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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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Limited Affordable
Low-Volume
Manufacturing

SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP

Maureen Mellody, Rapporteur

Defense Materials Manufacturing and Infrastructure Standing Committee
National Materials and Manufacturing Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by Contract No. W91lNF-l0-C-0098 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-30065-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-30065-7

Cover image: The cover depicts the variability that comes with low-volume manufacturing. Just as no snowflakes are alike, objects can today be manufactured to uniquely fit the desired application with no need for similarity or duplication. Artist: Erik Svedberg, 3D images generated by mathematical formulas where the possibilities are infinite.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON LIMITED AFFORDABLE
LOW-VOLUME MANUFACTURING: A WORKSHOP

ROBERT H. LATIFF, Chair, R. Latiff Associates

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, Vice-Chair, GE Aviation

VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC

JESUS M. DE LA GARZA, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

ROSARIO A. GERHARDT, Georgia Institute of Technology

MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc. (ANSER)

E. SARAH SLAUGHTER, Built Environment Coalition

DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant

A. GALIP ULSOY, University of Michigan

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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DEFENSE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING AND
INFRASTRUCTURE STANDING COMMITTEE

ROBERT H. LATIFF, Chair, R. Latiff Associates

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, Vice-Chair, GE Aviation

VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC

JESUS M. DE LA GARZA, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory

MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc.

E. SARAH SLAUGHTER, Built Environment Coalition

DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant

A. GALIP ULSOY, University of Michigan

HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia

Staff

DENNIS I. CHAMOT, Acting Director

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

MAUREEN MELLODY, Rapporteur

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, NAE, Chair, GE Aviation

PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, NAE, ALCOA

LAWRENCE D. BURNS, NAE, University of Michigan

JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University

STEPHEN H. DAVIS, Northwestern University

GEORGE T. GRAY, Los Alamos National Laboratory

JENNIE S. HWANG, H-Technologies Group

SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology

ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates

MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc.

CELIA MERZBACHER, Semiconductor Research Corporation

EDWARD MORRIS, National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining

ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative

VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC

HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia

BEN WANG, Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute

ALBERT R.C. WESTWOOD, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories (emeritus)

Staff

DENNIS I. CHAMOT, Acting Director

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Robert E. Schafrik (NAE), GE Aviation,

Denise F. Swink, Independent Consultant,

Haydn N.G. Wadley, University of Virginia, and

Albert R.C. Westwood (NAE), Sandia National Laboratories.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented at the workshop, nor did they see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by David W. Johnson, Jr., Stevens Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18697.
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Limited Affordable Low-Volume Manufacturing is the summary of a workshop convened by the National Materials and Manufacturing Board of the National Research Council in August 2013 to discuss affordable, low-volume manufacturing. The workshop focused on four critical issues relevant to manufacturing: low-volume manufacturing; use of commercial off-the-shelf equipment; short production runs; and commercial manufacturing services. The workshop discussion also considered variable-rate manufacturing and high-mix manufacturing, both aspects of low-volume manufacturing. This report examines the characteristics of low-volume manufacturing and considers future advances in limited affordable low-volume manufacturing in the United States.

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