National Academies Press: OpenBook

Coal Mining (1978)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1978. Coal Mining. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18766.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Coal Mining Prepared by the ' Ad Hoc Panel on Coal Mining Technology of the Committee on Processing and Utilization of Fossil Fuels • Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1978 NAS-NAE OCT5 1978 LIBRARY

NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This is a report of a study undertaken by the Ad Hoc Panel on Direct Combustion of Coal of the Committee on Processing and Utilization of Fossil Fuels, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems, National Research Council for the National Academy of Sciences in final execution of work under Contract No. E (49-18) 1216 with the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Order from National Technical Information Service. Springfield, Va. 22161 ^y. ).,»/ Order **&& ii

FOREWORD Predictions of energy shortages and the realities of recent increases in fuel cost have brought the country to the immediate need to conserve energy and to expand its domestic energy base. The increased extraction and utilization of coal with a minimum impact upon the environment is a major objective of a significant portion of the nation's energy research and development activities. In response to a 1975 contract with the U.S. Energy Research and Development Adminstration (ERDA), the National Research Council (NRC) undertook a comprehensive evaluation of the status, technology, and research and development priorities for the major components of the coal processing and utilization system (i.e., coal mining, direct combustion, liquefaction, low-Btu gasification, and advanced power cycles). The objectives of the study are to provide: 1. An assessment of the priorities to be assigned to the components of a process, among processes within a given area, and among areas 2. An outline of research and development needs, supportive research requirements (with particular emphasis on the role of universities), projected time schedules, and development strategies 3. An assessment of environmental impact and technology requirements 4. An assessment of the impact of materials, capital, and manpower requirements Foreign and domestic extraction and processing methods available or under development were to be considered as were questions related to concepts, alternatives, engineering adequacy, costs, efficiency, applicability, process maturity, and possible rates of installation. Appointed to oversee the study was the Committee on Processing and Utilization of Fossil Fuels of the NRC Commission on Sociotechnical Systems. Five ad hoc Panels were appointed to assist the Committee by preparing detailed reports on each topic of interest. The reports issued by iii

these Panels include: Assessment of Technology for Advanced Power Cycles, Coal Mining, Assessment of Advanced Technology for Direct Combustion of Coal, Assessment of Technology for the Liquefaction of Coal, and Assessment of Low-Btu Gasification of Coal. It is hoped that these reports will provide a sound basis for increased public and governmental understanding of the problems and options of coal processing and utilization and will assist in the national determination of the rate and manner in which this abundant natural resource is used to provide an increasing portion of domestic energy needs. While this report and the others in the series deal with subjects clearly crucial to the evolution of energy policy and practice, they deal primarily with present and immediately foreseeable coal processing and utilization technology. Also, the! Committee and its Panels recognize that their economic comparisons and timing expectations are subject to change as a result of possible developments (e.g., financial, legislative, regulatory, antitrust, international-trade, price-structure, environmental, and as- yet-undisclosed proprietary developments) whose outcomes cannot be predicted confidently. Thus, this series of reports, should be read both independently and in light of the very broad, longer term energy assessment forthcoming from the National Research Council Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Walter R. Hibbard, Jr., Chairiran Committee on Processing and Utilization of Fossil Fuels iv

PREFACE The primary objective of the Panel on Coal Mining Technology was to identify any mining technology needed to expand national coal production without incurring a substantial social or environmental impact. Manpower requirements, worker health and safety, and coal reserves, distribution, and quality were the issues of major concern, but it also was necessary to consider related issues that may affect coal utilization such as transportation and mining regulations. Both existing mining techniques and future technology were reviewed with particular emphasis given to techniques that could improve worker productivity and safety. In addition, to determine future research and development needs in mining technology, the Panel reviewed the current research and development program being conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, mining companies, and universities. The Panel's assessment of the present status and prognosis of coal mining technology is based in part on presentations by research and industrial organizations. The cooperation received from these organizations is appreciated. James J. Scott, Chairman Ad Hoc Panel on Coal Mining Technology

COMMITTEE ON PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF FCSSIL FUELS Chairman *WALTER R. HIBBARD, JR., University Professor of Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg Members *DANIEL BERG, Dean, Mellon Institute of Science, Carnegie- Mellon University, Pittsburgh H. BEECHER CHARMBURY, Assistant Dean Emeritus, Planning and Development, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park *MARTIN A. ELLIOTT, Retired, Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation, Houston *HENRY R. LINDEN, President, Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago WILLIAM T. REID, Consultant, Energy Conversion, Columbus JAMES J. SCOTT, Department of Mining Engineering, University of Missouri, Rolla *CEDOMIR M. SLIEPCEVTCH, George Lynn Cross Research Professor of Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman *G.O. WESSENAUER, Retired, Manager of Power, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga *DAVID C. WHITE, Director, Energy Laboratory and Ford Professor of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Liaison Representative LeROY FURLONG, Senior Technical Advisors, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, D.C. Staff R.W. CROZIER, Executive Secretary EARL W. EVANS, Staff Engineer J.M. MARCHELLO, Consultant W.C. SCHROEDER, Consultant CLARET M. HEIDER, Editorial Consultant BARBARA P. WILLARD, Administrative Secretary *Member, National Academy of Engineering vi

AD HOC PANEL ON COAL MINING TECHNOLOGY Of the Committee on Processing and Utilization of Fossil Fuels CHAIRMAN James J. SCOTT, Department of Mining Engineering, University of Missouri, Rolla, Missouri MEMBERS Clayton G. BALL, Special Consultant, Paul Weir Company, Inc., Chicago, Illinois H. Douglas DAHL, Manager, Mining Research Division, Continental Oil Company, Ponca City, Oklahoma Hugh W. EVANS, Manager, Synthetic Crude 5 Minerals Division, Atlantic Richfield Company, Denver, Colorado J. Richard LUCAS, Head, Department of Mining and Minerals Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia Jack A. SIMON, Chief, Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois LIAISON REPRESENTATIVE Joseph J. YANCIK, Assistant Director, Mining, U.S. Bureau of Mines vii

CONTENTS I. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .... 1 A. Summary 1 B. Conclusions 1 C. Recommendations 2 II. INTRODUCTION 5 III. COAL RESERVES AND QUALITY 7 A. Regional Analysis of Reserves 12 1. Appalachian Region 13 2. Eastern Interior Region 14 3. Western Interior Region 15 4. Western Regions 15 a. Surface-Minable Reserves 15 b. Underground Reserves 16 B. Coal Quality 16 1. Rank 16 2. Coking Coal Characteristics 18 3. Utility Coal Characteristics 18 4. Mineral Matter Content in Coal 18 5. Regional Evaluation 22 IV. UNDERGROUND COAL MINING TECHNOLOGY 25 A. Coal Mining Methods 25 1. Roof Control 27 2. Hauling Methods 27 3. Ventilation and Methane Control Methods . 27 B. Environmental Aspects 28 C. Productivity and Safety 29 D. Research Areas 30 1. Continuous Mining 30 2. Conventional Mining 32 3. Longwall Mining 33 4. Mine Development 33 5. Thick Underground Coal 34 6. Primary Research Topics 34 ix

V. SURFACE MINING 35 A. Overburden Removal 35 B. Coal Loading, Hauling, and Handling 37 C. Environmental Aspects 37 D. Productivity 41 E. Western Coal Capital Costs 41 VI. COAL PREPARATION TECHNIQUES 47 VII. TRANSPORTATION 51 A. Railroads 51 B. Water Transportation 52 C. Electric Power Generation 52 D. Slurry Pipelines 53 VIII. MANPOWER AND TRAINING 55 A. Labor Developments 55 B. Mining Management, Engineering, and Technologist Needs 57 IX. REGULATORY AND SOCIAL ISSUES 61 APPENDICES A. AREAS OF RELATIVE SIMILARITIES OF RECOVERABLE RESERVES 65 B. THE U.S. BUREAU OF MINES RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM 73 C. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES REGULATING MINING 83 TABLES 1. Analysis of Recoverable Coal Reserves in Principal Coal-Bearing States According to Relative Stage of Depletion 8 2. Classification of Coals by Rank (ASTM D-388)... 17 3. Demonstrated Coal Reserve Base in the United States on January 1, 1974, by Geographic Area and Potential Method of Mining 21 4. Effect of 1 Ton per Man-Shift on Total Prices . . 31 5. Irrigation Water Requirements for Reclamation . . 39 6. Estimated Western Coal Production by Mine Type, 1976-1985 42 7. Western Coal Production, 1976-1985, Estimated Capital Requirements 44 8. Projected Manpower Needs—Coal Industry, 1975-1985 56 9. Mining Engineering Graduates, 1956-1978 59

FIGURES 1. Analysis of recoverable coal reserves by states according to maturity of depletion of reserves (1974) 11 2. Plot of maximum permissible sulfur content versus Btu content of coal commensurate with EPA air quality standards 20 XI

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