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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES - NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Established as a private, nonprofit corporation by legislative enactment in 1863, the National Academy of Sciences renders, upon request, advisory services in the fields of the natural sciences and their application to agencies of the Federal Government and to others in programs of research directed toward the national safety or the general public welfare. The National Research Council was estab- lished in 1916 in response to a request by President Wilson that the base of the advisory services undertaken by the Academy be broadened. ADVISORY BOARD ON QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Recognizing the need for independent scientific advice on his research and development program, The Quartermaster General, in 1943, requested advisory services and for this purpose established a formal contract with the Academy-Research Council. To fulfill the terms of this agreement, the Committee on Quartermaster Problems was organized by the National Research Council under the Division of Engineering and Industrial Research. In 1948, the scope of the Quartermaster advisory activity was broadened, and the committee was reorganized as the Advisory Board on Quartermaster Research <md Development. COMMITTEE ON FOODS As one of a number of technical committees organized by the Advisory Board to provide advice in specific areas of Quartermaster research and development, the Committee on Foods functions prin- cipally to counsel the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute on the nature, scope, and conduct of the research and development program directed toward most efficient achievement of its assigned missions. The Committee advises on the placement of specific con- tracts and recommends the type of studies to be conducted under contract with universities and other research institutions to supple- ment the internal program. While organization of the Committee into subcommittees provides a working counterpart for the Institute divisions, special study groups for specific major problems of interest to the Institute are established as required. Recently, at the request of Donald K. Tressler, Scientific Director, Quartermaster Food and Container Institute, the Committee on Foods undertook to conduct, in cooperation with the Institute, symposia in various areas of mili- tary subsistence research. SUBCOMMITTEE ON ANIMAL PRODUCTS Composed of scientists competent in the field of animal products technology, the Subcommittee on Animal Products advises the Animal Products Division of the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute. Members are appointed for three-year terms. The symposium on The Quality and Stability of Canned Meats was conducted with the assistance and cooperation of the Subcommittee.
The Quality and Stability of CANNED MEATS A symposium sponsored by the U.S. QUARTERMASTER FOOD AND CONTAINER INSTITUTE â¢ Â« For the Armed Forces, ( QUARTERMASTER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND U. S. ARMY QUARTERMASTER CORPS Palmer House, Chicago March 31 -April 1, 1953 Edited by Robert G. Tischer, James M. Blair, and Martin S. Peterson QUARTERMASTER FOOD AND CONTAINER INSTITUTE Advisory Board on Quartermaster Research and Development Committee on Foods NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES - NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Washington July 1954
SURVEYS OF PROGRESS ON MILITARY SUBSISTENCE PROBLEMS Available from the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces, 1819 W. Pershing Road, Chicago 9, Illinois Order from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22151 Order No. SERIES I. FOOD STABILITY 1. Contributions of Browning Research to Ration Item Stability 2. Stability of Shortenings in Cereal and Baked Products 3. Stability of Dehydrated Eggs 4. The Quality and Stability of Canned Meats SERIES II. NUTRITION ASPECTS OF RATIONS 1. Nutrition Under Climatic Stress Opinions expressed in the symposium on The Quality and Stability of Canned Meats are those of the individual con- tributors and do not necessarily represent the views of the AcademyâResearch Council or of the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute.
CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION Purpose and Scope of the Symposiumâ 1 D. K. Tressler, Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces The Institute's Program of Investigation on Canned Meats 3 B. W. Gardner, Jr., Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces II. MICROBIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING CANNED MEATS Chemical and Physical Factors Affecting the Thermal Resistance of Bacterial Spores.-â 4 Hiroshi Sugiyama, University of Chicago Factors Causing Sporulation and Vegetation of Spoilage Organisms in Canned Meats 10 O. B. Williams, University of Texas Microorganisms Associated with the Spoilage of Thermal Processed Meats 15 John C. Ayres, Iowa State College Study of the Incidence of Spoilage Organisms in Canned Meat Products Manufactured under Commercial Conditions 26 Charles Gross, John Morrell & Company Winston Ogilvy, Armour & Company III. MODE AND RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER IN CANNED MEATS The Effect of Processing Temperature upon the Rate and Pattern of Heat Distribution within a Can of Beef ,._ 38 Robert G. Tischer, Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces Effect of Ingredient Arrangement on the Rate of Heat : Transfer in Canned Meat Products. 44 C. Olin Ball, Rutgers University Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Can Movement during Thermal Processing 56 James M. Blair and K. T, Swartz, Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces Discussion.. . 66
CONTENTSâContinued IV. CANNED MEATS OF TODAY Why We Need Better Canned Meat Products 82 Major William Levin, Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces V. POTENTIALITIES OF NEW METHODS OF MANUFACTURING Potentialities of Pressurized Manufacturing Facilities for Producing Canned Meat Products 85 Horace L. Smith, Jr., Consulting Engineer, Richmond, Virginia Potentialities of Utilizing a Continuous Type of Process in Conjunction with Aseptic Canning for Production of Canned Meat Products 91 John P. Bolanowski, Girdler Corporation Effectiveness and Potentialities of Dielectric Methods of Heating for the Production of Canned Meat Products 95 D. M. Doty, C. F. Niven, Jr., and Laddie Pircon, American Meat Institute Foundation Technological Information Obtained from Storage Studies on Canned Whole Hams Processed by Intermittent Heat Treatment 100 Joseph M. Stukis and K. T. Swartz, Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces Potentialities of Utilizing Radiation from Fission Materials for the Production of Canned Meat Products 108 L. E. Brownell, University of Michigan Potentialities of Utilizing an Electron Bombardment Treat- ment for the Production of Canned Meat Products 114 S. A. Goldblith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Concluding Discussion 123
PREFACE TO SYMPOSIUM The symposium discussed in this publication was set up to obtain information which would be of value in improving the quality of canned meats being procured for the Armed Forces. The scope of this symposium included the presentation and dis- cussion of scientific and technical data concerning the quality, stability, and acceptability of canned meat products and some important con- siderations of the future development of these products. It brought together scientists from Government, industry, uni- versities, and other institutions and made possible an exchange of information which is useful to all concerned with the problems con- nected with the canning of meats. The papers covered the technical aspects of canning as well as practical discussions on present and new methods of manufacturing. These included the processing of canned meats utilizing standard and improved methods of heat treatment as well as cold sterilization techniques which are now receiving a great deal of attention. This publication should be of interest to anyone concerned with the technology of canned meats and a careful consideration of its con- tents is recommended. C. K. WlESMAN, Manager, Development Department Armour and Company