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Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault (2014)

Chapter: Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Appendix D


Selected Surveys Measuring Rape:
An Overview

This appendix presents details, compiled by the panel, for eight surveys that have measured rape. Five of the surveys are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6:

•   National Crime Victimization Survey

•   National Women’s Study

•   National Violence Against Women Study

•   National College Women Sexual Victimization Study

•   National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey

The other three surveys are not discussed in the report:

•   National Survey of Inter-Gender Relationships

•   National Women’s Study: Replicate

•   Campus Sexual Assault Study

The material for each begins with a table that details the design and estimate(s). For most of the surveys, a second table shows the concepts and descriptions used in the survey. These one or two tables are followed by selected other information, such as the questions used.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-1 National Crime Victimization Survey: Design and Estimates

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, N (age range) Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
Panel: Every 6 months for up to seven interviews over a 3-year period Housing units in the United States/ stratified, multistage cluster design Wave 1 interview is face to face; remaining ones are through decentralized telephone interview whenever feasible Criminal victimization
n ≅ 80,000 households for each year n

≅ 145,000 persons for each year*
First interview used for bounding purposes until 2006; since that time, the Census Bureau has included the first interview in the estimates with a special adjustment for potential telescoping
(All household members ages 12 and older)
Proxy interviews included

*Number of households and persons interviewed changes slightly from year to year.
SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (2008b).

NATIONAL CRIME VICTIMIZATION SURVEY

The National Crime Victimization Survey is an ongoing survey of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (see Chapter 4). Table D-1 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-2 shows the survey’s concept and its description. Following these two basic tables are excerpts from the victimization and incident screen questions.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Forms of Sexual Victimization Operationalization
Type(s) Definitions Measurement Process (reference frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Rape: completed, attempted, verbal threat Two stages: (1) victimization screening questions and (2) incident report Multiple items with short cues used Responses from multiple items used Annual rates per 1,000 persons ages 12 and older
Sexual assault: including verbal threats (In past 6 months)
Hierarchical scoring procedure used in incident report to classify type of victimization, if any, that occurred

TABLE D-2 National Crime Victimization Survey: Concept and Description

Concept Description
Rape and attempted rape Rape includes psychological coercion as well as physical force. Forced sexual intercourse means vaginal, anal, or oral penetration by the offender(s). It also includes incidents where the penetration is from a foreign object. It includes attempted rapes, male as well as female victims, and both heterosexual and homosexual rape. Attempted rape includes verbal threats of rape.
 
Sexual assault Sexual assault included in this category includes a wide range of victimizations, separate from rape or attempted rape. These crimes include attacks or attempted attacks generally involving unwanted sexual contact between victim and offender. Sexual assaults may or may not involve force and include such things as grabbing or fondling. Sexual assault also includes verbal threats.

SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-b).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

Example of Victimization Screen Question and Incident Screen Questions

image

SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d).

image

SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

image

SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d).

image

SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-3 National Women’s Study: Design and Estimates

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, Sample Size, Age Range Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
3-year longitudinal Probability sample Telephone interview Preamble to questions:
Two stages: (1) geographic regions; (2) Random digit dialing to select households within each area Wave 1: Initial interview Wave 2: 1-year follow-up “Women do not always report such experiences to police or discuss them with family or friends.”
n = 2,008 a cross-section of all adult women (ages 18 and older) Wave 3: 2-year follow-up
n = 2,000 an over sample of younger women between the ages of 18 and 34

SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick, Edmunds, and Seymour (1992).

NATIONAL WOMEN’S STUDY

The National Women’s Study, supported by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, was conducted in 1989-1990 (see Chapter 5). Table D-3 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-4 shows the survey’s concept and its description. They are followed by the questions used in the survey.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Forms of Sexual Victimization Operationalization
Type(s) Measurement Process (reference frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Forceful rape Single stage Four single items Percentage
Behaviorally specific Estimated counts
(Lifetime prevalence of rape)
(The past year prevalence of rape)

TABLE D-4 National Women’s Study: Concept and Description

Concept Description
Forcible rape Rape was defined as “an event that occurred without the woman’s consent which involved the use of force or threat of force, and involved sexual penetration of victim’s vagina, mouth or rectum.”
 
  The critical elements of forcible rape:
1. use of force or threat of force
2. lack of consent, and
3. sexual penetration.

SOURCE: Kilpatrick, Edmunds, and Seymour (1992).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

Survey Questions

This study was designed to ask American women provocative, personal questions in order to leave no doubt or confusion as to the definition of forcible rape. The questions themselves were difficult to ask—and equally difficult for women to answer—but they provide clear answers for the first time to the critical elements of forcible rape:

image   Use of force or threat of force;

image   Lack of consent; and

image   Sexual penetration

Here are questions asked in The National Women’s Survey:

“…Women do not always report such experiences to police or discuss then with family or friends. The person making the advances isn’t always a stranger, but can be a friend, boyfriend, or even a family member. Such experiences can occur anytime in a woman’s life—even child, Regardless of how long ago it happened or who made the advances…”

image   Has a man or boy ever made you have sex by using force or threatening to harm you or someone close to you? Just so there is no mistake, by sex we mean putting a penis in your vagina.

image   Has anyone ever made you have oral sex by force or threat of harm? Just so there is no mistake, by oral sex, we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your mouth or somebody penetrated your vagina or anus with his mouth or tongue.

image   Has anyone ever made you have anal sex by force or threat of harm?

image   Has anyone ever put fingers or objects in your vagina or anus against your will by using force or threat?”

SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick, Edmunds, and Seymour (1992).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

NATIONAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN STUDY

The National Violence Against Women Study was mandated by Congress in the 1994 Violence Against Women Act (see Chapter 5). It was conducted in 1995 under the joint sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Table D-5 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-6 shows the survey’s concept and its description. They are followed by the questions used in the survey.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-5 National Violence Against Women Study: Design and Estimates

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, Sample Size, Age Range Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
Cross-section Probability sample Two stages: (1) census regions; (2) random digit dialing to select households within each area Telephone interview using computer-assisted telephone interviewing; used all female interviewers Personal safety
n = 8,000 a cross-section of all adult women (ages 18 and older)
n = 8,005 a cross-section of all adult men (ages 18 and older)

SOURCE: Data from Tjaden and Thoennes (2000).

TABLE D-6 National Violence Against Women Study: Concept and Description

Concept Description
Forcible rape Rape was defined as “an event that occurred without the victim’s consent, which involved the use of force or threat of force, and involved sexual penetration of victim’s vagina, or anus by penis, tongue, fingers, or object, or the victim’s mouth by penis. The definition included both attempted and completed rape.”
 
 

The critical elements of forcible rape:

1. use of force or threat of force

2. lack of consent, and

3. sexual penetration.

SOURCE: Data from Tjaden and Thoennes (2000).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Form of Sexual Victimization Operationalization
Type Measurement Process (reference frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Completed and attempted forcible rape Single stage Behaviorally specific Five single items Single-stage classification process, with no separate incident report Percentage Estimated counts
(Lifetime prevalence of rape)
(The past year prevalence of rape)
(12-month incidence rates)

SURVEY QUESTIONS:

•   [Female respondents only] Has a man or boy ever made you have sex by using force or threatening to harm you or someone close to you? Just so there is no mistake, by sex we mean putting a penis in your vagina.

•   Has anyone, male or female, ever made you have oral sex by using force or threat of force? Just so there is no mistake, by oral sex we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your mouth or someone, male or female, penetrated your vagina or anus with their mouth.

•   Has anyone ever made you have anal sex by using force or threat of harm? Just so there is no mistake, by anal sex we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your anus.

•   Has anyone, male or female, ever put fingers or objects in your vagina or anus against your will or by using force or threats?

•   Has anyone, male or female, ever attempted to make you have vaginal, oral, or anal sex against your will but intercourse or penetration did not occur?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-7 National College Women Sexual Victimization Study:

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, Sample Size, Age Range Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
Cross-section 2-year and 4-year colleges and universities Computer-assisted telephone interviewing system Unwanted sexual experiences that women may encounter during college
Two stages: (1) stratified institutions by total student enrollment and location of school;
(2) randomly selected women enrolled in selected institutions
Number of institutions, 233
n = 4,446

SOURCE: Data from Fisher et al. (2000).

Other questions were included regarding physical assault, stalking, victim-perpetrator relationship, and the characteristics and consequences of violence.

SOURCE: Data from Tjaden and Thoennes (2000).

NATIONAL COLLEGE WOMEN SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION STUDY

The National College Women Sexual Victimization Study was conducted in 1997, supported by the National Institute of Justice (see Chapter 5). Table D-7 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-8 shows the survey’s concept and its definitions. They are followed by the detailed questionnaire used in the survey.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Form of Sexual Victimization Operationalization
Type(s) Measurement Process (reference frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Rape (completed, attempted) Two stages: (1) behaviorally specific screen questions; (2) detailed incident report Multiple behaviorally specific screen questions (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22) Responses to multiple items about type of completed, attempted, and threatened acts, penetration and physical contact; physical force used or threatened with physical force Percentage Estimated counts
Sexual coercion (completed, attempted) Sexual contact with force or without force (completed, attempted) Threats of each of the above
(Since school began in fall 1996)
Hierarchical scoring procedure used in incident report to classify type of crime, if any, that occurred

TABLE D-8 National College Women Sexual Victimization Study:

Concept Definitions
Completed Rape Unwanted completed penetration by physical force or the threat of physical force. Penetration includes penile-vaginal, mouth on your genitals, mouth on someone else’s genitals, penile-anal, digital-vaginal, digital-anal, object-vaginal, and object-anal.
 
Attempted Rape Unwanted attempted penetration by force or the threat of force.
 
Threat of Rape Threat of unwanted penetration with force and threat of force.

NOTE: For other types of sexual violence: see https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/182369.pdf (pp. 6-8) [September 2013].
SOURCE: Data from Fisher et al. (2000).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION SCREEN QUESTIONS

Women may experience a wide range of unwanted sexual experiences in college. Women do not always report unwanted sexual experiences to the police or discuss them with family or friends. The person making the advances is not always a stranger. but can be a friend, boyfriend, fellow student, professor, teaching assistant, supervisor, co-worker, somebody you met off campus, or even a family member. The experience could occur anywhere on- or off-campus, in your residence, in your place of employment, or in a public place. You could be awake, or you could be asleep, unconscious, drunk, or otherwise incapacitated. Please keep this in mind as you answer the questions.

Now. I’m going to ask you about different types of unwanted sexual experiences you may have experienced since school began in the Fall 1996 Because of the nature of unwanted sexual experience, the language may seem graphic to you. However, this is the only way to assess accurately whether or not the women in this study have had such experiences. You only have to answer “yes” or “no”.

7. Since school began In the Fall 1996 has anyone made you have sexual intercourse by using force or threatening to harm you or someone close to you? Just so there is no mistake, by intercourse I mean putting a penis in your vagina.

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

8. Since school began in the Fall 1996. has anyone made you have oral sex by force or threat of harm? By oral sex I mean did someone’s mouth or tongue make contact with your vagina or anus or did your mouth or tongue make contact with someone else’s genitals or anus.

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

9. Since school began in the Fall 1996. has anyone made you have anal sex by force or threat of harm? By anal sex, I mean putting a penis in your anus or rectum.

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

Data from Fisher et al. (2000).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

10. Since school began in the Fall 1996. has anyone ever used force or threat of harm to sexually penetrate you with a foreign object? By this, I mean for example, placing a bottle or finger in your vagina or anus.

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

CONDITIONAL: IF ANY “YES’ IN Q7-10 CONTINUE, ELSE SKIP TO Q 12.

 
DUMMY: VAGINAL SEX
ORAL SEX
ANAL SEX
PENETRATION WITH OBJECTS
 

11. How many different incidents of forced (DUMMY) have happened to you since school began in FALL 1996?

 
  _________NUMBER OF INCIDENTS
REFUSED……..97
DK………………..98

12. Since school began in Fall 1996, has anyone attempted but not succeeded in making you take pari in any of the unwanted sexual experiences that I have just asked you about? This would include threats that were not followed through. For example, did anyone threaten or try but not succeed to have vaginal, oral, or anal sex with you or try unsuccessfully to penetrate your vagina or anus with a foreign object or finger?

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

CONDITIONAL: IF Q12 EQ 1 CONTINUE, ELSE SKIP TO Q14

13. How many different incidents of unsuccessful attempts or treats of forced sex have happened to you since school began in FALL 1996?

  _________NUMBER OF INCIDENTS
REFUSED……..97
DK………………..98

Data from Fisher et al. (2000).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

14. Not courting the types of sexual contact already mentioned, have you experienced any unwanted or uninvited touching of a sexual nature since school began in the Fall 1996? This includes forced kissing, touching of private parts, grabbing, and fondling, even it is over your clothes. Remember this could include anyone from strangers to people you know well. Have any incidents of unwanted or uninvited touching of a sexual nature happened to you since school began in the Fall 1996?

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

CONDITIONAL: IF Q14 EQ 1 CONTINUE, ELSE SKIP TO Q16

15. How many different incidents of unwanted or uninvited touching of a sexual nature have happened to you since school began in FALL 1996?

 
  _________NUMBER OF INCIDENTS
REFUSED……..97
DK………………..98

16. Since school began in Fall 1996. has anyone attempted or threatened but not succeeded in unwanted or uninvited touching of a sexual nature?

 

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

CONDITIONAL: IF Q16 EQ 1 CONTINUE, ELSE SKIP TO Q18

17. How many different incidents of unwanted or uninvited attempts or threats at touching of a sexual nature have happened to you since school began in FALL 1996?

 
  _________NUMBER OF INCIDENTS
REFUSED……..97
DK………………..98

Data from Fisher et al. (2000).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

18. I have beer asking you about unwanted sexual contact that involved force or threats of force against you or someone else. Sometimes unwanted sexual contact may be attempted using threats of nonphysical punishment, promises of rewards if you complied sexually, or simply continual verbal pressure.

Since school began in Fall 1996, has anyone made or tried to make you have sexual intercourse or sexual contact when you did not want to by making threats of non-physical punishment such as lowering a grade, being demoled or fired from a job, damaging your reputation or being excluded from a group for failure to comply with requests for any type of sexual activity.

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

19. Since school began in the Fall 1996, has anyone made or tried to make you have sexual intercourse or sexual contact when you did not want to by making promises of rewards such as raising a grade, being hired or promoted, being given a ride or class notes, or getting help with coarse work from a fellow student if you complied sexually.

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

20. Since school began in the Fall 1996. has anyone made or tried to make you have sexual intercourse or sexual contact when you did not want to by simply being overwhelmed by someone’s continual pestering and verbal pressure?

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

CONDITIONAL: IF YES IN Q18, Q19 or Q20 ASK Q21, ELSE SKIP TO Q22

21. How many different incidents of non-physical threats, rewards or continual verbal pressure to make you have sexual intercourse or contact have happened to you since school began in FALL 1996?

  _________NUMBER OF INCIDENTS
REFUSED……..97
DK………………..98

Data from Fisher et al. (2000).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

22. Not counting any incidents we have already discussed, have you experienced any other type of unwanted or uninvited sexual contact since school began in the Fall? Remember, this could include sexual experiences that may or may not have been reported to the police or other officials, which were with strangers or people you know, in variety of locations both on- and off-campus, and while you were awake, or when you were asleep, drunks or otherwise incapacitated.

               Yes……………1

               No………………2

                  Not sure…..3

                  Refused……..4

CONDITIONAL; IF YES IN Q22 ASK Q23, ELSE SKIP TO Q24

23. How many different incidents of these other types of unwanted or uninvited sexual contact have happened to you since school began in Fall 1996?

 
  _________NUMBER OF INCIDENTS
REFUSED……..97
DK………………..98

SEXUAL INCIDENT COUNTER

A    NUMBER OF FORCED SEXUAL PENETRATIONS FROM Q 11

B    NUMBER OF ATTEMPTED/THREATENED FORCED SEXUAL PENETRATIONS FROM Q13

C    NUMBER OF SEXUAL TOUCHINGS OR ASSAULTS FROM Q15

D    NUMBER OF ATTEMPTED/THREATENED SEXUAL TOUCHING OR ASSAULT FROM Q17

E    NUMBER OF SEXUAL COERCION OR PRESSURE FROM Q21

F    NUMBER OF OTHER UNWANTED SEXUAL CONTACTS FROM Q23

COMPUTE TOTAL INCIDENTS A-F. IF COUNTER EQ 0, SKIP TO Q24 IF SEXUAL INCIDENT COUNTER IS GREATER THAN ZERO, GO TO INCIDENT REPORT LOOP.

INCIDENT REPORT WILL BE COMPLETED FOR EACH REPORTED INCIDENT BY CATEGORY BEGINNING WITH THE MOST RECENT INCIDENT IN THAT CATEGORY. THERE IS A MAXIMUM OF FIVE LOOPS PER CATEGORY.

Data from Fisher et al. (2000).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

NATIONAL INTIMATE PARTNER AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE SURVEY

The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey is supported by the National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It was first fielded in 2010; the two agencies plan to conduct it on a regular basis (see Chapter 5). Table D-9 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-10 shows the survey’s concept and its definition. They are followed by the victimization questions used in the survey.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-9 The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Design and Estimates

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, Sample Size, Age Range Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
Cross-section Adults in United States (ages 18 and older) Computer-assisted telephone interviewing Health
A dual-frame sampling strategy including both landline and cell phones in 50 states
National random digit dialing
n = 18,049
Male population: 77,814,000
Female population: 139,808,000

SOURCE: Data from Black et al. (2011).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Form of Sexual Victimizations Operationalization
Type Measurement Process (reference frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Rape; completed, forced penetration, attempted penetration, alcohol- or drug-facilitated completed penetration Single stage 21 single items Single-stage classification with no separate incident report Percentages
Behaviorally specific Frequencies
(Lifetime prevalence of rape)
Sexual coercion Unwanted sexual contact (Prevalence of rape in the 12 months prior to taking the survey)
Noncontact unwanted sexual experiences
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-10 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): Concept and Definitions

Concept Definitions
Rape Rape is defined as any completed or attempted unwanted vaginal (for women), oral, or anal penetration through the use of physical force (such as being pinned or held down, or by the use of violence) or threats to physically harm and includes times when the victim was drunk, high, drugged, or passed out and unable to consent. Rape is separated into three types: completed forced penetration, attempted forced penetration, and completed alcohol-or drug-facilitated penetration.
—Among women, rape includes vaginal, oral, or anal penetration by a male using his penis. It also includes vaginal or anal penetration by a male or female using his or her fingers or an object.
—Among men, rape includes oral or anal penetration by a male using his penis. It also includes anal penetration by a male or female using his or her fingers or an object.
 
Sexual coercion Sexual coercion is defined as unwanted sexual penetration that occurs after a person is pressured in a nonphysical way. In NISVS, sexual coercion refers to unwanted vaginal, oral, or anal sex after being pressured in ways that included being worn down by someone who repeatedly asked for sex or showed they were unhappy; feeling pressured by being lied to, being told promises that were untrue, or having someone threaten to end a relationship or spread rumors; and sexual pressure due to someone using his or her influence or authority.
 
Unwanted sexual contact Unwanted sexual contact is defined as unwanted sexual experiences involving touch but not sexual penetration, such as being kissed in a sexual way or having sexual body parts fondled or grabbed.
 
Noncontact unwanted sexual experiences Noncontact unwanted sexual experiences are those unwanted experiences that do not involve any touching or penetration, including someone exposing his or her sexual body parts, flashing, or masturbating in front of the victim, someone making a victim show his or her body parts, someone making a victim look at or participate in sexual photos or movies, or someone harassing the victim in a public place in a way that made the victim feel unsafe.

SOURCE: Data from Black et al. (2011).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

Victimization Questions

Sexual Violence

How many people have ever…

•   exposed their sexual body parts to you, flashed you, or masturbated in front of you?

•   made you show your sexual body parts to them? Remember, we are only asking about things that you didn’t want to happen.

•   made you look at or participate in sexual photos or movies?

How many people have ever…

•   harassed you while you were in a public place in a way that made you feel unsafe?

•   kissed you in a sexual way? Remember, we are only asking about things that you didn’t want to happen.

•   fondled or grabbed your sexual body parts?

When you were drunk, high, drugged, or passed out and unable to consent, how many people ever…

•   had vaginal sex with you? By vaginal sex, we mean that {if female: a man or boy put his penis in your vagina}

•   {if male: a woman or girl made you put your penis in her vagina}?

•   {if male} made you perform anal sex, meaning that they made you put your penis into their anus?

•   made you receive anal sex, meaning they put their penis into your anus?

•   made you perform oral sex, meaning that they put their penis in your mouth or made you penetrate their vagina or anus with your mouth?

•   made you receive oral sex, meaning that they put their mouth on your {if male: penis} {if female: vagina} or anus?

How many people have ever used physical force or threats to physically harm you to make you…

•   have vaginal sex?

•   {if male} perform anal sex?

•   receive anal sex?

•   make you perform oral sex?

•   make you receive oral sex?

•   put their fingers or an object in your {if female: vagina or} anus?

•How many people have ever used physical force of threats of physical harm to…

•   {if male} try to make you have vaginal sex with them, but sex did not happen?

•   try to have {if female: vaginal} oral, or anal sex with you, but sex did not happen?

•How many people have you had vaginal, oral, or anal sex with after they pressured you by…

•   doing things like telling you lies, making promises about the future they knew were untrue, threatening to end your relationship, or threatening to spread rumors about you?

•   wearing you down by repeatedly asking for sex, or showing they were unhappy?

•   using their authority over you, for example, your boss or your teacher?

SOURCE: Data from Black et al. (2011).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

NATIONAL SURVEY OF INTER-GENDER RELATIONSHIPS

The National Survey of Inter-Gender Relationships was supported by the Antisocial and Criminal Behavior Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health. It was conducted in 1984-1984 as a self-report questionnaire to a national sample of students enrolled in 32 institutions of higher education across the United States. Table D-11 presents details about its design and estimates. It is followed by the detailed questionnaires used in the survey.

TABLE D-11 The National Survey of Inter-Gender Relationships: Design and Estimates

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, Sample Size, Age Range Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
Cross-section Probability sample of 4-year colleges and universities Self-report questionnaire Sexual experience survey

Two stages: (1) selection of institution; (2) selection of classes within institutions

n = 6,159 students

Female: 3,187

Male: 2,972

Mean age of male: 21.0

Mean age of female: 21.4

SOURCE: Data from Koss, Gidycz, and Wisniewski (1987).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Form of Sexual Victimization Operationalization
Type Measurement Process (time frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Sexual contact (by verbal coercion, misuse of authority, threat or force) One stage: behaviorally specific Multiple single items Sexual Single-stage classification with no separate Percentage Frequencies Mean (SD)
Attempted intercourse (by force, alcohol, or drugs) (From age 14) (Last school year) contact (items 1, 2, 3) Attempted rape (items 4, 5) incident report
Sexual coercion (intercourse by verbal coercion, misuse of authority, alcohol or drugs, threat or force) Hierarchical scoring procedure
Sexual coercion (items 6, 7)
(In the past
Rape (oral or anal penetration by threat or force) 12 months)
(Lifetime prevalence of rape) Rape (items 8, 9, 10)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

SEXUAL BEHAVIORS

1.   Have you given in to sex play (fondling, kissing, or petting, but not intercourse) when you didn’t want to because you were overwhelmed by a man’s continual arguments and pressure?

2.   Have you had sex play (fondling, kissing, or petting, but not intercourse) when you didn’t want to because a man used his position of authority (boss, teacher, camp counselor, supervisor) to make you?

3.   Have you had sex play (fondling, kissing, or petting, but not intercourse) when you didn’t want to because a man threatened or used some degree of physical force (twisting your arm, holding you down, etc.) to make you?

4.   Have you had a man attempt sexual intercourse (get on top of you, attempt to insert his penis) when you didn’t want to by threatening or using some degree of force (twisting your arm, holding you down, etc.), but intercourse did not occur?

5.   Have you had a man attempt sexual intercourse (get on top of you, attempt to insert his penis) when you didn’t want to by giving you alcohol or drugs, but intercourse did not occur?

6.   Have you given in to sexual intercourse when you didn’t want to because you were overwhelmed by a man’s continual agruments and pressure?

7.   Have you had sexual intercourse when you didn’t want to because a man used his position of authority (boss, teacher, camp counselor, supervisor) to make you?

8.   Have you had sexual intercourse when you didn’t want to because a man gave you alcohol or drugs?

9.   Have you had sexual intercourse when you didn’t want to because a man threatened or used some degree of physical force (twisting your arm, holding you down, etc.) to make you?

10. Have you had sex acts (anal or oral intercourse or penetration by objects other than the penis) when you didn’t want to because a man threatened or used some degree of physical force (twisting your arm, holding you down, etc.) to make you?

SOURCE: Data from Koss, Gidycz, and Wisniewski (1987).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

NATIONAL WOMEN’S STUDY—REPLICATE

The National Women’s Study—Replicate was conducted in 2006 with support from the National Institute of Justice. The results were published in Kilpatrick et al. (2007). Table D-12 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-13 shows the survey’s concept and its description. They are followed by the list of screening questions used in the survey.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-12 National Women’s Study-Replication: Design and Estimates

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, Sample Size, Age Range Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
Cross-section Two groups: (1) General population, adult-household residing women living in United States/random digit dialing methods Telephone survey—computer-assisted telephone interviewing Unwanted sexual advances
n = 3,001 (ages 18 to 86 years; with younger women oversampled, mean = 46.6)
(2) Adult women enrolled in 4-year institutions of higher education in United States/classification of sample by nine regions and sample released to be dialed in proportion to the national census representation of college women
n = 2,000; n = 253 different schools (ages 18 to 67 years, mean = 20.1)

SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Form of Sexual Victimization Operationalization
Type(s)/ Definitions Measurement Process (reference frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Drug- and alcohol-facilitated rape Incapacitated rape Single stage
Behaviorally specific
See following pages For one reported incident or if more than one, most recent Lifetime and 2005 annual prevalence estimates for U.S. population of women, and separately for college women
Forcible rape (Lifetime and past year prevalence of rape)
Estimates for total rape, forcible rape, drug- and alcohol-facilitated rape, and incapacitated rape
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-13 National Women’s Study-Replication: Concept and Description

Concept Description*
Drug-and alcohol-facilitated rape Drug- and alcohol-facilitated rape (DAFR) is when the perpetrator deliberately gives the victim drugs without her permission or tries to get her drunk, and then commits an unwanted sexual act against her involving oral, anal, or vaginal penetration. The victim is passed out or awake but too drunk or high to know what she is doing or to control her behavior.
 
Incapacitated rape Incapacitated rape (IR) is unwanted sexual act involving oral, anal, or vaginal penetration that occurs after the victim voluntarily uses drugs or alcohol. The victim is passed out or awake but too drunk or high to know what she is doing or to control her behavior.
 
Forcible rape Forcible rape (FR) is unwanted sexual act involving oral, anal or vaginal penetration. The victim also experiences force, threat of force, or sustains an injury during the assault. In cases where FR includes elements of DAFR, incident categorized as DAFR.

*By definition, DAFR and IR are mutually exclusive.
SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

LIST OF RAPE SCREENING QUESTIONS USED IN THE INTERVIEW

Our interviewers read, “Many women tell us they have experienced unwanted sexual advances at some point during their lives. Women do not always report such experiences to police or discuss them with family or friends. Such experiences can happen anytime in a woman’s life—even as a child. The person making these unwanted advances can be friends, boyfriends, co-workers, teaching assistants, supervisors, family members, strangers, or someone they just met. The person making the unwanted sexual advances can be male or female…. Regardless of how long ago it happened or who made the unwanted sexual advances:

1.   Has a man or boy ever made you have sex by using force or threatening to harm you or someone close to you? Just so there is no mistake, by having sex, we mean putting a penis in your vagina.

2.   Has anyone, male or female, ever made you have oral sex by force or threatening to harm you? So there is no mistake, by oral sex, we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your mouth or someone penetrated your vagina or anus with their mouth or tongue?

3.   Has anyone ever made you have anal sex by force or threatening to harm you? By anal sex, we mean putting their penis in your anus or rectum.

4.   Has anyone ever put fingers or objects in your vagina or anus against your will by using force or threatening to harm you?

Some women tell us they have had sex when they didn’t want to because they were very high, intoxicated, or even passed out because of alcohol or drugs. We would like to ask you about these types of experiences you might have had. Again, we are interested in these experiences regardless of how long ago it happened, who did it, or whether or not it was reported to police.

1.   Has anyone ever had sex with you when you didn’t want to after you drank so much alcohol that you were very high, drunk, or passed out? By having sex, we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your vagina, your anus, or your mouth?

2.   Has anyone ever had sex with you when you didn’t want to after they gave you, or you had taken enough drugs to make you very high, intoxicated, or passed out? By having sex we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your vagina, your anus, or your mouth?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

Sample of follow-up questions asked upon endorsement of one or more screeners:

•   Were you physically forced to engage in these acts?

•   Did the person or persons who did this to you threaten to hurt you or someone else if you did not do what they wanted?

•   Had you ever seen the person who did this to you before?

•   Did you know the person fairly well or not?

•   Had you consumed any drugs or alcohol at the time of the incident(s)?

•   When this happened, did the incident involve only alcohol use on your part, only drug use on your part, or some use of both alcohol and drugs?

•   When this happened, did you drink the alcohol because you wanted to, did the person(s) who had sex with you deliberately try to get you drunk, or both?

•   When this happened, did you take the drugs because you wanted to, did the person(s) who had sex with you deliberately give you drugs without your permission, or both?

•   When this incident happened were you passed out from drinking or taking drugs?

•   When this incident happened were you awake but too drunk or high to know what you were doing or control your behavior?

•   Did you suffer serious physical injuries, minor injuries, or no physical injuries as a result of the incident?

•   Did this incident involve oral penetration, anal penetration, or vaginal penetration?

For full questionnaire, see http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/studies/20626.

SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT STUDY

The Campus Sexual Assault Study was conducted in 2006 with support from the National Institute of Justice. The results were published in Krebs et al. (2007). Table D-14 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-15 shows the survey’s concept and its description. These data are followed by the questions used in the survey and the classification procedure.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-14 Campus Sexual Assault Study: Design and Estimates

Design Data Collection
Research Design Population/ Sampling Design, Sample Size, Age Range Mode of Administration Framing of Survey Context
Cross-section Undergraduate students enrolled at least three quarters time during 2005-2006 academic year at two large public universities Web-based survey Nonconsensual or unwanted sexual contact experience
Probability sample
Total n = 5,446
Males: n = 1,375 Females: n = 5,446
(ages 18-25)

SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×
Form of Sexual Victimization Operationalization
Type(s) Measurement Process (reference frame) Screen Question(s) Incident Question(s) Estimate
Physically forced sexual assault One stage: behaviorally specific items Responses from multiple items used Single-stage classification with no separate incident report Percentages Frequencies
Incapacitated sexual assault (Before you began college)
(Since you began college)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

TABLE D-15 Campus Sexual Assault Study: Concept and Descriptions

Concept Description(s)
Physically forced sexual assault Physically forced sexual assault includes assaults occurring when the victim was forced or threatened with force into sexual contact.
Forced touching of a sexual nature (forced kissing, touching of private parts, grabbing, fondling, rubbing up against you in a sexual way, even if it is over your clothes).
Oral sex (someone’s mouth or tongue making contact with your genitals or your mouth or tongue making contact with someone else’s genitals).
Sexual intercourse (someone’s penis being put in your vagina).
Anal sex (someone’s penis being put in your anus).
Sexual penetration with a finger or object (someone putting their finger or an object like a bottle or a candle in your vagina or anus).
 
Incapacitated sexual assault Assaults occurring when a victim is unable to provide consent or stop what is happening because she is passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep.

Alcohol or other drug–enabled sexual assault, a subset of incapacitated assault, occurs when the victim is incapacitated after voluntarily consuming alcohol and/or drugs.

Drug-facilitated sexual assault, another subset of incapacitated assault, occurs when the victim is incapacitated after being given a drug without her knowledge or consent.

SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

Part 1. Interview Questions Used in Sexual Assault Classification

This section of the interview asks about nonconsensual or unwanted sexual contact you may have experienced. When you are asked about whether something happened since you began college, please think about what has happened since you entered any college or university. The person with whom you had the unwanted sexual contact could have been a stranger or someone you know, such as a family member or someone you were dating or going out with.

These questions ask about five types of unwanted sexual contact:

image   forced touching of a sexual nature (forced kissing, touching of private parts, grabbing, fondling, rubbing up against you in a sexual way, even if it is over your clothes)

image   oral sex (someone’s mouth or tongue making contact with your genitals or your mouth or tongue making contact with someone else’s genitals)

image   sexual intercourse (someone’s penis being put in your vagina)

image   anal sex (someone’s penis being put in your anus)

image   sexual penetration with a finger or object (someone putting their finger or an object like a bottle or a candle in your vagina or anus.

The questions below ask about unwanted sexual contact that involved force or threats of force against you. Force could include someone holding you down with his or her body weight, pinning your arms, hitting or kicking you, or using or threatening to use a weapon against you.

  Before you began college Since you began college
Has anyone had sexual contact with you by using physical force or threatening to physically harm you? image   Yes
image   No

[V9]*
image   Yes
image   No

[V3]
Has anyone attempted but not succeeded in having sexual contact with you by using or threatening to use physical force against you? image   Yes
image   No

[V10]
image   Yes
image   No

[V4]

SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

The next set of questions ask about your experiences with unwanted sexual contact while you were unable to provide consent or stop what was happening because you were passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep. These situations might include times that you voluntarily consumed alcohol or drugs and times that you were given drugs without your knowledge or consent.

  Before you began college Since you began college
Has someone had sexual contact with you when you were unable to provide consent or stop what was happening because you were passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep? This question asks about incidents that you are certain happened. image   Yes
image   No

[V11]
image   Yes
image   No

[V5]
Have you suspected that someone has had sexual contact with you when you were unable to provide consent or stop what was happening because you were passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep? This question asks about events that you think (but are not certain) happened. image   Yes
image   No

[V12]
image   Yes
image   No

[V6]

[If V3=yes] Earlier you indicated that since you began college, someone has had sexual contact with you by using physical force or threatening to physically harm you. The questions below ask about that experience.

V3b.   When the person had sexual contact with you by using or threatening you with physical force, which of the following happened? Please check all that apply.

image   Forced touching of a sexual nature

image   Oral sex

image   Sexual intercourse

image   Anal sex

image   Sexual Penetration with a finger or object

SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

[If V5=yes] Earlier you indicated that since you began college, someone has had sexual contact with you when you were unable to provide consent or stop what was happening because you were passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep. The questions below ask about that experience.

V5b.   [if V5=yes] When the person had sexual contact with you when you were unable to provide consent or stop what was happening because you were passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep, which of the following happened? Please check all that apply.

image   Forced touching of a sexual nature

image   Oral sex

image   Sexual intercourse

image   Anal sex

image   Sexual Penetration with a finger or object

image   Don’t Know

[If V5=yes] The next questions ask more about the time since you entered college that someone had sexual contact with you when you were unable to provide consent or stop what was happening because you were passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep.

C27.   Just prior to (the incident/any of the incidents), had you been drinking alcohol? Keep in mind that you are in no way responsible for the assault that occurred, even if you had been drinking.
image   Yes
image   No

C27a.  [if C27=yes or 99] Were you drunk?
image   Yes
image   No

C28.   Just prior to (the incident/any of the incidents), had you voluntarily been taking or using any drugs other than alcohol?
image   Yes
image   No

C29.   Just prior to (the incident/any of the incidents), had you been given a drug without your knowledge or consent?
image   Yes
image   No
image   Don’t Know

SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview." National Research Council. 2014. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18605.
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Next: Appendix E: Statistical Rationale Behind Some Initial Findings on the Relative Statistical Plausibility of a Multiple-Frame Approach to Estimating the Victimization Rate of Rape and Sexual Assault »
Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault Get This Book
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The Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) measures the rates at which Americans are victims of crimes, including rape and sexual assault, but there is concern that rape and sexual assault are undercounted on this survey. BJS asked the National Research Council to investigate this issue and recommend best practices for measuring rape and sexual assault on their household surveys. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault concludes that it is likely that the NCVS is undercounting rape and sexual assault. The most accurate counts of rape and sexual assault cannot be achieved without measuring them separately from other victimizations, the report says. It recommends that BJS develop a separate survey for measuring rape and sexual assault. The new survey should more precisely define ambiguous words such as "rape," give more privacy to respondents, and take other steps that would improve the accuracy of responses. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault takes a fresh look at the problem of measuring incidents of rape and sexual assault from the criminal justice perspective. This report examines issues such as the legal definitions in use by the states for these crimes, best methods for representing the definitions in survey instruments so that their meaning is clear to respondents, and best methods for obtaining as complete reporting as possible of these crimes in surveys, including methods whereby respondents may report anonymously.

Rape and sexual assault are among the most injurious crimes a person can inflict on another. The effects are devastating, extending beyond the initial victimization to consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, sleep and eating disorders, and other emotional and physical problems. Understanding the frequency and context under which rape and sexual assault are committed is vital in directing resources for law enforcement and support for victims. These data can influence public health and mental health policies and help identify interventions that will reduce the risk of future attacks. Sadly, accurate information about the extent of sexual assault and rape is difficult to obtain because most of these crimes go unreported to police. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault focuses on methodology and vehicles used to measure rape and sexual assaults, reviews potential sources of error within the NCVS survey, and assesses the training and monitoring of interviewers in an effort to improve reporting of these crimes.

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