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Suggested Citation:"Addendum to the Nonhuman Primate Trade in Colombia." National Research Council. 1976. Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation : Proceedings of a Symposium on the Distribution and Abundance of Neotropical Primates. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18666.
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Page 99
Suggested Citation:"Addendum to the Nonhuman Primate Trade in Colombia." National Research Council. 1976. Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation : Proceedings of a Symposium on the Distribution and Abundance of Neotropical Primates. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18666.
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Page 100

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ADDENDUM TO THE NONHUMAN PRIMATE TRADE IN COLOMBIA Nancy A. Muckenhirn The primate trade in Colombia between 1968 and 1970 was described by K. Green based upon figures com- piled by Instituto de Desarrollo de los Recursos Maturates Renovables and the U.S. Department of the Interior (USDI). More recent estimates have ampli- fied our understanding of the trade described in the previous paper. Recent statistics have shown that the proportion of the primate trade used in research in the United States has been underestimated, sizable discrepancies have existed among most estimates of import volumes when they are collected by different methods or agencies, and there has been an overall decline in primate imports during the past 6 years. The recent USDI estimates of primate imports from 1971 and 1972 are presented in Table 1. Colombia supplied more than half of 12 species in at least one of these years, including Alouatta seniculus, A. palliata, Aotus trivirgatus, Ateles belzebuth, A. fusciceps, Callicebus moloch, Cebus albifrons, C. capucinus, C. nigrivittatus, Cebuella pygmaea, Saguinus nigricol- lis, and 5. oedipus. Several hundred Saguinus mystax and a few Callithrix chrysoleuca were also recorded from Colombia, although these species do not originate there. The species exported from Colombia in the largest numbers were squirrel monkeys (5,000-6.000), night monkeys (3,000), Saguinus oedipus (2,000- 2,300), Cebus albifrons (1,300-2,200), and C. capu- cinus (1,000). The estimates cited by Green for neotropical pri- mates used in research were derived from annual surveys by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Re- sources (ILAR). These values were compiled largely from estimates reported by commercial suppliers of their sales to research users. Surveys of primate inventories in research institutions were made in 1971 and 1973 (Thorington, 1971; Muckenhirn, 1975). The inventories are compared to import figures for the corresponding years in Table 1 and are not strictly comparable to the estimates of research use in the earlier ILAR surveys. Muckenhirn (1975) concluded that the research use of primates has been underesti- mated as a result of incomplete sampling of research institutions. In addition, the past estimates of the volume of the pet trade appear to have been unrealisti- cally high, because the estimates of the pet trade have been derived by subtracting the low estimates for research use from total imports and they have not included estimates of sizable dealers' losses during quarantine. The trends in imports of Latin American primates during the past decade are presented in Table 2. The proportion of neotropical primates among total im- ports was 45 percent during the first 3 years of the decade, remained between 53 and 63 percent during the next 6 years, and dropped to 23 percent in 1973. The curtailment by Colombia in 1974 reduced the export volume from that country to 10 percent of the peak 1968 level. This decrease in Latin American imports was largely responsible for the overall decline to 30 percent of their peak 1968 level. The establish- ment of a permit system by INDERENA for exporting primates to research institutions has effectively elimi- nated the pet trade in primates from Colombia. The establishment of export quotas may be expected to 99

100 MUCKENHIRN TABLE 1 Imports and Inventories of Neotropical Primates in the United States TABLE 2 Neotropical United States Primate Imports to the Species I971 Imports 1971 U.S. Research Inventory 1972 Imports 1973 U.S. Research Inventory Alouatta car ay a 18 ^_ 4 A. seniculus 11 — 7 — A. pallia ta 47 — 33 — Aotus trivirgatus 3728 1061 3533 1316 Ateles belzebuth 41 — 34 — A.fusciceps 129 129 70 — A- geoffroyi 1617 3 1841 30 A. paniscus 82 9 122 4 Ateles sp. 20 11 3 64 Callicebus moloch 40 34 24 39 Callicebus sp. 134 4 42 — Cebus albifrons 2221 255 2776 261 C. apella 2036 177 1975 511 C. capacinus 1133 11 1209 5 C. nigrivittatus 33 — — — Cebus sp. 196 14 103 50 Chiropotes satanas — — 6 — Lagothrix lagotricha 2226 22 2125 29 Pithecia monachus 83 — 30 — P. pithecia 1 — — — Saimiri sciureus 29,879 3941 25,297 4358 Subtotal Cebidae 43.675 5542 39.234 6667 Callimico goeldi — 13 4 13 Callithrix aurita — — 48 — C. chrysoleuca — — 19 — C. goeffroyi 24 — — — C. jacchus 3 — 9 186 C. penicillata 26 — — 4 Callithrix sp. — — 10 4 Cebuella pygmaea 166 44 111 2 Saguinus geoffroyi 12 — 11 2 S. fuscicollis — 317 — 1199 S. illigeri 293 — 50 5 S. mystax 863 462 1064 717 S. nigricollis 1787 1359 1933 441 S. oedipus 2374 390 2419 614 S. tamarin — 1 — — Marmoset 3 — 63 151 Subtotal Calli- trichidae 5552 2585 5746 3341 TOTAL 49,227 8127 44,980 10.008 SOURCES: Thorington (1971). Muckenhirn (1975). Clapp and Paradiso (1973). USDI (in prep.). Year Peru Colombia Total Latin America Total Primates 1964 36,847 6.841 45,630 102,080 1965 33,634 9,123 43,628 96,112 1966 37,384 9.491 47,266 103,859 1967 39,600 13.879 55.011 104,346 1968 53,773 24,105 80,124 126,857 1969 45,980 17,563 64,925 105,719 1970 32.729 16,826 53,000 90,743 1971 31,550 15,910 49,879 79,846 1972 27.288 16,124 45,414 75,784 1973 22,669 6,444 30,871 69,548 1974 2,251 2.313 10.869 46,581 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1965, 1966-1967. 1968-1973. 1974, 1975. continue to limit the numbers of wild-trapped primates available in the future from this traditional supplier country. REFERENCES Clapp, R. B., and J. L. Paradiso. 1973. Mammals imported into the United States in 1971. Special scientific report. USDI WL-171. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Muckenhirn, N. A. 1975. Supporting data. Pages 11-122 in Nonhu- man primates: usage and availability for biomedical programs. Committee on Conservation of Nonhuman Primates. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. D.C. Thorington, R. W.. Jr. 1971. Summary of nonhuman primates being maintained on 1 January 1971. ILAR News 15:7-10. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1965. U.S. imports, tariff schedules annotated by country, 1964 annual. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1966-1967. U.S. imports, TSUSA [tariff schedule of the U.S.. annotated]. commodity by country 1965 and 1966 annual. Washington. D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1968-1973. U.S. imports for consumption and general imports. TSUSA [tariff schedule of the U.S., annotated], commodity and country. USDC FT-246. 1967-1972 annual. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1974. U.S. imports for consumption TSUSA [tariff schedule of the U.S.. annotated], commodity and country of origin. USDC IM-146. December 1973. Washington. D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. 1975. U.S. imports for consumption. TSUSA [tariff schedule of the U.S.. annotated] schedule by TSUSA number by unit control of origin. USDC IM-146. 1974 annual. Washington. D.C. USDI (U.S. Department of the Interior). In preparation. Mammals imported into the United States in 1972.

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