1For more detailed discussion, please see National Research Council, 2007. Chapter 9, Industrial laboratories and research in condensed matter and materials physics, Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
2National Research Council, 2012. Measuring the Impacts of Federal Investments in Research: A Workshop Summary, Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; National Science Board, 2012. Research & Development, Innovation, and the Science and Engineering Workforce: A Companion to Science and Engineering Indicators 2012, Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation.
3R. Haitz and J.Y. Tsao, 2011. Solid-state lighting: ‘The case’ 10 years after and future prospects, Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science 208: 17-29.
4I.L. Azevedo, M.G. Morgan, and F. Morgan, 2009. The transition to solid-state lighting, Proceedings of the IEEE 97: 481-510.
5http://www.ledinside.com/pricequotes/2011/10/price_bulb_1110; http://www.theverge.com/2013/3/5/4068174/cree-10-dollar-led-light-bulb-incandescent; National Research Council, 2013. Assessment of Advanced Solid State Lighting, Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
6U.S. Department of Energy, 2006. Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.
7U.S. Department of Energy, 2013. Solid-State Lighting Research and Development Multi-Year Program Plan, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
8 J.M. Phillips, M.E. Coltrin, M.H. Crawford, A.J. Fischer, M.R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G.O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L.E.S. Rohwer, J.A. Simmons, and J.Y. Tsao, 2007. Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting, Laser & Photonics Reviews 1: 307-333.
9Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications (January, 2012), http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/ssl_energy-savings-report_jan-2012.pdf.
12S.L. Ginn, I.E. Alexander, M.L. Edelstein, M.R. Abedi, and J. Wixon, 2013. Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide to 2012: An update, Journal of Gene Medicine 15: 65-77.
13R.K. DeLong, C.M. Reynolds, Y. Malcolm, A. Schaeffer, T. Severs, and A. Wanekaya, 2010. Functionalized gold nanoparticles for the binding, stabilization, and delivery of therapeutic DNA, RNA, and other biological macromolecules, Nanotechnology, Science and Applications 3: 53-63; J.W. Zwanikken, P.J. Guo, C.A. Mirkin, and M.O. de la Cruz, 2011. Local ionic environment around polyvalent nucleic acid-functionalized nanoparticles, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115: 16368.
14A.W. Martinez, A.W., S.T. Phillips, M.J. Butte, and G.M. Whitesides, 2007. Patterned paper as a platform for inexpensive, low volume, portable bioassays, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 46: 1318-1320.
15S.J. Vella, P.D. Beattie, R. Cademartiri, et al., 2012. Measuring markers of liver function using a micropatterned paper device designed for blood from a fingerstick, Analytical Chemistry 84: 2883-2891.
17M.S. Whittingham, 1976. Electrical energy storage and intercalation chemistry, Science 192: 1126.
18K. Mizushima, P.C. Jones, P.J. Wiseman, and J.B. Goodenough, 1980. LixCoO2(0<x<l): A new cathode materials for batteries of high energy density, Materials Research Bulletin 15: 783.
19M.S. Whittingham, 2004. Lithium batteries and cathode materials, Chemical Review 104: 4271.
20Ibid.; S.-W. Kim, D.-H. Seo, X. Ma, G. Ceder, and K. Kang, 2012. Electrode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries: Potential alternatives to current lithium-ion batteries, Advanced Engineering Materials 2: 710-721.
23P. Gleick, 2011. The World’s Water, Volume 7. Washington, D.C.: Island Press; U.S. Department of Energy, 2006. Energy Demands on Water Resources, Report to Congress on the Interdependency of Energy and Water, Available at http://www.sandia.gov/energy-water/docs/121-RptToCongress-EWwEIAcomments-FINAL.pdf.
24U.S. Department of Energy, 2006.
25M.A. Shannon, P.W. Bohn, M. Elimelech, J.G. Georgiadis, B.J. Mariñas, and A.M. Mayes, 2008. Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades, Nature 452: 301-310.
28National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, 2013. U.S. R&D Spending Resumes Growth in 2010 and 2011 but Still Lags Behind the Pace of Expansion of the National Economy, Table 3, InfoBrief NSD 13-313. Arlington, Va. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf13313/#tab3.
29National Research Council, 2007. Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics, Chapter 9. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.