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16 FY 1990 U. S. Global Change Research Program Budget Over the past year, the CES conducted several interagency global change research budget planning and analysis activities to ensure that the President's Budget includes requests that are well integrated and responsive to the Program's goals and priorities. The U.S. Global Change Research Program budget in- cludes only research efforts specifically focused on global change issues. Some agency programs that contribute to global change research, but were initiated for and continue to serve other primary purposes, are not included in the focused U.S. Global Change Research Program budget (e.g., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Upper Atmospheric Research Program and Topex/Poseidon mission, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's meterological satellites, and several programs from the Department of De- fense). It is anticipated, over the next several years, that some of these contributing programs will be incorporated into the focused Program. In FY 1989, funding for focused global change research activities totals $133.9 million. The President's FY 1990 budget proposes a funding level of $190.5 million for these programs. (See Table 1 on pages 24 for additional details.) The budget includes important ongoing and new research efforts. Some of these ongoing efforts, like the National Science Foundation's Global Geosciences program and the Department of Energy's carbon dioxide program, have laid the foundation for the proposed FY 1990 effort. This budget will allow the Program to expand and accelerate its research activi- ties across all areas of global change.
17 Figure 1 U.S. Global Change Research Program by Science Element Dollars in Millions 200 150 100 50 Solar lnfluences Solid Earth Pro. Earth Sys. History Human lnteractions Cli. and Hyd. Sys. Eco. Sys. and Dyn. Biogeochem. Dyn. 1989 1990 Fiscal Year Budget by Science Element From a scientific perspective, the best way to understand the global change research budget is to examine it by the major science elements. Figure 1 presents the FY 1989 and FY 1990 budgets by science element. â¢ Biogeochemical Dynamics: These programs concentrate on the study of the biogeochemical constituents (e.g., oxy- gen, carbon, nitrogen, etc.) within the earth system and their influence on the life-sustaining envelope of the earth, including global warming. The FY 1990 budget proposes $44.9 million for this element, a 51 percent increase over the FY 1989 level. â¢ Ecological Systems and Dynamics: These programs focus on how ecological systems both impact and respond to a wide range of global changes. The FY 1990 budget proposes $39.5 million for this element, a 41 percent increase over the FY 1989 level.
18 Climate and Hydrological System: This research exam- ines the physical processes that govern the climate and hydrologic system, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surfaces, and biosphere. These efforts are clearly central to the description, understanding, and pre- diction of global change. The FY 1990 budget proposes $59.3 million for this element, a 56 percent increase over the FY 1989 level. Human Interactions: These programs study the interface between natural processes and human activities. Roughly two-thirds are policy studies and not earth science research. However, these studies benefit greatly from close associa- tion with the research activities. The FY 1990 budget proposes $22.0 million for this element. Earth System History: This element is crucial to docu- menting past natural changes. Climate information from the past will be very important in distinguishing the relative roles of natural phenomena and human activity in global change. The FY 1990 budget proposes $7.0 million for this element, roughly doubling the FY 1989 level. Solid Earth Processes: Interactions between the earth's surface and the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere are the key elements of this program. The FY 1990 budget proposes $10.5 million for this element, an 18 percent increase over the FY 1989 level. Solar Influences: These programs are designed to study the impact of solar variability on the atmosphere and climate. The FY 1990 budget proposes $7.3 million for this element, a 78 percent increase over the FY 1989 level.
19 Figure 2 U.S. Global Change Research Program by Agency Dollars in Millions 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 J J \// v 1989 1990 NSF DOE USGS NASA NOAA EPA USDA AGENCY Budget by Agency Figure 2 shows the FY 1989 and FY 1990 proposed budget level by agency. The individual agency efforts reflect their particular mission, and build upon their respective scientific and technical strengths. â¢ National Science Foundation (NSF): NSF primarily supports university-based basic research in all areas of earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences. NSF's efforts encompass all seven science elements except human inter- actions. The FY 1990 budget proposes $53.5 million for NSF, a 36 percent increase over FY 1989. This increase reflects Administration and Congressional commitment to doubling the level of NSF's support for university-based basic research over the next five years. â¢ Department of Energy (DOE): DOE maintains a pro- gram of research directed at how energy production and use affect global earth systems and how possible responses to such change may affect future energy options. As a result,
20 the DOE global change program is focused primarily on climate and ecosystem response research. The FY 1990 budget proposes $27.2 million for DOE, a 35 percent increase over FY 1989. Department of the Interior/United States Geological Survey (DOI/USGS): DOI/USGS carries out research in past climate change, regional hydrology, the carbon cycle, coastal erosion, volcanic activity, and glaciology. The FY 1990 budget proposes $10.3 million for DOI/USGS, a 94 percent increase over FY 1989. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: (NASA) is responsible for earth sciences research from space, including broad scientific studies of the planet as an integrated system. This research effort supports advanced technology development studies of the Earth Observing System (EOS). These studies will focus on defining the remote sensing instruments, space infrastructure, and data management systems needed to study a broad range of global change processes. EOS is under consideration as a new initiative sometime over the next several years. The FY 1990 budget proposes $21.5 million for NASA, a 48 percent increase over FY 1989. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and At- mospheric Administration (DOC/NOAA): Building on its base of oceanic and atmospheric science and services, DOC/NOAA's focused programs emphasize improving predictions of climate change and its regional implications, on time scales from a single season to centuries. NOAA's mission-directed activities include research on physical and biogeochemical processes in the climate system, in situ measurements, climate modeling, and diagnostic tech- niques for detecting global changes. The FY 1990 budget proposes $20.0 million for DOC/ NOAA, roughly doubling the FY 1989 level.
21 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): EPA research is focused on ecological systems and human interactions. These research efforts reflect EPA's regulatory mission to assess and evaluate the ecological, environmental, and health-related consequences of global change. The FY 1990 budget proposes $35.3 million for EPA, a 29 percent increase over FY 1989. Roughly 40 percent of the FY 1990 program is for policy studies. United States Department of Agriculture (USD A): The USDA global change research programs deal with the impact of the climate on agricultural and ecological sys- tems and the impact of these systems on the climate. Many of the USDA vegetation, soils, and ecology research pro- grams are critical to the success of the Program. The FY 1990 budget proposes $22.7 million for USDA, a 24 per- cent increase over FY 1989. Figure 3 U.S. Global Change Research Program by Activity J J Dollars in Millions 200 150 100 50 Facilities Data Management Observations Research 1989 1990 Fiscal Year Budget by Type of Activity The Program has been divided into the four types of activi- ties that are highlighted in Figure 3. The FY 1990 budget
22 proposes $158.9 million for research, 83 percent of the total FY 1990 budget. However, it is anticipated that the ratio between the four types of activities will change significantly over the next several years. Planning funds have been included for future observing systems, their data management needs, and associated facilities. These planning efforts and the Program's coordination mechanisms will ensure the most efficient use of these capital investments. In particular, the CES is working with the interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change to address the future data management needs of the Program. The CES plans to maximize the use of existing archive systems (e.g., DOVUSGS's Earth Resources Observa- tions Satellite Data Center and DOC/NOAA's National Cli- mate Data Center). Figure 4 U.S. Global Change Research Program by Federal Budget Function Dollars in Millions 80 1 1989 1990 250 270 300 350 Federal Budget Function Budget by Federal Budget Function Scientific, environmental, energy, and agricultural resources are very important to our Nation. All either impact or are impacted by global change.
23 Figure 4 illustrates the Program's funding level by the Federal budget functions that encompass these national re- sources. As would be expected, the budget proposes signifi- cant increases for budget functions 250 and 300. In FY 1990, $75.0 million is proposed for function 250, a 40 percent in- crease over FY 1989. For function 300, $65.6 million is proposed for FY 1990, a 57 percent increase over FY 1989. Despite the broad distribution across these budget functions and, hence, across many Executive Branch and Congressional decision making paths, it is crucial to view the Program as a single integrated research effort. The success of many of the science objectives is dependent on the cooperation and contri- butions of all the individual agency programs. Thus, decisions concerning these investments should attempt to recognize the full scope and structure of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Table 2 1989-1990 U. S. Global Change Research Program Budget by Budget Function (Dollars in Millions) Budget Budget Function Function Number 1989 1990 TOTAL 133.9 190.5 General Science, Space and Technology 250 53.7 75.0 NASA 14.5 21.5 NSF 39.2 53.5 Energy (DOE) 270 20.2 27.2 Natural Resources & Environment 300 41.7 65.6 DOI/USGS 5.3 10.3 EPA 27.4 35.3 DOC/NOAA 9.0 20.0 Agriculture (USDA) 350 18.3 22.7
24. 1989-1990 U. S. Global Change I Table 1 (Dollars I Focused Program Total Budget Biogeochemical Dynamics Ecological Systems and Dynamics t 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990 Agency Totals 133.9 190.5 29.8 44.9 28.1 39.5 NSF 39.2 53.5 13.5 18.3 1.9 1.9 DOE 20.2 27.2 6.0 5.5 4.2 6.7 DOI/USGS 5.3 10.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 NASA 14.5 21.5 3.0 4.4 4.3 6.4 DOC/NOAA 9.0 20.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 EPA 27.4 35.3 0.8 3.5 7.4 13.2 USDA 18.3 22.7 6.5 10.2 10.3 11.0 Activity 133.9 190.5 29.8 44.9 28.1 39.5 Research 116.4 158.9 26.9 40.1 24.9 35.0 Observations 10.7 15.0 0.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Data Management 2.3 8.1 0.4 0.8 0.2 1.0 Facilities 4.5 8.5 2.5 2.5 1.0 1.0
25 Research Program Budget n Millions) Climate and lydrologic System Human Interactions Earth System History Solid Earth Processes Solar Influences 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990 38.0 59.3 22.0 22.0 3.0 7.0 8.9 10.5 4.1 7.3 13.2 17.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.7 6.2 6.5 2.4 5.1 7.0 10.2 2.0 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.2 2.3 5.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 2.3 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 4.3 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 3.3 0.7 1.0 9.0 17.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 2.2 18.5 16.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.0 59.3 22.0 22.0 3.0 7.0 8.9 10.5 4.1 7.3 31.6 46.1 22.0 20.8 3.0 3.5 5.4 8.1 2.6 5.3 5.0 8.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 2.2 0.2 0.3 1.4 4.7 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.5