National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions (2014)

Chapter: Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
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APPENDIX A

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ABoVE Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment
ACADIS Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service
ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
ADCP Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers
AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Radiation Sounder
AMOC Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
AMSR-E Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System
AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit
AOFB autonomous ocean flux buoys
AON Arctic Observing Network
APECS Association of Polar Early Career Scientists
ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
AUV autonomous underwater vehicle
 
CDR carbon dioxide removal
CI cyberinfrastructure
CMIP5 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-5
CODAR coastal ocean dynamics applications radar
CORS Continuously Operating Reference Station
CRA Collaborative Research Action
CTD conductivity, temperature, depth
 
DBO Distributed Biological Observatory
DoD Department of Defense
DOE U. S. Department of Energy
 
ELOKA Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge in the Arctic
EOL Earth Observing Laboratory
ET evapotranspiration
 
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
 
GCM global climate model
GrIS Greenland Ice Sheet
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
×
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPM Global Precipitation Measurement
GPS Global Positioning Satellite
GRAV-D Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum
 
HALIP High Arctic Large Igneous Province
 
IARPC Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee
IASC International Arctic Science Committee
IASSA International Arctic Social Sciences Association
InSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar
IOOS Integrated Ocean Observing System
IMB Ice Mass Balance
IMO international maritime organization
IPY International Polar Year
IRD ice-rafted debris
ITP ice-tethered profilers
 
LEDAPS Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System
LIP large igneous province
LTER Long-Term Ecological Research
 
MIS Marine Isotope Stage
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
 
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research
NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
NGEE Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiment
NGS National Geodetic Survey
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NRC National Research Council
NSF National Science Foundation
NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center
NSSI North Slope Science Initiative
 
OOI Ocean Observing Initiative
 
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
×
PacMARS Pacific Marine Arctic Regional Synthesis
PETM Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
PPF polar profiling floats
PV photovoltaic
 
RCP Representative Concentration Pathway
ROV remotely operated vehicle
 
SAON Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks
SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar
SCTF Scientific Cooperation Task Force
SEARCH Study of Environmental ARctic CHange
SEES Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability
SHEBA Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
SLiCA Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic
SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive
SOAR Synthesis of Arctic Research
SRM solar radiation management
 
UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
UCAR University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
USARC U.S. Arctic Research Commission
 
WOC World Ocean Council
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
×
Page 191
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
×
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
×
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2014. The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18726.
×
Page 194
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Once ice-bound, difficult to access, and largely ignored by the rest of the world, the Arctic is now front and center in the midst of many important questions facing the world today. Our daily weather, what we eat, and coastal flooding are all interconnected with the future of the Arctic. The year 2012 was an astounding year for Arctic change. The summer sea ice volume smashed previous records, losing approximately 75 percent of its value since 1980 and half of its areal coverage. Multiple records were also broken when 97 percent of Greenland's surface experienced melt conditions in 2012, the largest melt extent in the satellite era. Receding ice caps in Arctic Canada are now exposing land surfaces that have been continuously ice covered for more than 40,000 years.

What happens in the Arctic has far-reaching implications around the world. Loss of snow and ice exacerbates climate change and is the largest contributor to expected global sea level rise during the next century. Ten percent of the world's fish catches comes from Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that up to 13 percent of the world's remaining oil reserves are in the Arctic. The geologic history of the Arctic may hold vital clues about massive volcanic eruptions and the consequent release of massive amount of coal fly ash that is thought to have caused mass extinctions in the distant past. How will these changes affect the rest of Earth? What research should we invest in to best understand this previously hidden land, manage impacts of change on Arctic communities, and cooperate with researchers from other nations?

The Arctic in the Anthropocene reviews research questions previously identified by Arctic researchers, and then highlights the new questions that have emerged in the wake of and expectation of further rapid Arctic change, as well as new capabilities to address them. This report is meant to guide future directions in U.S. Arctic research so that research is targeted on critical scientific and societal questions and conducted as effectively as possible. The Arctic in the Anthropocene identifies both a disciplinary and a cross-cutting research strategy for the next 10 to 20 years, and evaluates infrastructure needs and collaboration opportunities. The climate, biology, and society in the Arctic are changing in rapid, complex, and interactive ways. Understanding the Arctic system has never been more critical; thus, Arctic research has never been more important. This report will be a resource for institutions, funders, policy makers, and students. Written in an engaging style, The Arctic in the Anthropocene paints a picture of one of the last unknown places on this planet, and communicates the excitement and importance of the discoveries and challenges that lie ahead.

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