 Â£3 < w ?i 0) -U 11 ca * 5 -H I 1 S H rH H n - f-n g1 C- r r o \O H n a- ^ \o rH en CD 3 <n n CN Â§ n II vo OJ (M vo CM OJCM H I 1 ju 4J & - U3C SC Â£w Â±j tn 'H o CO Q â¢a Â£ â¢â¢ i 5 ^ g J 9 a> x 4J <4-l Qj a n D
- 95 - programs in biotechnology. When expensive equipment is required, it should be placed at a central location. This could include the equipment needed for pretreatment*, product recovery, and a complete fermentation pilot plant. 5. Improve the existing bioindustries--such as those for the production of alcohol, citric acid, and monosodium glutamate--in terms of process technology and strain improvement. 6. Formulate a plan for developing the strategic bioindustries that would enhance national resilience in the fields of food and animal feed, health, and essential basic chemicals. An example of integrated utilization of straw or other cellulosic by-products to produce useful materials through biotechnology is shown in Figure 1. 7. Establish rules and regulations for genetic manipulation. 8. At least once each year hold a meeting of the working group on the bioconversion of agricultural by-products to discuss priorities and results. Individuals working together on a specific project should meet at least four times a year. Animal feed Mood chips Rice, strew, and hulls Palm kernels Sugarcane bagasse Coconuts SCP feed supplements Cellulosics _^_Â«_ pretreatttent (Phase IA) Crude 1 palm oil I Soyb Supercritical extraction technology (Supercritical amoonia, etc.) Beta-carot and vitami 4- 1 1 ene 4^ a A ^ Soy oil (Phase II) i Coconut oil 1 Enzymatic celluloalcs â - â â T Enzymatic | hydrolyaia starch i Â£_ hydrolysis . lulases 1 \ i Amylases^ f>* *~f~ ~~ \ Biosugar syru| I Fe rmentat ion \ (Phase IB) Vitamin Steroids â¢12 Antibiotics Penicillin Tetracycline Streptomycin Erythromycia J Oral contraceptives Coffee ecaffeinaced coffee and caffeine Cassava FIGURE 1 Scheme showing the production of chemicals froa agricultural by-productE.
APPENDIX A Report of the Biotechnology Steering Committee A. M. Satari, Vice Chairman Deputy Chairman for Basic and Applied Sciences, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology It is both a pleasure and an honor for me, as chairman of the workshop steering committee, to extend a sincere welcome to all of you honoring us with your presence at the opening of this Workshop on Biotechnology in Agriculture. Our warm greetings and appreciation go especially to the participants from the United States as well as from Indonesia who will share their invaluable knowledge, experiences, and ideas during our two-day discussions. This workshop is one of many cooperative activities held by the U.S. National Research Council and the Indonesian National Research Council since the Symposium on Potential Indonesia-U.S. Collaboration in Science and Technology was held in Washington, D.C., in October 1983. One of the priorities recommended at that symposium was a cooperative program in biotechnology and related fields. This is the second workshop held on this subject; the Workshop on Marine Algae Biotechnology was held December 11-13, 1985. At that meeting, matters related to the cultivation, processing, and marketing of marine algae were discussed, and joint recommendations were made to the Indonesian government. The present workshop will focus on four topics: 1. Animal breeding with emphasis on embryo transfer 2. Plant cell and tissue culture 3. Plant nitrogen fixation 4. Bioconversion of agricultural by-products. The discussions will begin in plenary session, and meetings of the working groups will follow. It is expected that the discussion of each topic will include R&D programs, the application of biotechnology and its priorities, feasible U.S.-Indonesia cooperation in its implementation, and education and training. Members of the Workshop Steering Committee were Didin S. Sastrapradja, Chairman; Haryanto Dhanutirto; A. A. Loedin; K. H. Kho; Setiati D. Sastrapradja; Susono Saono; A. M. Satari; Sediono M. P. Tjondronegoro; Charles C. Muscoplat; and Rose Bannigan. - 99 -
- 100 - We invited about 50 persons to participate in this workshop--six participants from the United States and 44 from Indonesia. Freworkshop visits have also been organized, permitting the participants to observe the existing facilities and obtain firsthand information from scientists in the respective fields. Visits were made to Medan on March 10 to observe the activities at Marihat Research Station, to Bogor on March 11 to meet scientists at Bogor Agricultural University and to look at their experimental research activities, and to Tapos on March 12 to visit the cattle breeding experiment station. Even though these activities represent only a few of those being developed in Indonesia, we hope that participants obtained an overview of the efforts being made to apply biotechnological methods in this country. The steering committee is fully aware of the long road ahead before Indonesia can make optimal use of the newly discovered methods of biotechnology engineering. It is therefore our sincere hope that this workshop makes a significant contribution to speeding up biotechnological development in Indonesia by suggesting concrete and feasible recommendations for actions. Finally, allow me to take this opportunity to officially extend our gratitude and appreciation to the U.S. National Research Council for their support, to the U.S. and Indonesian participants for their active participation, to the Office of the Minister of State for Research and Technology, to the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, to the secretary and his staff of the Indonesian National Research Council, to the organizing committee, and to all those who in one way and another have made this workshop possible.
APPENDIX B Opening Remarks Richard A. Cobb Chief, Office of Agriculture and Rural Development, USAID Mission in Indonesia The U.S. Agency for International Development [USAID] is particularly pleased to support this cooperative program of the Indonesian National Research Council and the U.S. National Research Council. We believe that the first workshop held last December on the biotechnology of marine algae was a success, and we look forward to the outcome of this workshop. USAID has been supporting agricultural research in Indonesia for the past 10 years, and it will continue projects on food crops and agricultural research through the next decade. This discussion of biotechnology in agricultural research is very timely, because biotechnology will likely become the foundation of a new revolution in agricultural research and development through the remainder of the century. Looking back to the 1960s, the "green revolution" paved the way for substantial increases in crop production. It was, however, limited to a few crops and showed the greatest yield increases in irrigated areas. The effects of the green revolution, which relied on the traditional plant breeding techniques, were largely achieved by the mid-1970s. Over the past 10 years, there have been additional attempts to apply the agricultural practices built around high-yielding varieties in the small holder sector. Special attention has been given to research and extension through research on farming systems. Some necessary and important work is taking place, but the strides forward in farming research have been very modest to date. Biotechnology, particularly the work in molecular biology that led to the techniques of plant cell and tissue culture, offers some remarkable possibilities. For example, tissue culture is becoming increasingly important as a way of increasing the speed and efficiency of germ plasm evaluation. It can expand vastly the geographic sphere of adaptable cereal grain varieties, particularly in areas where soil or rainfall is marginal. In addition, biotechnology is applicable to any living organism and opens up an entire range of crops that traditional breeding cannot accommodate. Clearly, biotechnological advances in agriculture offer possibilities that surpass what has been possible from the green revolution and farming systems research. There are, however, some implications of biotechnological research and application that differ significantly from those of the green - 101 -
- 102 - revolution. The most important of these has to do with the respective roles of private capital and public agencies. The major advances in the life sciences are now on the verge of being commercialized. Four important areas of technological change that will affect global agriculture--plant genetic manipulation, industrial tissue culture, genetically engineered animal products, and use of genetically manipulated microorganisms to produce or displace agricultural products--have occurred as a result of heavy investment by agricultural genetic engineering firms in several countries. In particular, major investments have been made by petrochemical and pharmaceutical companies in seed-related technologies, cloning of disease-resistant potatoes, soybean and cotton breeding, animal production, tomatoes, tobacco, and forest products. In comparison with green revolution technologies, the instrumentation, facilities, and, most important, the personnel required for biotechnological R&D and production are relatively expensive. This, combined with the fact that there is a broad range of areas over which biotechnology appears to be commercially exploitable, means that the private sector--transnational corporations--will have a large role in both the development and production of biotechnologies in the future. At the same time, it is likely that the international agricultural research centers, which were the centerpiece of the green revolution, will have a diminished role. Fiscal austerity has limited the ability of international centers to expand beyond their conventional plant breeding programs. Thus, biotechnology, particularly cell and tissue culture, is essentially transferring agricultural activities to the factory. What are the implications for Indonesia? The effect of biotechnology on agricultural production could be profound. Transnational pharmaceutical and chemical companies, genetic research firms, and university laboratories are pursuing the development of bioengineered plant crop varieties across the spectrum of world crops. Research presently under way in the following areas has direct relevance to Indonesia: varietal improvement; achievement of nitrogen fixation in nonleguminous crops; enhancement of photosynthetic activity; manipulation of growth regulators; improved stress tolerance to drought, salinity, acidity, and other soil conditions; and pest and pathogen resistance. The development of varieties that use water more efficiently will enable marginal areas to become more productive without recourse to expensive irrigation. Achievement of nitrogen fixation in rice or maize could greatly reduce subsidies for fertilizer. Pest-resistance characteristics would lower the cost of chemical inputs. These possibilities present far-reaching consequences for the development of agriculture in the eastern islands of Indonesia. In addition, forest species presently being genetically engineered for rapid growth would have important implications for soil stabilization and erosion control problems in many upland areas of the country. The use of biotechnology presents some challenges, however. I will mention three. First, the transition from science to commercialization will have to be made in Indonesia as elsewhere. Investments in biotechnology are being stimulated by demand in the marketplace.
- 103 - The relationship between the consumer and biotechnological development will therefore have to be clearly drawn and understood. This means linkages with commercial expertise for market analysis, training, and attention to quality control and reliable levels of output. Recommendations were made in these areas following the marine algae workshop in December. Specific recommendations and follow-up actions from this workshop will also be important. Second, over the long term there are questions of equity. The development of biotechnology is market driven. Thus, corporations are investing heavily because they can sell the products of technologies. Indonesia will have to deal with the question of how the benefits of biotechnology, both employment opportunities and the application of the science, can be spread as widely as possible to help the unskilled workers and small-scale farmers in less-advantaged areas of the country. Third, there is a question of the proper role of the Indonesian public sector--namely, the agricultural research community--in biotechnological research. Many institutions are involved: BPPT [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology], LIPI [Indonesian Institute of Sciences], AARD [Agency for Agricultural Research and Development], and the universities. How should the role of these organizations change? What investments are necessary? What actions need to be taken by the government to assure that public technology transfer programs meet the agricultural production goals of the country? We look forward not only to the report of this workshop but also to the application of its deliberations. Please accept my best wishes for a very successful workshop.
APPENDIX C Keynote Address Doddy A. Tisna Amidjaja Vice-Chairman, Indonesian National Research Council Allow me to first convey a message of deep regret from the chairman of the Indonesian National Research Council, Dr. B. J. Habibie, who also serves as our minister of state for research and technology, for not being able to be with us today. He had to attend to urgent matters in Europe. He expressed, however, his very keen interest in the topics and issues to be discussed, and he would appreciate being informed in detail about the outcome of the discussions. On his behalf and as part of my function as vice-chairman of the Indonesian National Research Council, I have the privilege and pleasure of joining the previous speakers in extending our heartfelt welcome to all of you honoring us with your presence at the opening of this Workshop on Biotechnology in Agriculture. My warm greetings and appreciation especially go to our U.S. guests and eminent scholars, who will share their invaluable experience, knowledge, wisdom, and ideas with their Indonesian counterparts during this two-day meeting. As reported by the chairman of the steering committee, the organization of this workshop is within the framework of a long-standing cooperative arrangement between the U.S. National Research Council and Indonesian scientific institutions and constitutes one of a series of its endeavors. Thus, it is probably beneficial that we recall at this juncture the earlier cooperative scientific endeavors between the U.S. National Research Council and Indonesia, with the hope that this refreshed awareness of our past fruitful meetings will evoke in the coming two-day scientific dialogues a heightened vivacity. In the spirit of the planned and well-programmed national development of Indonesia's new order, we consider the 1968 Workshop on Food, sponsored by the U.S. National Research Council and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, an important milestone in this long-standing scientific relationship. The findings of that workshop played an important role as a source of reference in the formulation of a food policy for Indonesia's first five-year development plan (REPELITA I, 1969-1974). In later years, workshops on industrial research, natural resources, rural productivity, etc., were followed up by many activities. I would like to mention especially the November 1982 Panel Discussions on Science and Technology Planning and Forecasting for Indonesia: Special Emphasis on Manpower Development. These - 104 -
- 105 - discussions were jointly sponsored by the Indonesian Ministry of State for Research and Technology, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences [LIPI], and the Board on Science and Technology for International Development of the U.S. National Research Council. These panel discussions produced important recommendations on biotechnology and agro-industry which should be considered by this workshop as a baseline in formulating realistic development strategies in view of the current prevailing economic climate of the country. This climate exerts a strong influence on the financial and budgetary policies for development programs in the current REPELITA, with an extended recovery time likely to reach a "takeoff" condition that will accelerate implementation of development programs in the following REPELITAs. In August 1983, the Workshop on Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Research and Technology in Indonesia was held, followed in October 1983 by a symposium on potential Indonesia-U.S. collaboration in science and technology. The most recent workshop, as reported by the steering committee, addressed marine algae biotechnology and was held in December 1985. I also had the honor of opening that meeting. The continuing growth of Indonesia during these last two decades has undeniably meant more welfare and progress for the country as a whole. Some dominant factors, however, that sustain the livelihood of society--such as population increases and the rational management and utilization of natural resources--are not yet fully under control, because the prerequisites and infrastructure have not yet been fully met. Indonesia's future development will depend heavily on its ability to use science and technology effectively, especially in the utilization of Indonesia's endowments of natural as well as human resources. To quote Dr. Habibie: "Our natural and human resources have to undergo value-added processes, to be turned into high-value economic commodities and highly competent productive professionals and skilled citizens." It is true that Indonesia, through constant intensive and extensive efforts and many years of planning and hard work on the agronomic as well as organizational aspects, has finally in this fourth five-year development plan achieved self-sufficiency in rice production. Its stability has not been proven, however, and there are still many factors prevailing in all phases of the agricultural process that must be improved and established. Indeed, the current five-year development plan (1984-1989) continues to stress the agricultural sector, emphasizing industries to process raw materials. It also promotes industries that produce machinery for agricultural and agro-industries and for light and heavy industries. In the meantime, the price of oil is dropping. Thus, more emphasis has been placed on increasing the production of non-oil commodities, especially for export purposes, which requires that they be competitive and of high quality. The use of national products is also being urged. The rapid development of biotechnology in the developed countries has demonstrated a considerable impact on different industries. At the same time, while certain nuclei exist in several Indonesian scientific
- 106 - institutions, the Indonesian government has issued directives that biotechnology should be developed to sustain agro-industries, health care and pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and biomass conversion. In fact, biotechnology was used early in Indonesia's civilization in, for example, the production of kecap (soya sauce), tempe. and brem (Balinese wine). The products urgently needed now from biotechnology, however, range from enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and certain chemicals to biomaterials such as frozen embryos, which are for the most part imported. We are aware that Indonesia has enough raw materials to fulfill her own needs only if we can master biotechnology. It is understood, however, that certain prerequisites and the infrastructure for its development must be established to realize this wish. At present, research and development activities aimed at some aspects of biotechnology are growing in research institutions, universities, and certain laboratories of private industries. A limited research staff with specialization in related fields of science that sustain biotechnology--biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, and embryology, for example--is available. Furthermore, certain techniques have been mastered in several laboratories, such as tissue culture and certain sophisticated biochemical procedures and biological manipulation. These institutions are also attempting to send potential staff abroad for training in selected techniques or for academic studies in the field of biotechnology. The Indonesian government is making efforts to stimulate the growth of research and development and the application of biotechnology in Indonesia. An interdepartmental committee has been established by the minister of state for research and technology to formulate a strategy for the development of biotechnology in Indonesia. The construction of integrated facilities has been initiated in Cibinong. To support this planned Center for Biotechnology, LIPI is sending a number of staff abroad for training courses and academic studies in various disciplines that will support this program on biotechnology in the future. Indeed, the watchword in biotechnological development is well-functioning, effective coordination among institutions, especially universities, national research laboratories, and industries. Programs should be established not only in the institution-building phase (that is, manpower and facility development), but for all the operations as well. Moreover, in addition to the common facilities of the biotechnology center, networks of laboratories and research groups should be established among the interuniversity centers and national laboratories. The recommendation made at the above-mentioned 1982 panel discussions regarding manpower training, the establishment of a Crop/Agro-biotechnology Industrial Center (CABIC), and a food resource development plan should be stressed further. It is our sincere hope that this workshop will make concrete, feasible recommendations for the immediate application of biotechnological development to agriculture in Indonesia. In this respect, the steering committee has chosen four topics that we think are the most important in this area. The recommendations made will, it is hoped, include program priorities and manpower development needs as well as follow-up Indonesia-U.S. cooperation in these fields. Even
- 107 - though the world economy is at present not too promising, we must plan realistically in our joint effort for contingencies by having available rational alternatives. I would like to take this opportunity to join the chairman of the steering committee in extending our gratitude and appreciation to the government of the United States, the government of Indonesia, the U.S. National Research Council, the Office of the Minister of State for Research and Technology, the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, the steering and the organizing committees, and all those who made this workshop possible. I would also like to thank the speakers, the session's chairpeople, and the participants for taking part in this workshop.
Thursday. March 13 Morning Coffee APPENDIX D Workshop Agenda Opening Ceremony Report of the Steering Committee A. M. Satari Deputy Chairman for Basic and Applied Sciences, BPPT Remarks Richard A. Cobb Chief, Office of Agriculture and Rural Development, USAID Mission in Indonesia Keynote Address Doddy A. Tisna Amidjaja Vice-Chairman, Indonesian National Research Council Overview National Policy on Biotechnology in Indonesia Didin S. Sastrapradja, Assistant II Minister for Research and Technology/Chairman, National Committee on Biotechnology Biotechnology in Agriculture Charles C. Muscoplat, Chairman, NRG Panel, and President, Molecular Genetics, Inc. The Biotechnology Initiative in North Carolina Richard J. Patterson, President, North Carolina Biotechnology Center Lunch - 108 -
- 109 - Afternoon Friday. March 14 Morning Lunch Afternoon Group Discussions Embryo Transfer and Animal Production Mozes Tulihere, Chairperson Mr. Sunartono Adisumarto, Rapporteur Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Gustaaf A. Wattimena, Chairperson Mrs. Livy Winata Gunawan, Rapporteur Plant Nitrogen Fixation Goeswono Soepardi, Chairperson Ratna Siri Hadioetomo, Rapporteur Bioconversion of Agricultural By-products Indrawati Gandjar, Chairperson Saraswati, Rapporteur Continuation of Working Group Meetings Plenary Session Summary of Recommendations and Conclusions Chairpersons of each Working Group Comments by Chairman of the NRG Panel Charles C. Muscoplat Closing Remarks A. M. Satari
APPENDIX E Workshop Participants STEERING COMMITTEE A. M. Satari, Chairman Didin S. Sastrapradja A. A. Loedin Kho Kian Hoo Sediono M. P. Tjondronegoro Setijati D. Sastrapradja Susono Saono Haryanto Dhanutirto Charles C. Muscoplat Rose Bannigan U.S. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL PANEL Charles C. Muscoplat, Chairman Wolfgang D. Bauer Robert M. Busche Anthony J. Faras Richard J. Patterson Rose Bannigan, Staff Officer WORKING GROUPS Embryo Transfer and Animal Production Chairperson: Mozes Tulihere (IPB) Rapporteur: Sunartono Adisumarto (LBN-LIPI) Participants: A. A. Loedin (Dep. Kesehatan) Djokowuryo S. (IPB) Yuhara Sukra (Debdikbud) Harimurti (IPB) Sri Sudarwati (ITB) Komang (Unair) Ida Kusumah (BPPT) Yan Nari (R&D Agriculture) - 110 -
- Ill - U.S. Panelists: Lien Sutasurya (ITB) Reviany Widjayahusumah (IPB) Anthony J. Faras Charles C. Muscoplat Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Chairperson: Rapporteur: Participants: U.S. Panelist: Gustaaf A. Watimena (IPB) Livy Winata Gunawan (IPB) E. Noerhadi (ITB) Moeso Soeryowinoto (UGM) Setiati D. Sastrapradja (LBN-LIPI) Usep Sutisna (LBN-LIPI) Thardi (R&D Agriculture) Gale Ginting (PTP VII) Richard J. Patterson Plant Nitrogen Fixation Chairperson: Rapporteur: Participants U.S. Panelist: Goeswono Soepardi (IPB) Ratna Siri Hadioetomo (IPB) Yoedoro Soedarsobno (UGM) Ibrahim Manwan (R&D Agriculture) Susono Saono (LBN-LIPI) Soetarjo Brotonegoro (Marif) M. Ismunadji (R&D Agriculture) Jutono (UGM) Wolfgang D. Bauer Bioconversion of Agricultural By-products Chairperson: Rapporteur: Participants: U.S. Panelist: Indrawati Gandjar (BPPT) Saraswati (BPPT) A. M. Satari (BPPT) Muhammad Wirahadikusumah (ITB) Triadi Basuki (LBN-LIPI) Purwo Arbianto (ITB) Ibrahim S. (ITB) Sumpeno Putro (R&D Agriculture) Robert M. Busche Mobile Members: Didin S. Sastrapradja (LIPI/Ristek) Sediono M. P. Tjondronegoro (DRN/Ristek) Kho Kian Hoo (BPPT/Ristek) Haryanto Dhanutirto (BPPT/Ristek) Rose Bannigan (U.S. NRC)
- 112 - General Rapporteurs: Susono Saono Charles C. Muscoplat ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Chairman: Haryanto Dhanutirto (BPPT/Ristek) Secretary: Jana Anggadiredja (BPPT/Ristek) Members: Rachmaniar Rachmat (BPPT) Moch Mochtar (Ristek) Sawedi (BPPT) Dadang A. Permadi (Ristek) Titi Marpaung Be. Hk. (LIPI) Sri Wahyuni Sh. (LIPI) Sutarjo (Ristek) Ratna Wulan (BPPT/DRN) Abdul Firman (BPPT) R. Sukmaya (BPPT) Indang Wahyurini (Ristek) Asti Suryani (Ristek) Budi Minerva (Ristek) Notulis: Nelson Simanungkalit (BPPT) Daya Pamudji (BPPT) Hasni Muchtar (BPPT) Puspo Wardoyo (BPPT) Patna Chandra (BPPT) Poyaningsih (BPPT) Sadjuga (BPPT) Donowati (BPPT) OTHERS Iman Suripto Desmond O'Riordan Edi Setianto Richard A. Cobb Doddy A. Tisna Amidjaja Jusdy Achmad Rum Husen Mochtar Machful Wardiman Djojonegoro
S 494.5 .8563 W7 1986 c.1 Workshop on biotechnology in agriculture S 494.5 .B563 W7 1986 c. 1