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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 527
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 528
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 529
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 530
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 531
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 532
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 534
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 535
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 536
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 537
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 538
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 539
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Page 540
Suggested Citation:"Index of Subjects." National Research Council. 1970. Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18684.
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Index of Subjects Accommodation, visual, 6-7 and ischemia, 48 and near-work, 47-48 effect of cycloplegics, 59-60 effect of luminance, 117-118 effects on eye, 48, 60 in infancy, 291 plasticity of receptive fields in, 192 prerequisite for reading, 5 role in myopia, 52, 117-118 Action potential as unit of nervous activity, 88 as unit of visual perception, 91 Activation, neuronal, role in Hermann grid illusion, 190-191 Acuity, visual, see Visual acuity Afferent fibers fast, 313 primary, identification, 289-290 slow, 160, 228-229, 313 Age and amblyopia, 75 and myopia, 42-44, 50-52 conceptional vs. postnatal as indicator of development, 357 effect on distribution and number of dendritic spines, 272, 274-279, 281-282, 284, 289 Albinism as cause of permanent nystagmus, 291-292 effect of treatment for nystagmus on visual acuity in, 300 evidence of, 300 visual acuity in, 291-292 Alexia, see Reading disability Alphabet initial modified, 17 in teaching reading, 17, 19 Alpha rhythm, and saccades, 87 Amacrine cells, role in retinal interconnec- tions, 106-107 Ambidexterity, in absence of corpus callosum, 174 Amblyopia, 292, 300-301 age of onset, 299-300 and age, 75 and anisometropia, 300-301 and strabismus, 292, 300-301 critical age for treating, 294-295, 297 effect of age of onset of strabismus in, 292-295 effect of delay in treatment, 292-295 575

Index of Subjects effects after experiential deprivation, 311-313 effects on excitability of cortex, 147 See also Attention Associations, effect of density on fixation time, 331-332 AS letters (acoustically similar letters) and auditory memory in processing of visual information, 211-213 effect on processing of visual information, 214 Asthenopia, ocular, 54, 67 Astigmatism, 7, 37, 65-67 and reading disability, 64-65, 67 as cause of ocular asthenopia, 67 effect on far-point perception, 10 etiology, 64-65 incidence, 65 induced, 68 subjective effects, 64-67 Asymmetry, ocular, 69 Atropine, used in retinoscopy, 36 Attention, 219 and evoked responses, 148, 161, 228-230 and motivation, 226, 229 effect of experiential deprivation, 314 effect on cortical excitability, 146-148 in children, 346 in hyperkinetic children, 28-29 in infancy, 329, 346, 383-384 effect of contrast, 362 effect of pattern, 360-372 effect of repetition, 367-369 indexes, 329, 339, 341 vocalization as index of, 339, 341 in learning to read, 27-29, 222-224 in speech perception, 220-221 See also Visual discrimination; Visual selectivity; Pattern perception; Visual perception; etc. Auditory habituation, in infancy, 384-386, 388 etiology, 75, 297, 300-301 treatment with pleoptics, 295 Anesthesia effect on lateral geniculate nucleus, 145 effect on synaptic transmission, 145 Anisometropia, definition and incidence in amblyopia, 300-301 Anticipatory effect and action potential, 229-230 and contingent negative variation, 229-230 in reading, 223 in speech, 220-221 Aphasia and reading disability, 420-421 and visual perception, 412-413 etiology, 9 Apical dendritic spines, see Dendritic spines Apparent motion, Wertheimer's, see Wertheimer's apparent motion Apraxia, and reading disability, 409-410 Aqueous humor, drainage pathway, 60-61 Area striata effect of light vs. dark on excitability, 146 effect of removal on lateral geniculate nucleus, 147 effect of visual deprivation, 262 inhibition by lateral geniculate nucleus, 146-147 Area 17 (striate cortex) evoked potentials to flash in, 137 function, 143-144 receptive fields in, 139 role in distance estimation, 143-144 role in Hermann grid illusion, 190 role in pattern vision, 143-144, 190 Area 18 connections with lateral geniculate nucleus, 141-142 evoked potentials to flash in, 137 function, 139,143-144 input to, 137, 139 mapping of visual fields in, 137 receptive fields in, 139 role in distance estimation, 143-144 role in pattern vision, 143-144 Arithmetic, difficulties, and reading retarda- tion, 4 23 Arousal and learning, 314-315 and rapid eye movements, 92 Auditory perception and reading disability, 431-433, 435, 445 and retarded speech development, 431-432 chunking in, 240-241, 243-245 contrasted with visual perception, 240-241 residual hearing in deafness, 241 role in learning disorders, 477 testing, 242 576

Index of Subjects Babbling, see Vocalization Background activity, retinal, effect on cortical excitability, 146 Behavior, 304-305 as manifestation of schemata, 303 as mode of processing information, 304-305 effects of experiential deprivation on, 309-319 relationship to information generalization, 316-319 Beta motion, 184-186 Binocular additivity, in alternating strabismus, 123 Binocular convergence, 7 effect of visual deprivation on, 256 in infancy, 291 plasticity of receptive fields in, 192 prerequisite for reading, 5 Binocular interaction, 119-128 Binocular pupil activity, vs. monocular activity in strabismus, 121, 123 Binocular rivalry, pupillary response in, 129 Bipolar cells, role in retinal convergence, 106-107 Blending, of phonemes, in reading disability, 28 Blindness, EEC patterns in, 146 Blinking, 77, 165 B neuronal subsystem, 181 role in Ehrenstein's brightness illusion, 191-192 role in Hermann grid illusion, 190 Brain, centers for language and spatial perception in, 458-460 Brain injury and reading disability, 406, 414, 417-419, 426-427,436-437 and spatial perception, 425-427 and visual perception, 424-427 Brain stem effect on visual input, 143-149 lesions as cause of palsies of conjugate gaze, 76 Brightness enhancement in Ehrenstein's illusion, 188-190 signaled by on-center neurons of B system, 181 Broca's area, 9 Cataracts, congenital, effect on visual acuity and fixation, 291-292 Cerebral dominance, 9 and choreiform syndrome, 426 and language disorders, 410 and lateralization, 9 and perception, 174-176 and reading disability, 176, 426, 446, 453-455 and speech, 174-175 and writing motions, 10 development, 10 Cerebral hemispheres functions, 175-176 relationships in reading disability, 177 Chang effect, 146 Choreiform syndrome and cerebral dominance, 426 and reading disability, 426 in hyperkinesia, 426 Choroid. 3, 5, 39 effect of accommodation, 48 ischemia, 48 Chunking and flicker fusion, 87 and saccades, 85-86 in auditory perception, 240-241, 243-245 in reading, 226-227, 232, 240-241, 243- 245 in speech, 23 2, 240-241 in speech perception, 226 in visual perception, 87, 240-241, 243- 245 of visual information, 79, 81-83, 86-88 Code emphasis vs. meaning emphasis in learning to read, 2-3, 16-19 Coding in learning to read, 94 in sensory systems, 92 of contrast, 181 Cognition view of learning, 305 Cognitive development, relationship to sex, 342-343 Color vision, 148 Command eye movements, 72-73 Communication, effect of experiential deprivation, 318-319 Compensation, for absence of corpus callosum, 172-175 Computer analogy with memory, 201-202 577

Index of Subjects analogy with processing of visual informa- tion, 199-201 in teaching, 486-487 Conditioning, see Reinforcement Conduction velocities, visual, 145 Cones arrangement, 131-133 distribution, 130-131 inhibition of and interaction with rods, 141 nuclei, structure and differentiation from rod nuclei, 134,137 Congenital nystagmus, see Nystagmus, congenital Congenital oculomotor apraxia, see Oculo- motor apraxia, congenital Conjugate gaze, palsies, 76 Conjugate reinforcement, 390 and reading, 401 in infancy, 390-398 in premature children, 399 Consensual pupillary response, effect of visual deprivation, 256 Continuity, in mental development, 328-329, 336-342 Contrast, 95-96 effect on attention in infancy, 330, 362 patterns, see Patterns, contrast perception, see Perception, contrast prerequisite for reading, 2 retinal-image, 96-115 effect of luminance, 97-103 prerequisite for pattern discrimination, 12 subjective effects of, 103-105 sensory coding, 181 mechanism, 192-193 role of inhibition, 192-193 visual and reading, 117 objective vs subjective, 103-105 role of retinal inhibition and interconnec- tions, 108 visual performance as function of, 104-105 Convergence (ocular), see Binocular conver- gence Convergence, retinal, 105-107 differences in nocturnal vs. diurnal mam- mals, 133 Coordination, visual, see Visual coordination Coordination, visual-motor, see Visual-motor coordination Cornea, 5 curvature determined by k era tome try. 37-38 unequal, as cause of astigmatism, 65 growth, 39-41 Corpus callosum, absence of ambidexterity in, 174 and focal vision, 175 and reading, 168-169,171-174 and speech, 168-169, 171 and writing, 168-169, 171 compensation for, 172-175 effect on visual perception, 167-176 symptoms, 168-169, 171 Cortex nonvisual, function of visual projections to, 161-162 striate, see Area 17 visual effect of loss, 139-140, 144 effect of stimulation of nonspecific visual system on, 160 organization of receptive fields of, 153, 155 projection from lateral geniculate nucleus, 136-137, 139 recording of single units in, 153-154 Cortical activity, effect of saccades, 87 Cultural influences on learning to read, 29-31, 58 on visual fixation time, 331-332 Cycloplegia complete, production, 36 effect in hyperopia, 59-60 effect in myopia, 58-60 effect on accommodation, 59-60 in determining optical characteristics of eye, 38 used in retinoscopy, 36 Dark adaptation, and receptive fields, 112, 115 Darkness, signaled by off-center neurons of D system, 181 Deafness residual hearing in, 241 learning speech in, 241-242 learning to read in, 237-238 Decoding emphasis, see Code emphasis Degeneration, transneuronal, caused by enucleation, 284-285 Dendrites, in visual cortex, effect of visual 518

Index of Subjects deprivation, 262 Dendritic spines, 261, 264-273, 281-285 distribution, 283-285 and age, 272, 274-279, 281-282, 284 effect of enucleation, 276-277, 279-280 effect of visual deprivation, 276-282, 285-286 mathematical model, 272, 274-278 function, 285 number and age, 272, 274-279, 281-282, 289 determinants of, 261-262 effect of enucleation, 266-273, 276-277, 279-280, 284-285 effect of visual deprivation, 276-282, 285-286 Deprivation experiential, see Experiential deprivation light, see Light deprivation sensory, see Sensory deprivation Depth perception, role of experience, 374-375 Development, mental, see Mental development Differentiation, sensory, see Sensory differen- tiation Diffraction, function in optical system, 96 Directional sensitivity, 113, 118, 185, 191-193 Discontinuity, of visual input, 79-88 Discrepancy effect on fixation time, 330-331 effect on vocalization in infancy, 332 Discrimination, auditory, relationship to reading disability, 408 Discrimination, form, 139 Discrimination, sensory, see Sensory discrimi- nation Discrimination, visual, see Visual discrimina- tion Disinhibition, 110-111 Distance estimation, role of areas 17 and 18, 143-144 Diurnal vision, vs. nocturnal vision, struc- tural implications, 131-137 D neuronal subsystem, 181 role in Ehrenstein's brightness illusion, 191-192 role in Hermann grid illusion, 190 "Doll's-head" eye movement, 71 Dominance, cerebral, see Cerebral dominance Dominance, retinal, effect on pupil size, 123-127 Dominant laterality and reading disability, 410-412, 414, 420-421 and retarded speech development, 414 and spatial perception, 414 and speech, 174-175 and strephosymbolia, 409-410 and word blindness, 407-409 development, 10 effects of forced change, 9 Dyskinesia, 424 Dyslexia, see Reading disability Edge gradients, 96-100 Edge visual images, 83-86 Educational services, relationship with health services, 467-473 EEC patterns, in blindness, 146 Ehrenstein's brightness illusion enhancement of brightness in, 188-190 interpretation, 191-192 role of lateral geniculate nucleus, 191-192 role of retina, 191-192 visual fixation in, 188-190 Elasticity, scleral, 40-41 Electrical activity, effect of light deprivation, 251-254 Emmetropia, 6, 37 and reading, 53-54 eye growth in, 41 eye shape in, 40 Endogenous continuity, in mental develop- ment, 328 Enucleation cause of transneuronal degeneration, 284-285 effect, 146 on distribution of dendritic spines, 276-277, 279-280 on lateral geniculate nucleus, 147 on number of dendritic spines, 266-273, 276-277, 279-280, 284-285 Environment control of, 390-397 in classroom and learning to read, 479-480 influence on optical characteristics of eyes, 10,46-47 influence on organisms within it, 304 relationship to organism, and reading dis- ability, 322 Environmental enrichment, recommendation for, 375-376 519

Index of Subjects Environmental restriction effects on schemata, 303 Sac also Experiential deprivation Error, refractive, see Refractive error Eskimos, myopia in, 49-53 Evoked potentials, 165-166 and attention, 161, 228-230 distribution, 144 to flash, in areas 17 and 18, 137 to light effect of absence of visual cortex, 144 effect of direction of gaze, 145 Excitability area striata, effect of light vs. dark, 146 central visual system, 146-149 cortical effect of nonspecific visual system, 160 effect of retinal background activity, 146 lateral geniculate nucleus, effect of mesencephalic reticular formation, 147-148 Exogenous continuity, in mental develop- ment, definition, 328 Expectancy wave, see Anticipatory effect Experience early role in learning disorders, 477 role in reading disability, 480-481 effect on visual perception in infancy, 373-376 role in depth perception, 374-375 Experiential deprivation arousal effects after, 311-313 effect on attention, 314 effect on behavior, 309-319 effect on communication, 318-319 effect on learning, 321-322 effect on response to looming, 319 effect on sexual behavior, 318 excessive arousal after, effect on learning, 314-315 response to stimulation after, 312-313 stereotyped motor acts after, 310-311 See also Environmental restriction; Sensory deprivation Exposure to stimulus, effect of duration on processing of visual information, 204-211 Eye anatomy, 3-4, 6-7,10,130-140 Eye dimensions, determined by ultrasonog- raphy, 38 Eye growth, 39-41 determined by ophthalmophacometry, 39,41 determined by refraction, 39 determined by ultrasonography, 39, 41 determined by x-ray, 39 Eye jumps, see Saccades Eye movements, 70-77, 81-88 abnormal, 73-77,415 command, 72-73 control, 7-8 effect on visual perception, 81-83, 211 in control of visual input, 147-148 in infancy, 291 in Parkinson's disease, 72 in reading, 94 normal, 70-73, 77 pursuit, 72, 291 rapid, and hyperarousal, 92 regard, 71-72 role of otolith organs, 70-71 role of semicircular canals, 71 vestibular, 70-71 Eye position and macular vision, 74 role of semicircular canals, 71 Eye shape, 40-41,48 Eye size, 38-40 Eye-turning, in infancy, 386 Farsightedness, see Hyperopia Fatigue, visual, see Visual fatigue Feature extractor cortical, 143 for phonemes, 245 See also Trigger feature Figure-background perception, and reading disability, 448-453 Finger differentiation, and spatial perception, 413-414 Fixation time and socioeconomic conditions, 338-339 cultural influences on, 331-332 determinants of, 332 effect of contrast on, 330 effect of density of associations on, 331-332 effect of discrepancy on, 330-331 effect of movement on, 330 in infancy, 336-338 as index of attention, 329 determinants, 330-332 520

Index of Subjects measurement, 333-335, 337 relationship to sex, 338 Fixation, visual, 82 and reading disability, 426 distance, effect on receptive field, 155 effect of congenital cataracts, 291-292 effect on pupil size, 123-125, 127 in Ehrenstein's brightness illusion, 188-190 in infancy, 291, 352-353 role of fovea centralis, 106 saccades in, 81, 83-86 Flicker fusion, and chunking, 87 Focal vision, and absence of corpus callosum, 175 Form perception, 139, 258-259 and peripheral vision, 222 Form vision, visual memory in, 193 Fovea centralis, 5 convergence ratio in, 106 role in fixation, 106 Freezing, after experiential deprivation, 312 Frontal lobe, role in command eye move- ments, 73 Ganglion cells, retinal effect of light deprivation, 249-252 effect of trigger features, 113-114 role in retinal convergence, 106-107 Gating role of attention, 219-221 role of lateral geniculate nucleus, 144 Gaze, effect of direction on evoked potentials to light, 145 Gerstmann's syndrome, 412 Glaucoma and intraocular pressure, 40 and scleral elasticity, 40 Glia, description, 145 Grid, Hermann, see Hermann grid illusion Growth, comeal, 40-41 Growth, eye, see Eye growth Habituation auditory and olfactory in infancy, 384-386 of units of visual cortex, 155 Handedness, see Dominant laterality Head-turning, as test of attention in infancy, 386-389 Health-care services, relationship with educational services, 467-473 Hearing, see Auditory perception Heredity and myopia, 44-45,49 and reading disability, 409-411, 417-419 and retarded speech development, 412 and stammering, 412 and word blindness, 407 Hermann grid illusion in estimating receptive-field size, 182-185 interpretation, 190-191 role of area 17, 190 role of lateral geniculate nucleus, 190 role of neuronal activation and inhibition, 190-191 role of receptive fields, 190-191 role of retina, 190 Hierarchy role in printed language, 89-91 role in visual perception, 89-91 Horizontal cells, function, 106-107, 115 Hyperactivity, see Hyperkinesia Hyperarousal, see Arousal Hyperkinesia, 426 and difficulty in maintaining attention, 28-29 choreiform movements in, 426 in predicting reading disability, 28-29 Hyperopia, 6, 37 and reading, 53 associated with strabismus, 75 effect of cycloplegics in, 59-60 eye growth in, 41 eye shape in, 40 in monkeys, dependent on degree of wildness, 46-47 Illumination, influence on myopia, 47, 49, 52 Illusion, Ehrenstein's brightness, see Ehrenstein's brightness illusion Illusion, Hermann grid, see Hermann grid illusion Image edge, 83-86, 95-98 retinal contrast, 96-115 determinants, 96-98 effect of luminance on contrast in, 97-103 formation, 3-4 Immaturity and reading achievement, 22 527

Index of Subjects and reading disability, 422 Immaturity, neurologic and learning disability, 426 and reading disability, 419 Impulsivity, in children relationship to intelligence, 349 vs. reflectivity, 347-349 Infancy attention in, 329, 346, 383-384 effect of contrast, 362 effect of pattern, 360-372 effect of repetition, 367-369 indexes of, 329 auditory and olfactory habituation in, 384-386,388 conjugate reinforcement in, 390-398 eye movements in, 291 fixation time in, 336-338 measurement, 333-335, 337 relationship of sex, 338 head-turning in, 386-389 intelligence in, 327 nystagmus in, 291 ocular convergence in, 291 ocular pursuit in, 291 pattern perception in, 357-373,376-379, 383-384 perceptual learning in, 326-327 reinforcement in, 386-398 scanning in, 388 schemata in, 327 sensory discrimination in, 385-386 visual accommodation in, 291 visual discrimination in, 353-359 visual fixation in, 291, 352-353 visual perception in, 351-379 effect of experience, 373-375 measurement, 352-353 visual reinforcement in, 390-396 visual selectivity in, 360-373, 376-379, 383-384 effect of repetition, 367-369 effect of visual deprivation, 374 vocalization in, 338-342 and socioeconomic conditions, 342-343 as index of attention, 339, 341 as index of mental development, 342-343 measurement, 333-335, 337 relationship to sex, 332-333, 339, 341-342 Information processing continuous vs. discontinuous, 80 effect of evolution on, 308-309 relationship to behavior, 316-319 visual, see Visual information Inhibition neuronal, role in Hermann grid illusion, 190-191 of area striata, by lateral geniculate nucleus, 146-147 of perception in reading, 92 of rods by cones and other rods, 141 presynaptic, 147 retinal, 108-112, 118 and luminance, 108-112, 115 and Mach bands, 111-112 mechanisms, 113 role in contrast vision, 108, 192-193 role of ommatidia in Limulus. 108-112 visual, during saccades, 87 Initial Teaching Alphabet (ITA), see Alpha- bet Input, visual, see Visual input Instinct and behavioral plasticity, 307-308 and learning, 317-318 as fixed sequence of actions in response to stimuli, 303 as primordial schema, 307 vs. intelligence, 307 Intelligence and early stimulation, 401 and "open" schemata, 307 and prematurity, 399 and reading disability, 420 and reflectivity and impulsivity in children, 349 correlated with myopia, 43 in infancy, 327 vs. instinct, 307 Integration, sensory, see Sensory integra- tion Intermodality relationships, 92,159,161 173,178,193, 200, 226, 239, 240, 308, 316, 318, 425-426, 485 Intonation, see Paralinguistics Intraocular pressure and eye size, 40 and glaucoma, 40 522

Index of Subjects and myopia, 41 Iris, description, 5 Ischemia, and accommodation, 48 Isolation, see Experiential deprivation Japanese writing systems, 28-29 Keratometry, in determining cornea) curvature, 37-38 Kinesthetic perception and reading disability, 445 Lamination in lateral geniculate nucleus, 135-136, 138,145 retinal, relationship of luminance, 134-135 Language brain centers, 458-460 competence in, and learning to read, 237-238 disorders, relationship to cerebral domi- nance, 410 learning, 231-232 printed analogy with visual perception, 88-91 letter as unit of, 89-91 role of structure and hierarchy in, 89-91 Lateral geniculate nucleus, 8 and color vision, 148 connections with area 18, 141-142 effect of anesthesia, 145 effect of enucleation, 147 effect of removal of area striata, 147 effect of saccades, 87 effect of visual deprivation, 262 excitability, effect of mesencephalic reticular formation, 147-148 innervation, 145 input into, 8 lamination in, 135-136, 138,145 projection to visual cortex, 136-137, 139 role in Ehrenstein's brightness illusion, 191-192 role in gating, 144 role in Hermann grid illusion, 190 role in inhibition of area striata, 146-147 role in receptive fields, 8 role in visual neural pathways, 7-8 Lateral specialization, see Dominant laterality Learning and early stimulation in premature children, 399 and instinct, 317-318 effect of experiential deprivation, 314- 315,321-322 effect of motivation, 29 effect of socioeconomic conditions, 29 perceptual, in infancy, 326-327 stimulus-response vs. cognition views, 305 Learning disorders, 469-473 and auditory perception, 477 and difficulties in sequential ordering, 4 and neurologic immaturity, 426 and visual perception, 477 diagnosis, 471-473 role of early experience, 477 treatment, 47M73, 477 Left-handedness, see Dominant laterality Lenses, 5 correlation of type required with refrac- tive characteristics of eye, 36-37 curvature determined by ophthalmopha- cometry, 38 Letter, as unit of printed language, 89-91 Letter blindness, associated with word blindness, 407 Letter size, and accuracy in far-point per- ception, 63-64 Light deprivation, see Visual deprivation Light, pupillary reflex to, 119-127 Limbic system, and emotional function, 142 Li.nulus, retinal anatomy, 106-108 Linguistics, approach to teaching reading, 17,19 Listening, relationship to reading and speak- ing, 221-225 Looming, effect of experiential deprivation on response to, 319 Luminance and adaptive mechanisms, 103 and retinal lamination, 134-135 effect on accommodation, 117-118 effect on retinal-image contrast, 97-103 effect on retinal rivalry, 124-127 mechanism of sensory coding of differ- ences in, 181 role in contrast perception, 95-96 role in myopia, 117-118 role in retinal inhibition, 108-112,115 Mach bands, 111-112 Macular vision, and eye position, 74 Mapping, of visual fields, 136-137 523

Index of Subjects Maturational processes and audiophonic development, 431-433, 435 and reading, 22, 400401, 422, 428-429, 447,471 Meaning vs. code emphasis in learning to read, 16-19 Memory analogy to computer, 201-202 relationship to word blindness, 407 Memory, auditory, 212-213 and reading disability, 408 in processing of visual information, 211- 214,216-217,238 vs. linguistic memory, 217-218 vs. visual memory, 211-213 Memory, long-term, 201-202 and reading, 202-203 distinctions, 199, 202-203 in processing of visual information, 198- 201 six kinds of, 214 vs. short-term memory, 201-202, 213-214 Memory, short-term, 201-202 in processing of visual information, 88, 198-201 retina as, 201 vs. long-term memory, 201-202, 213-214 Memory, visual and reading disability, 408,445-446, 450-453 in form vision, 193 in perception, 193 in reading, 193 role in Wertheimer's apparent motion, 193 Mental development continuity in, 328-329, 336-342 indexes, 329 vocalization in infancy as index, 342-343 Mesencephalic reticular formation and color vision, 148 effect on lateral geniculate nucleus excitability, 147-148 function, 147-148 Mesencephalon, visual projections to, 158 Metabolism, effect of visual deprivation, 250, 259-260 Midbrain, role in pooling of optical activity, 120-122 Minor reading and writing, in association with reading disability, 9 Mobius syndrome, 76 Modulation by nonspecific visual input, 160-161 of central excitability by retina, 146 of cortical neurons by conscious effort, 154 of lateral geniculate nucleus by mesencephalic reticular formation, 148-149 Monocular pupil activity, vs. binocular activity in strabismus, 121, 123 Motion, apparent in estimating receptive-field size, 184-187 See also Wertheimer's apparent motion Motion, beta, see Beta motion Motion, pupillary, nerve pathways for, 129 Motivation and attention, 226, 229 and learning, 29 and learning to read, 226, 229-230 and reading disability, 31, 421 Motor acts, stereotyped, after experiential deprivation, 310-311 Motor differentiation, increase with opening of instincts, 308 Movement, eye, see Eye movements Movement effect on fixation time, 330 mechanism of perception, 185-186 perception of, estimating size of receptive fields for, 184-187 Myopia, 6, 37 and age, 42-44, 50-52 and intelligence, 43 and intraocular pressure, 41 and near-work, 41-55 and nutrition, 44, 52-53 and personality, 43-44 and physical characteristics, 44 and reading, 43, 51-54, 58 and scleral elasticity, 41 congenital, 58 effect of cycloplegics, 58-60 effect of illumination, 47, 49, 52, 117-118 effect of restriction of visual space, 45-49 effect on far-point perception, 10 eye growth and shape in, 40-41 heritability, 44-45,49 incidence, 43, 50-53 induced, 10, 63-64 in Eskimos, 49-53 in man and chimpanzee, 49 524

Index of Subjects Optical characteristics of eye, determina- tion, 37-41 Optical-spread function, 96-97 Optic nerve, ratio of fibers to visual receptors, 105 Optic radiation, conduction velocities in, 145 Optic tract, conduction velocities in, 145 Optokinetic eye movements, see Pursuit eye movements Optokinetic reflex, mediated by parietal lobes, 74 Orientation, spatial, see Spatial perception Otolith organs, role in eye movement, 70- 71 Packaging, see Chunking Palsies of conjugate gaze, see Conjugate gaze, palsies Paralinguistics, importance in reading, 228 Parietal lobes, in mediating Optokinetic reflex, 74 Parkinson's disease, eye movements in, 72 Patterned light, role in visual acuity, 255- 256 Pattern perception and reading, 378-379, 461-462 in infancy, 357-373, 376-379, 383-384 in premature infants, 383 See also Visual discrimination; Visual selec- tivity; Attention; Visual perception; etc. Patterns contrast, in measuring receptive fields, 182-183 effect on attention in infancy, 360-372 in Ehrenstein's brightness illusion, 188-190 organization and recognition in learning to read, 193 selectivity, in infancy, 376-379 Pattern vision, role of areas 17 and 18, 143- 144 role of accommodation, 52, 117-118 sex differences, 57-58 Nearsightedness, see Myopia Near-work and accommodation, 47-48 and myopia, 41-55 Nerve spike, see Action potential Neurologic abnormalities, and reading disability, 446 Neurons, visual, organization in receptive fields, and perceptual problems, 151-156 Nocturnal vision, vs. diurnal vision, structural implications, 131-137 Noise cortical spontaneous, 153 retinal intrinsic, 103 Notation first task in learning to read, 16 Japanese vs. English and European, 28-29 Nutrition, and myopia, 44, 52-53 Nystagmus and reading, 129 congenital, 73-75 in albinism, effect of treatment on visual acuity in, 300 in infancy, 291 jerk, 71 latent, 74-75 motor, 74 permanent, caused by albinism, 291-292 sensory, 73-74 Ocular asymmetry, 69 Ocular movements, see Eye movements Ocular pursuit, effect of visual deprivation, 256 Oculomotor apraxia congenital, 76-77 eye movements deficient in, 72-73 Oculomotor dyslexia, see Reading disability Oculomotor system, age of normal develop- ment, 297 Olfactory habituation, in infancy, 384-386 Ommatidia, role in retinal inhibition in Limulus, 108-112 On and off discharges in retina, 83, 113 Ophthalmophacometry in determining eye growth, 39, 41 in determining lens curvature, 38 Optical activity additivity, 120-122 pooling, role of midbrain, 120-122 Perception and cerebral dominance, 174-176 auditory, see Auditory perception contrast, role of luminance differential in, 95-96 depth, see Depth perception edge image, 95-98 far-point effect of induced myopia, 63-64 effect of letter size on accuracy, 63-64 form, see Form perception 525

Index of Subjects intermodal, see Intermodality relation- ships motion estimating size of receptive fields for, 184-187 mechanism of, 185-186 spatial, see Spatial perception speech, see Speech perception visual, see Visual perception visual memory in, 193 Perceptive fields, 191 Perceptual deprivation, and reading disability, 446 Perceptual disorders, approach to therapy, 481 Perceptual motor disability, and socio- economic conditions, 463 Perceptual problems, and organization of visual neurons in receptive fields, 151-156 Perceptual training, value of, 462-463 Peripheral sensory defects, and reading retardation, 31 Peripheral vision and form perception, 222 in reading, 222-223 Personality, and myopia, 43-44 Phi phenomenon, 184-186 Phonemes feature extractor for, 245 sounding and blending difficulty in reading disability, 28 Phonics in learning to read, 30, 94,481-482 in teaching reading, 17, 19, 232-237 in treating reading disability, 178 Photopupillary response, see Pupil reflex to light Physical characteristics, and myopia, 44 Plasticity of growing brain, 167-173 of receptive fields, 155,192 Pleoptics, in treating amblyopia, 295 Point-spread function, 96-98 Pooling, of optical activity, role of mid- brain, 120-122 Potentials, evoked, see Evoked potentials Preference, visual, see Visual discrimination Prematurity and conjugate reinforcement, 399 and intelligence, 399 and pattern perception, 383 and poor reading, 399 and sensory deprivation, 397-399 and visual discrimination, 357-358 and visual selectivity, 383 relationship of early stimulation to learn- ing in childhood, 399 Presbyopia, 6 Presynaptic inhibition, 147 Projection from lateral geniculate nucleus to visual cortex, 139 visual, 136-137,139 nonspecific (nonprimary), 157-162 to nonvisual cortex, 161-162 to reticular level of mesencephalon, 158 to thalamus, 158 Protein, effect of light deprivation on metabolism and retinal content, 250-251 Pupil, 5 constriction during accommodation and convergence, 7 reflex to light, 119-127 and reading, 127 cone inhibition of rods in, 141 nerve pathways for, 129 suppression in saccades, 127-129 response in binocular rivalry, 129 size determinants, 120-127 effect of retinal dominance, 123-127 effect of visual fixation, 123-125, 127 Purkinje-Sanson images, basis of ophthal- mophacometry, 38 Pursuit eye movements, 72, 291 Reach, effect of visual deprivation on accuracy, 256 Reading and absence of corpus callosum, 168-169, 171-174 and conjugate reinforcement, 401 and early experience, 401, 463 and emmetropia, 53-54 and eye-turning in infancy, 386 and hyperopia, 53 and immaturity, 22, 400-401, 422, 428- 429,447,471 and listening, 221 and long-term memory, 202-203 and myopia, 43, 51-54 and nystagmus, 129 526

Index of Subjects and pattern perception, 378-379,461-462 and perceptual inhibition, 92 and peripheral vision, 222-223 and prematurity, 399 and pupil reflex to light, 127 and socioeconomic conditions, 22 and spatial perception, 433-434 and speaking, 221 and visual contrast, 117 and visual memory, 193 and visual selectivity, 379 attention in, 222-224 chunking in, 226-227, 232, 240-241, 243- 245 and apraxia, 409-410 and astigmatism, 64-65, 67 and auditory memory and discrimination, 408 and auditory perception, 431-433, 435, 445 and brain abnormality, 406, 414, 417-419, 426-427,436-437 and cerebral dominance, 176, 426,446, 453-455 and choreiform syndrome, 426 and congenital oculomotor apraxia, 76 and deficient writing, 411 and difficulties in sequential ordering, 434 and difficulty of sounding and blending phonemes, 28 and dominant laterality, 410-412, 414, 420-421 and early experience, 446,480-481 and emmetropia, 54 and faulty perceptual inhibition, 92 and figure-background perception, 448-453 and immaturity, 422 and intelligence, 420 and interhemispheric relationships, 177 and kinesthetic perception, 445 and motivation, 31, 421 and neurologic abnormalities, 419, 446 and relationship of organism to environ- ment, 322 and retarded speech development, 409-411, 418-419,429-432,436 and sex, 28, 30,417-418, 421, 483-484 and sex of teacher, 28, 30, 483-484 and socioeconomic conditions, 421 and spatial perception, 419-420, 431-432, 445-454 and speech development, 457-458 and strephosymbolia, 410, 420-421 and stuttering, 409-410 and tactile perception, 445 and visual discrimination, 420, 445-449, 451-453 and visual fixation, 426 and visual memory, 408, 445-446,450-453 and visual-motor function, 445-446, 449- 453 cultural influences, 58 effect on myopia, 58 effect on retina, 83, 85-86 eye movements in, 94 learning of, 225-226 after sensory deprivation, 242-243 and coding, 94 and deafness, 237-238 and language competence, 237-238 and socioeconomic conditions, 226 benefit of early writing in, 28-29 critical age, 241 motivation, 226, 229-230 normal process, 433-435 phonics in, 94 mechanisms, 221-224 muscular aspects, 7 normal process, 1-2, 5, 478-479, 481-483 retarded and difficulties in arithmetic, 423 and spelling, 423 and peripheral sensory defects, 31 benefits of remedial treatment, 26 diagnosis and treatment, 22-26 early identification, 25-26 prevention, 25 saccades in, 81, 91, 222-223 scanning in, 433 self-taught, 225-226 teaching, 16-20, 232-237, 244,400-402, 454,462-463 testing, 15, 20-25 vs. listening, 221-225 vs. understanding of speech, 240-241 Reading disability and aphasia, 420-421 and visual perception, 408, 445-455 and visual suppression, 460-461 approaches to understanding, 401-402 527

Index of Subjects Regard eye movements, 71-72 Rehearsal in processing of visual information, 199- 201,214 rate, 201, 214 role in recall, 216 subvocal, 201 Reinforcement conjugate, see Conjugate reinforcement in infancy, 386-398 visual, in infancy, 390-396 Repetition, effect on attention and visual selectivity in infancy, 367-369 Resolution, vs. summation in receptive field, 105-106 Response time, to stimuli of different modalities, 238-240 Responsiveness, to stimuli, increase with opening of instincts, 308 Restriction, environmental, see Environmental restriction Retardation, mental, and spatial perception, 350 definition, 30-32,485-486 diagnosis, 476,488 differentiation, 30-32 etiology, 176 eye movements in, 94 heritability, 409-411, 417-419 hyperkinesia as predictor, 28-29 incidence, 42(M23, 469,475-476, 479- 480,485-486 in Japanese children, 28-31 phonics in treatment, 178 predicting, 28-29, 427-429 prognosis, 429, 433, 46M62,475 reversals in, 434 synonyms, 30-32 treatment, 176-178, 401-402, 481 See also Word blindness Reading readiness, 400-401 Reading tests, limitations, 20-21 Recall, visual, mechanism, 139 Receptive fields, 8, 112-115, 181 and dark adaptation, 115 binocularly equal, 155 contrast patterns in measuring, 182-183 effect of visual fixation distance, 155 estimation of size, 182-187 for movement perception, 184-187 in area 17 and area 18, 139 organization, 153, 155, 181 organization of visual neurons in, and perceptual problems, 151-156 plasticity of, 155, 192 response to stimulus, 154-155 role in Hermann grid illusion, 190-191 summation vs. resolution, 105-106 Receptors ratio to other cell types in retina, 133, 136 visual, 105-106 Recovery time, synaptic, 145 Reflectivity relationship to intelligence in children, 349 vs. impulsivity in children, 347-349 Reflex, pupillary, 119-127 cone inhibition of rods in, 141 suppression in saccades, 127-129 Refraction, in determining eye growth, 39 Refractive characteristics of eye, 35-37 Refractive error, correlation with Snellen acuity, 36 Retina, 3, 5, 39 anatomy, 105-108, 130-136 as short-term memory, 201 effect of accommodation, 48 effect of reading, 83, 85-86 effect of saccades in visual fixation, 83-86 effect of visual deprivation, 249-254 intrinsic noise, 103 ischemia, and accommodation, 48 luminance, effect on retinal rivalry, 124- 127 ratio of receptors to other cell types, 133, 136 RNA content, effect of visual deprivation on, 258, 260 role in Ehrenstein's brightness illusion, 191-192 role in Hermann grid illusion, 190 Retinal background activity, effect on cortical excitability, 146 Retinal dominance, effect on pupil size, 123-127 Retinal electrical activity, effect of visual deprivation, 251-254 Retinal firing, 83 Retinal ganglion cells, effect of light deprivation, 249-252 525

Index of Subjects Retinal image, see Image, retinal Retinal image contrast, 96-115 Retinal inhibition, 118 and Mach bands, 111-112 mechanisms, 108-113 role in visual contrast, 108 role of luminance, 108-112, 115 role of ommatidia, 108-112 Retinal interconnections, 106-108 Retinal lamination, relationship to luminance, 134-135 Retinal output in saccades, 128-129 Retinal rivalry, 123-128 Retinoscopy, in measurement of optical characteristics of eye, 36-37 Reversals in reading disability, 434 of letters, syllables, and words, in word blindness, 409 Rhythm, alpha, see Alpha rhythm RNA content of retinal ganglion cells, effect of light deprivation, 250-251 retinal content, effect of visual depriva- tion, 258, 260 Rocking, after experiential deprivation, 310-311 Rods arrangement, 132-134 inhibition, 141 interaction with cones, 141 nuclei, differentiation from cone nuclei, 134,137 Rooting, see Head-turning Saccades, 81 analogy with retinal rivalry, 127-128 and alpha rhythm, 87 and packaging of visual information, 85-86 and visual perception, 81-83 effect on lateral geniculate nucleus, 87 effect on occipital activity, 87 effect on retina, 83-86 frequency, 81 in reading, 81, 91, 222-223 in visual fixation, 81, 83-86 pupillary reflex suppression in, 127-129 retinal output in, 128-129 retinal suppression in, 129 visual inhibition in, 87 Scanning duration, 204 in infancy, 388 in processing of visual information, 200, 204 in reading, 433 rate, 200, 204-211,214 serial vs. parallel, 204-209 Schemata, 306-307 as modes of organizing experience, 303 effect of environmental restriction, 303 effect of evolution, 308-309 in infancy, 327 innateness, 307 open, and intelligence, 307 ubiquity, 306-307 Sclera, 3, 39-40 effect of accommodation, 48 elasticity, 39-41 growth, 39-40 Segmenting, see Chunking Seizures, after experiential deprivation, 312 Self-biting, -clasping, and -stimulation, after experiential deprivation, 310-311 Semicircular canals, role in eye movement, 71 Sensory defects, peripheral, and reading retardation, 31 Sensory deprivation effects, 237-238, 241-243 in premature infants, 397-399 learning to read after, 242-243 See also Experiential deprivation; Light deprivation Sensory differentiation, increase with opening of instincts, 308 Sensory discrimination, in infancy, 385-386 Sensory input, neurologic model, 313 Sensory integration, increase with opening of instincts, 308 Sequential ordering difficulties in learning disability, 477 in reading disability, 413,434 Sex and cognitive development, 342-343 and fixation time in infancy, 338 and reading disability, 28, 30,417-418 421,483-484 and spatial perception in children, 349-350 and vocalization in infancy, 332-333, 339, 341-342 and word blindness, 407, 414 529

Index of Subjects in deafness, 241-242 retarded development and auditory perception, 431-432 and dominant laterality, 414 and reading disability, 409-411, 418-419, 429-432,436 and spatial perception, 412-413, 431-432 and word blindness, 407-408 heritability, 412 prognosis, 430-432 variability of, 232-237 vs. reading and listening, 221, 240-241 Speech perception, 220-221 attention in, 220-221 chunking in, 226 Spelling difficulties, and reading retarda- tion, 423 Spike, nerve, see Action potential Spines, dendritic, see Dendritic spines Squint, see Strabismus Stammering, heritability, 412 Stimulation correlated with cortical morphology, 262-263 early, and intelligence, 401 early, and reading, 401 required for sensory development, 257, 315 response to, after experiential deprivation, 312-313 Stimuli, of different modalities, response time to, 238-240 Stimulus effect of duration on processing of visual information, 204-211 effect on receptive-field response, 154-155 novelty vs. familiarity, 327, 369-372, 395 differences in myopia, 57-58 differences in neuromotor organization, 343 differences in vocalization, 338-342 of teacher, and reading disability, 28, 30, 483-484 Sexual behavior, effect of experiential deprivation, 318 Shadowing in speech perception and atten- tion experiments, 221 Shape of eye, see Eye shape Slow electrical potentials, 160, 228-229 Snellen acuity, 35-36 Socioeconomic conditions and decoding emphasis vs. meaning emphasis in reading programs, 18, 22 and learning, 29, 326 and learning to read, 22, 226 and perceptual motor disability, 463 and reading disability, 421 and visual fixation time, 338-339 and vocalization in infancy, 342-343 Spatial orientation, sec Spatial perception Spatial perception and abnormal eye movements, 415 and brain abnormality, 425-427 and dominant laterality, 414 and finger differentiation, 413-414 and learning disorders, 477 and mental retardation, 350 and reading, 433-434 and reading disability, 419-420, 431-432, 445-454 and retarded speech development, 412-413, 431-432 and sex, 349-350 brain centers, 458-460 testing, 447-449 Specific dyslexia, see Reading disability Specific reading disability, see Reading disability Speech and absence of corpus callosum, 168-169, 171 cerebal dominance, 174-175 chunking in, 232, 240-241 development, and reading disability, 457-458 dominant laterality in, 174-175 learning critical age, 241-242 Stimulus-response view of learning, 305 Strabismus, 5-6, 75-76, 292 age of onset, 292. 299-300 alternating, 75, 123 amblyopia in, 292 as cause of visual deprivation, 292 binocular additivity in, 123 binocular vs. monocular pupil activity, 121,123 concomitant, 75 amblyopia ex anopsia as sequela, 75 and hyperopia, 75 530

Index of Subjects effect, 75-76 effect of age of onset and delay in treat- ment on visual acuity in amblyopia, 292-295 effect on cortex, 297 etiology, 301 incidence in amblyopia, 300-301 monocular, see Strabismus, concomitant paralytic, 75 periodic, 128 suppression in, 123 Strephosymbolia, 409 dominant lateral!ty in, 409-410 in reading disability, 410, 420-421 Striate cortex, see Area 17 Structure role in printed language, 89-91 role in visual perception, 89-91 Stuttering and reading disability, 409-410 and word blindness, 407 Sucking, nonnutritive, after experiential deprivation, 310-311 Summation of excitation in optic receptors, 105-106 of optical activity, 120-122 Suppression, visual, see Visual suppression; Inhibition Synapse crossing, 272 parallel, 272 recovery time, 145 transmission, effect of anesthesia, 145 Tactile perception, and reading disability, 445 Teacher characteristics important in teaching reading, 19-20 sex of, and reading disability, 28, 30, 483-484 Teaching, computers in, 486-487 Temporal patterning, 115, 117, 221, 227, 233, 243, 434 Testing, of reading, 20-25 Thalamus, visual projections to, 158 Tics, after experiential deprivation, 312 Tracking movements of eyes, during reading, 7 Training, perceptual, value of, 462-463 Trigger feature effect on ganglion cells, 113-114 primative schema as, 307-308 Two-channel experiment in speech percep- tion and attention, 220-221 Ultrasonography, in measuring eye growth and distances, 38-39, 41 Verticalization tendency in reading disability, 461 See also Directional sensitivity Vestibular eye movements, 70-71 Vision, 4 color, see Color vision diagram, 4 focal, see Focal vision inhibition during saccades, 87 neural organization, 130-140 pattern, see Pattern vision peripheral, see Peripheral vision Visual II, see Area 18 Visual acuity, 106 after lack of visual stimulation, 254-257 and age, 297 and congenital cataracts, 291-292 and patterned light, 255-256 determinants, 254-257 in albinism, 291-292, 300 in amblyopia, effect of age of onset and delay in treatment, 292-295 measurement, 10, 62-64 normal development, 295-297 Visual conductor velocities, 145 Visual contrast, objective vs. subjective, 103-105 Visual coordination, development of, 291-297 Visual cortex habituation of units in, 155 receptive fields of, organization, 153, 155 recording of single units in, 153-154 Visual deprivation caused by strabismus, 292 degenerative effects, 258-259 effect, 258-260, 262, 285 effect on accuracy of reach, 256 effect on area striata, 262 effect on binocular convergence, 256 effect on consensual pupillary response, 256 effect on dendrites of visual cortex, 262 effect on distribution and number of 531

Index of Subjects dendritic spines, 276-282, 285-286 effect on lateral geniculate nucleus, 262 effect on metabolism, 250, 259-260 effect on ocular pursuit, 256 effect on retina, 249-254 effect on retinal RNA content, 258, 260 effect on visual selectivity in infancy, 374 Visual discrimination, 352 and reading disability, 420,445-449, 451- 453 in infancy, 353-359 in premature infants, 357-358 measurement, 353-357 vs. visual-motor coordination, 352 See also Visual selectivity; Pattern percep- tion; Attention; Visual perception; etc. Visual fatigue, 190 Visual fields, mapping, 136-137, 139 Visual fixation, see Fixation, visual Visual fixation time, see Fixation time Visual information and saccades, 85-86 chunking, 79, 81-83, 85-88 processing analogy with computer, 199-201 auditory memory in, 211-214, 216- 217,238 development, 375-379 effect of duration of scanning, 204 effect of exposure time, 204-211 effect of rate of eye movements, 211 long-term memory in, 198-201 model, 198-201, 213 rate, 203-211, 214 rehearsal in, 199-201, 214 short-term memory in, 198-201 scanning, 200, 204-209, 219 Visual input discontinuity, 79-88 role of brain stem, 143-149 role of centrencephalon, 144 role of eye movements in control, 147- 148 Visual memory, see Memory, visual Visual-motor ability and reading disability, 445-446, 449-453 testing, 449-450 Visual-motor coordination,,352 vs. visual discrimination, 352 Visual neurons, organization in receptive fields, and perceptual problems, 151- 156 Visual pathways, 106 Visual perception analogy with printed language, 88-91 and absence of corpus callosum, 167-176 and aphasia, 412-413 and brain abnormality, 424-427 and learning disorders, 477 and reading disability, 408, 445-455 chunking in, 87, 240-241, 243-245 defective, prognosis in, 451-454, 461-462 development, 375-379 eye movements in, 81-83 in infancy, 351-379 effect of experience, 373-375 measurement, 352-353 nerve spike as unit of, 91 role of hierarchy and structure, 89-91 saccades in, 81-83 vs. auditory perception, 240-241 See also Attention; Visual discrimination; Visual selectivity; Pattern perception; etc. Visual performance, as function of contrast, 104-105 Visual preference, see Visual discrimination Visual selectivity and reading, 378-379 in infancy, 360-373, 376-379, 383-384 effect of repetition, 367-369 effect of visual deprivation, 374 in premature infants, 383 See also Visual discrimination; Pattern perception; Attention; Visual perception; etc. Visual stimulation. 123-124, 127-129 visual acuity after lack of, 254-257 Visual suppression and reading disability, 460-461 during saccades, 2, 127-129 in strabismus, 123 mechanism, 459-461 See also Inhibition Visual system central, excitability in, 146-149 connections with limbic system, 142 532

Index of Subjects electrophysiology, 145-147 nonspecific, effect of stimulation of, on visual cortex, 160 primary, visual inputs to, compared with those to nonprimary system, 158-159 Vitreous humor, 5 Vocabulary, in beginning reading, 16-17 Vocalization, in infancy, 338-342 and sex, 332-333, 339, 341-342 and socioeconomic conditions, 342-343 as index of attention, 329, 339, 341 as index of mental development, 342-343 determinants, 332-333 measurement, 333-335, 337 Wertheimer's apparent motion, role of visual memory, 193 Word blindness, 407 and dominant laterality, 407-409 and letter blindness, 407 and memory, 407 and retarded speech development, 407- 408 and sex, 407,414 and stuttering, 407 and word deafness, 407 heritability, 407 interpretations, 406-409 reversals of letters, syllables, and words in, 409 vs. Gerstmann's syndrome, 412 See also Reading disability Word deafness, relationship to word blind- ness, 407 Word meaning, testing, 21 Word recognition, testing, 21 Writing and absence of corpus callosum, 168-169, 171 deficient, in reading disability, 411 early, benefit in learning to read, 28-29 X-ray, in determining eye growth, 39 533

Early Experience and Visual Information Processing in Perceptual and Reading Disorders: Proceedings of a Conference Held October 27-30, 1968, at Lake Mohonk, New York, in Association With the Committee on Brain Sciences, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council. Edited Get This Book
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