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29 APPENDIX A CHARTER COMMITTEE ON EARTH SCIENCES of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology The Committee on Earth Sciences (CES) is hereby estab- lished by action of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). FCCSET derives its current authority from executive Order 12039 of February 24, 1978. Purpose and Functions A goal of earth sciences is to understand, on a global scale, how the highly interactive system comprised of the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and magnetosphere, and the biosphere has evolved, how it functions today, and how it will evolve in the future. In addition to basic research, earth science R&D includes continued development of the technol- ogy needed for observations of the earth system and increased emphasis on collection, analysis, and archiving of data on a global scale from satellite and ground-based measurements needed for long-term research efforts and addressing national policy issues which depend on a characterization of human- kind's impact, or potential impact, on the global environment. The purpose of the Committee on Earth Sciences is to increase the overall effectiveness and productivity of Federal R&D efforts directed toward an understanding of the Earth as a global system. In fulfilling this purpose the Committee addresses significant national policy matters which cut across agency boundaries. Specifically the CES: a. reviews Federal R&D programs in earth sciences including both national and international programs; b. improves planning, coordination, and communication among Federal agencies engaged in earth sciences R&D;
30 c. identifies and defines earth sciences R&D needs; d. develops and updates long-range plans for the overall Federal R&D effort in earth sciences; e. addresses specific programmatic and operational issues and problems which affect two or more Federal agencies; f. provides reviews, analyses, advice and recommen- dations to the Chairperson of FCCSET on Federal policies and programs concerned with earth sciences R&D, particularly in assessing human kind's impact on the global environment; g. develops the Administration's response to the call in the NSF Authorization Act of 1987 for a report to Congress, in the NSF Authorization Act of 1987, concerning Federal Government action with respect to the establishment of an International Year of the Greenhouse Effect mandated in calendar year 1991. Structure The Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the CES are appointed by the Chairperson of FCCSET; the Vice-Chairper- son is from an agency other than that which the Chairperson represents. The Executive Secretary is designated by the CES Chairperson. Additional staff assistance is provided by mem- ber agencies as required by the Committee. Chairpersons of CES task forces or working groups arrange assistance from their own agencies. The following departments and agencies are represented on this Committee: Department of Agriculture Department of Commerce Department of Energy Department of the Interior
31 Department of State Department of Transportation National Science Foundation Environmental Protection Agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Science and Technology Policy Office of Managment and Budget Council on Environmental Quality Other Federal agencies participate, as appropriate, upon invitation by the Committee Chairperson or the Chairperson of FCCSET. The CES Chairperson approves the establishment, continu- ation, or termination of task forces and working groups as necessary to achieve the Committee's purposes. Membership on such task forces and working groups is not restricted to Committee members and is established as the Committee may determine appropriate. The Committee meets at the call of the CES Chairperson who also approves the agenda. Meetings are held not less than two times a year. Meetings of task forces and working groups are held as necessary to meet their specific objectives. Minutes of meetings are prepared by the Committee Executive Secretary and distributed to all members of the Committee, the leaders of task forces and working groups, and to the Executive Secretary of FCCSET. Compensation All members are full-time Federal employees who are allowed reimbursement for travel expenses by their agencies plus per diem or subsistence while serving away from their duty stations and in accordance with standard governmental travel regulations.
32 Documentation Agendas and records of actions of Committee meetings are prepared and disseminated to members by the Executive Secre- tary. Records of actions are submitted to members for approval. Complete records of all committee activities, including those of task forces and working groups, are maintained in the office of the Chairperson. The Committee prepares a report for the Chairperson of FCCSET not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year. The report contains, as a minimum, the Committee's functions, a list of members and their business addresses, the dates and places of meetings, and a summary of the Committee's activities and recommendations during the year. Termination date Unless renewed by the Chairperson of FCCSET prior to its expiration, the Committee on Earth Sciences of FCCSET shall terminate not later than December 31,1990. Determination I hereby determine that the formation of the Committee on Earth Sciences is in the public interest in connection with the performance of duties imposed on the Executive Branch by law and that such duties can best be performed through the advice and counsel of such a group. Approved: March 6, 1987 Date Chairman, FCCSET
33 Appointment of New Member and Amendment to the Charter of the Committee on Earth Sciences (FCCSET) APPOINTMENT: By my authority as Chairman, Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), I appoint the Department of Transpor- tation as a permanent member of the Committee on Earth Sciences (CES). AMENDMENT: Charter of the Committee on Earth Sciences of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology as signed and approved on March 6,1987, by the Chairman, FCCSET, is amended as follows. Under the Section "Structure," add the following new member: "Department of Transportation" August 24, 1988 Date William R. Graham, Chairman Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology
35 APPENDIX B: DEFINITIONS OF SCIENCE ELEMENTS AND TYPE OF ACTIVITY Definition of Science Elements 1. Biogeochemical Dynamics- The study of (1) the sources, sinks, fluxes, and interactions between mobile biogeochemical constituents within the Earth system, with a particular focus on oxygen, and other key elements, including carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and the halogens; (2) the cycling of bio- geochemical elements in the atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial regions, biota, and other sediments over Earth's history; (3) the influence of biogeochemical elements on the regulation of ecological systems and contribution to potential "green- house" constituents (for example CO2, CH4, etc.) that might have a direct influence on climate and the life-sustaining envelope of the Earth. Hydrology is excluded here and included in #3. For consistency, ozone studies will be included here. 2. Ecological Systems and Dynamics- The study of the re- sponses of ecological systems, both aquatic and terrestrial, to changes in global environmental conditions and of the influ- ence of biological communities on the atmospheric, climatic, and ocean systems. It includes studies of plant succession, terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity, extinctions, relationship with geological substrate, etc. Contemporary monitoring and specific ecosystem experiments can provide information on multiple stresses influencing the biota and on the biotic re- sponse to environmental stresses both natural and cultural; such information is needed to achieve the basic understanding required for the development of models. Identification and study of particularly sensitive and indicative ecosystems will be especially informative. 3. Climatic and Hydrologic System- The study of the physical
36. processes that govern the climate and hydrologic system-- incorporating the atmosphere, hydrosphere (oceans, surface and ground water, etc), cryosphere, land surface, and bio- sphere. These are clearly central to the description, under- standing, and prediction of global change, particularly in terms of impacts on global climate conditions and upon the pervasive and critical hydrologic system. 4. Human Interactions- The study of the impacts of changing global conditions on human activities. The global environment is a crucial determinant of humanity's capacity for continued and sustained development. Research should focus on the interface between human activities and natural processes. An example would be the studies of the impacts on agriculture from changes in length of growing season. 5. Earth System History- The natural record of environmental change is contained in the rocks, terrestrial and marine sedi- ments, glaciers and ground ice, tree rings, geomorphic features (including the record of changes in sea level), and other direct or proxy documentation of past environmental conditions. These archive the Earth's history and document the evolution of life, past ecosytems, and human societies. Past geological epochs with warmer or cooler climates relative to present are of particular scientific interest and should illustrate the range of natural variability. As past analogues of possible future cli- mates, they contribute both to the understanding of the present Earth system and to the prediction of its future. 6. Solid-Earth Processes- The study of solid-Earth processes that affect the life-supporting characteristics of the global environment and especially those processes that take place at the interfaces between the solid earth and the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and the biosphere. Solid-Earth processes that directly affect the environment are of primary interest; processes that have only indirect effects are excluded.
37 7. Solar Influences- Studies of variability in solar brightness and its impact in atmospheric density, chemistry, dynamics, ionizations, and climate. Studies of the effects of solar vari- ability on biogeochemical cycles as well as the ultraviolet impact on biology and chemistry would be included here. Included are studies of present-day variations and the historical record. This may include examination of causal mechanisms to explain linkages between solar flux variation and subsequent atmospheric responses that have important implications for the biosphere. Definitions of Type of Activity 1. Research- The research element includes basic and applied science, theory, analysis, modeling, prediction, and assessment which are fundamental to understanding global change or some portion of the Earth system. Examples are process studies, analyses of processes, ex- ploratory field measurement programs, measurements other than long-term sustained observations, and basic laboratory studies. Also included is applied mission- or problem-oriented research, for example acid rain research. Activities such as policy option studies, emission estimates, and economic mod- eling would be included here but should be labeled as such. Model development and use is included here, that is, the development, improvement, and application of quantitative numerical models that simulate processes of the global envi- ronment and components of its subsystems, coupled models exploring processes between subsystems, models of human activities and their impacts, assessment models, and predictive models, including operational forecasting models.
38, 2. Long-term Observations- This element includes observa- tions made periodically or continuously over three years or more, and is essentially the documentation of global change. It includes monitoring aimed at developing a long-term observa- tional record of environmental parameters for research on decadal time scales. Examples: Documentation of variations and changes in the atmosphere's concentration of trace gases; documentation of variations and changes in global atmospheric circulation; satellite measurements of ocean parameters. Facilities supporting these observations are included along with the actual activities and costs of taking the measurements, developing the algorithms to analyze the data, and the reduc- tion of the data. 3. Data Management- This category includes operational expenses for organizing, archiving, preserving, and making data available for global change research. This includes all activities related to global change data management beyond those short-term activities reported under the research activity. 4. Facilities- Some programs may include major investments in logistics or facilities (satellites, research vessels, super- computers, telecommunications hardware, etc.) that are essen- tial to the success of a program.
QC 981.8 .05 09 2000 C.1 Our changing planet
Global patterns of biological productivity showing land and ocean vegetation. Land patterns are determined from measurements taken from the NOAA-7 polar orbiting satellite and ocean patterns from the NASA Nimbus-7 satellite. Ocean productivity patterns represent an average over 18 months and range from red (most productive) to purple (least productive). Land patterns represent the potential productivity averaged over 3 years and range from deep green (representing rainforests) to beige (representing deserts and barren regions).