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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1956. Effect of Exposure to the Atomic Bombs on Pregnancy Termination in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18776.
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THE EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO THE ATOMIC BOMBS ON PREGNANCY TERMINATION IN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI R. C. ANDERSON W. H. BORGES R. C. BREWER S. KlTAMURA A J. V: NEEL AND W. J. SCHULL DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN GENETICS UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN in collaboration with M. KODANI D. J. MCDONALD N. E. MORTON M. SUZUKI K. TAKESHIMA W. J. WEDEMEYER J. W. WOOD S. W. WRIGHT J. N. YAMAZAKI ATOMIC BOMB CASUALTY COMMISSION HIROSHIMA, JAPAN Publication No. 461 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES—NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 1956

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CARD CATALOGUE No. 56-60060

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE I. BACKGROUND 1 1.1 THE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY .... 1 1.2 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE GENETICS PROGRAM 2 1.3 THE EARLY JAPANESE EFFORTS ALONG THESE LINES 2 1.4 SCIENTIFIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS SHAPING THE NATURE OF THE PROGRAM IN JAPAN 3 1.5 LOCAL CONSIDERATIONS SHAPING THE NATURE OF THE PROGRAM IN JAPAN 3 II. THE PLAN 5 2.1 PREGNANCY REGISTRATION 5 2.2 SPECIAL STUDIES ON ABNORMAL TERMINATIONS 9 2.3 THE "10-PER CENT SAMPLE" 9 2.4 THE ACCURACY AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE ANAMNESTIC DATA OB- TAINED ON THE GENETICS SHORT FORM AND THE GENETICS LONG FORM. 9 2.5 THE AUTOPSY PROGRAM 14 2.6 THE COLLECTION OF DATA ON INFANTS AGED 9 MONTHS 14 2.7 THE PROCESSING OF THE DATA 18 2.8 THE STUDY OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS 18 2.9 CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF THE ATOMIC BOMBS 18 2.10 THE DECISION TO DISCONTINUE WORK IN KURE 18 2.11 THE TERMINATION OF THE PROGRAM IN JANUARY, 1954 19 2.12 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 19 HI. A COMPARISON OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI 21 3.1 THE PEOPLING OF JAPAN; POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE INHABI- TANTS OF HONSHU AND KYUSHU 21 3.2 NON-JAPANESE ELEMENTS IN THE Two CITIES 21 3.2.1 EARLY NAGASAKI CONTACTS WITH THE WEST 21 3.2.2 THE DUTCH ON DESHIMA 22 3.2.3 FROM THE REOPENING OF JAPAN TO WORLD WAR II .... 22 3.3 THE BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCE OF "FOREIGNERS" ON NAGASAKI AND HIRO- SHIMA 23 3.4 THE DIFFERENT IMPACTS OF THE ATOMIC BOMBS ON THE Two CITIES . 28 3.4.1 TYPES OF BOMBS 28 3.4.2 EFFECTS OF THE BOMBS ON THE Two CITIES • 28 3.5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABCC PROGRAM IN THE Two CITIES ... 29 IV. THE CRITERIA OF RADIATION EMPLOYED IN THE STUDY .... 33 4.1 THE COMPLICATED NATURE OF THE INJURIES SUSTAINED BY SOME SUR- VIVORS; "DISASTER EFFECT" vs. "RADIATION EFFECT" 33 4.2 THE QUESTION OF RESIDUAL RADIATION FOLLOWING AN ATOMIC BOMBING . .. . • 33

iv Table of Contents PAGE 4.3 FACTORS DETERMINING THE NATURE OF THE RADIATION DATA COLLECTED IN THIS STUDY 34 4.3.1 THE SYNDROME OF RADIATION SICKNESS DUE TO WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION 34 4.3.2 THE RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE FROM THE HYPOCENTER AND RADIATION DOSAGE 36 4.3.3 THE ROLE OF SHIELDING IN DETERMINING RADIATION DOSE . . 36 4.4 THE TYPE OF RADIATION DATA COLLECTED IN THIS STUDY 38 4.5 THE RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE, SHIELDING, AND SYMPTOMS IN THESE DATA 41 4.6 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE VALIDITY OF THE RADIATION HISTORIES . 44 4.7 DEFINITION OF RADIATION CATEGORIES 44 4.8 CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ESTIMATION OF THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF RADIATION RECEIVED BY PERSONS IN EACH OF THE FIVE RADIATION CATEGORIES 45 4.8.1 THE ESTIMATED DISTANCE-DOSAGE CURVE 46 4.8.2 THE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOINT COMMISSION REGARDING LEUCOPENIA 46 4.8.3 THE PROPORTION OF INDIVIDUALS PROTECTED BY VARIOUS TYPES OF SHIELDING 50 4.9 ESTIMATES OF THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF IRRADIATION RECEIVED BY INDI- VIDUALS IN THE VARIOUS EXPOSURE CATEGORIES 50 V. THE COMPARABILITY OF IRRADIATION SUBCLASSES 53 5.1 CONSANGUINITY 53 5.2 AGE AND PARITY 55 5.3 ECONOMIC STATUS 59 5.4 FREQUENCY OF POSITIVE SEROLOGICAL TEST FOR SYPHILIS 61 5.5 FREQUENCY OF INDUCED ABORTIONS AND OF DILATATION AND CURETTAGE OF THE UTERUS (D AND C) 61 5.6 THE FREQUENCY OF REPEAT REGISTRATIONS 63 5.7 PARENTAL COOPERATION 63 5.8 LATE SEQUELAE OF EXPOSURE TO THE BOMBS 69 5.9 THE CHANGING PROPORTION OF CONTROL AND IRRADIATED FROM YEAR TO YEAR 69 5.10 THE BACKGROUND OF GROUP 1 INDIVIDUALS 71 5.11 SUMMARY 71 VI. STATISTICAL METHODS 72 6.1 THE PROBLEM AND THE GENERAL PLAN 72 6.2 INDICATORS OF RADIATION DAMAGE AND THE PROBLEM OF NON-OVERLAPPING MEASUREMENTS 72 6.3 CONCOMITANT VARIATION 73 6.4 REJECTED OBSERVATIONS 77 6.5 THE ANALYSIS OF THE ATTRIBUTE DATA 78 6.6 THE ANALYSIS OF THE MEASUREMENT DATA 82 6.7 SOME FURTHER PROBLEMS 85 6.8 THE USE OF EXPOSED PERSONS AS CONTROLS 86 6.9 PRESENTATION OF MATERIAL 87 VII. ANALYSIS OF THE SEX RATIO DATA 88 7.1 THE TRAIT 88 7.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE SEX RATIO ....... 88

Table of Contents v PAGE 7.3 CONCOMITANT VARIATION INFLUENCING THE INDICATOR 89 7.4 THE DATA 89 7.5 SUMMARY 96 VIII. ANALYSIS OF THE MALFORMATION DATA 99 8.1 THE TRAIT 99 8.2 RELIABILITY OF DIAGNOSIS 99 8.3 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES .... 104 8.4 CONCOMITANT VARIATION INFLUENCING THE INDICATOR 105 8.5 THE "AT-BIRTH" DATA 110 8.6 THE "9-MoNTHs" DATA 115 8.7 ANALYSIS BY SPECIFIC MALFORMATION TYPE 117 8.8 SUMMARY 117 IX. ANALYSIS OF THE STILLBIRTH DATA 118 9.1 THE TRAIT 118 9.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES .... 118 9.3 CONCOMITANT VARIATION KNOWN TO AFFECT THE STILLBIRTH RATE . . 118 9.4 THE DATA 124 9.5 SUMMARY 129 X. THE ANALYSIS OF THE BIRTHWEIGHT DATA 131 10.1 THE TRAIT 131 10.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR IRRADIATION EFFECTS 131 10.3 CONCOMITANT VARIABLES KNOWN TO AFFECT BIRTHWEIGHT .... 131 10.4 THE DATA AND THEIR ANALYSIS 132 10.5 SUMMARY 150 XI. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA CONCERNING DEATH DURING THE NINE- MONTH PERIOD FOLLOWING DELIVERY 151 11.1 THE TRAIT 151 11.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE NEONATAL DEATH RATE 151 11.3 CONCOMITANT VARIABLES KNOWN TO INFLUENCE THE OCCURRENCE OF A NEONATAL DEATH 152 11.4 THE DATA 157 11.5 SUMMARY 162 XII. THE ANALYSIS OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA 164 12.1 THE MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED AT NINE MONTHS 164 12.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR IRRADIATION EFFECTS 164 12.3 CONCOMITANT VARIABLES KNOWN TO AFFECT GROWTH AND DEVELOP- MENT DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE 164 12.4 THE DATA 165 12.4.1 THE MULTIVARIATE MEANS 168 12.4.2 THE EQUALITY OF THE GENERALIZED VARIANCES 175 12.4.3 WITHIN-CELL HETEROGENEITY 179 12.5 SUMMARY 179 XIII. THE AUTOPSY FINDINGS 184 13.1 THE RANDOMNESS OF THE HIROSHIMA AUTOPSIES 184 13.2 THE DATA 187 13.3 SUMMARY ... 191

vi Table of Contents PAGE XIV. RECAPITULATION 192 14.1 THE FINDINGS 192 14.2 THE QUESTION OF EVALUATING THE OVER-ALL DIRECTION OF THE INDICATORS 196 14.3 THE CONFIDENCE LIMITS DETERMINED BY THESE OBSERVATIONS . . . 196 14.4 A RESUM£ OF WORK ON MAMMALIAN MATERIAL PERTINENT TO THE INTERPRETATION OF THESE FINDINGS 199 14.4.1 EFFECTS ON SEX RATIO 200 14.4.2 EFFECTS ON MALFORMATION FREQUENCY 201 14.4.3 EFFECTS ON STILLBIRTH FREQUENCY 202 14.4.4 EFFECTS ON BIRTHWEIGHT 203 14.4.5 EFFECTS ON NEONATAL DEATH RATES 203 14.4.6 EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 203 14.5 INTERPRETATION OF THE FINDINGS 203 XV. PERMISSIBLE INFERENCES 205 15.1 BASIC DATA NECESSARY TO REACHING PERMISSIBLE INFERENCES . . . 205 15.2 THE SPONTANEOUS MUTATION RATE IN MAN 205 15.3 THE RADIATION-INDUCED MUTATION RATE IN MAN 210 15.4 ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER OF GENES IN MAN 212 15.5 THE "ACCUMULATION FACTOR" 212 15.6 THE NATURE OF NATURAL SELECTION 213 15.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS 216 APPENDIX 218 PROCEDURE FOR CODING GENETICS SHORT-FORM QUESTIONNAIRES .... 218 CODING INSTRUCTIONS FOR GENETICS FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRES .... 221 CODING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PEDIATRICS FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE .... 225 REFERENCES ........ 230

LIST OF TABLES Chapter II TABLE 2.1 Chapter III TABLE 3.1 TABLE 3.2 TABLE 3.3 TABLE 3.4 Chapter IV TABLE 4.1 TABLE 4.2 TABLE 4.3 TABLE 4.4 TABLE 4.5 TABLE 4.6 TABLE 4.7 TABLE 4.8 TABLE 4.9 TABLE 4.10 TABLE 4.11 TABLE 4.12 Chapter V TABLE 5.1 Per Cent of All Registrations (Including Those Involving Parental Consanguinity) with At Least One Parent Heavily Exposed (Radiation Categories 4, 5) Population Figures by Nationality for Foreigners Resident in Nagasaki City between 1864 and 1870 The "Foreign" and Total Population of Nagasaki City, and the "Foreign" Population of Nagasaki Prefecture, 1897-1923 The Ethnic Composition of the Foreign Component of Nagasaki City, for the Years 1910 and 1930 The Age Composition and Ethnic Status of the Total Foreign Population of Nagasaki in 1920, as well as of the Four Principal Ethnic Groups in This Population Frequency of Occurrence of Certain Symptoms in Persons Alive 20 or More Days Following the Atomic Bombings, as Related to Distance from the Hypocenter The Effectiveness of Shielding in Protecting against Radiation Sickness in Hiroshima Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Husbands of Wives Register- ing Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Hiroshima Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Wives Registering Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Hiroshima Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Husbands of Wives Register- ing Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Nagasaki Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Wives Registering Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Nagasaki The Definition of "Exposure Categories" to be Employed in This Analysis. Distribution of Registered Births by Parental Exposure The Findings of the Joint Commission in Hiroshima with Regard to the Occurrence of Epilation, Petechiae, and Leucopenia in Persons Falling into Various Exposure Categories The Exposure Categories Defined by the Joint Commission, to be Applied to the Interpretation of Table 4.9 The Distribution of Leucocyte Values in Hiroshima Japanese Who Failed to Develop Epilation, Petechiae, or Gingivitis Following the Bombing, in Relation to Distance from Hypocenter and Type of Shielding .... Proportions of Parents Exposed in the 1,800-2,500 Meter Ring Who Reported Various Types of Shielding Frequency of Consanguineous Marriages (First Cousins, First Cousins Once Removed, Second Cousins) by City and Parental Exposure . TABLE 5.2 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Consanguineous Marriages by City and Parental Exposure PAGE 19 23 24 2) 26 35 37 38 39 40 41 44 45 47 47 48 50 54 55 Vll

Vlll List of Tables TABLE TABLE TABLE 5.3 5.4 5.5 TABLE TABLE TABLE 5.6 5.7 5.8 TABLE TABLE 5.9 5.10 TABLE 5.11 TABLE 5.12 TABLE 5.13 TABLE 5.14 TABLE 5.15 TABLE 5.16 TABLE 5.17 TABLE 5.18 TABLE TABLE 5.19 5.20 Mean Maternal Age by City and Parental Exposure Analysis of Variance: Mother's Age by City and Parental Exposure . The Distribution of Mean Squares for Maternal Age by City, Sex of Infant, and Parental Exposure Mean Parity by City and Parental Exposure Analysis of Variance: Parity by City and Parental Exposure .... The Distribution of Mean Squares for Parity by City, Sex of Infant, and Parental Exposure Economic Status by City and Parental Exposure Chi-Square Analysis of the Distribution of Economic Statuses by City and Parental Exposure Frequency of Positive Serology by Parental Exposure, City, and Group: "Zero" Parents Only Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Positive Serologies by City and Parental Exposure Frequency of Mothers Reporting One or More Induced Abortions by Parental Exposure, City, and Time Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Mothers Reporting One or More Induced Abortions by Parental Exposure, City, and Time . Frequency of "Dilatation and Curettage" by Parental Exposure and City: Zero Terminations Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of "Dilatation and Curettage" by Parental Exposure and City: Zero Terminations Mean Number of Registered Pregnancies per Mother by Parental Ex- posure and City Incidence of Leukemia in the Hiroshima Survivors of the Atomic Bomb- ing as Related to Distance from the Hypocenter and the Presence of Severe Radiation Complaints (After Moloney and Kastenbaum, 1955) . The Frequency of Malformations by Year among the Offspring of Parents Neither of Whom Was Exposed to the Atomic Bombs . The Frequency of Stillbirths by Year among the Offspring of Parents Neither of Whom Was Exposed to the Atomic Bombs Chapter VI TABLE 6.1 The Number of Infants Rejected from the Study, Tabulated by Reason for Rejection TABLE 6.2 An Accounting of the Number of Observations Considered at Representa- tive Stages in the Analysis of the "At-Birth" Data, and the Number of Rejected Observations with the Cause of Rejection TABLE 6.3 An Accounting of the Number of Observations Considered at Representa- tive Stages in the Analysis of the "9-Months" Data and the Number of Rejected Observations with the Cause of Rejection Chapter Vll TABLE 7.1 TABLE 7.2 The Frequency of Male Births by Parental Exposure and City .... Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Male Births by City and Parental Exposure TABLE 7.3 Selected Comparisons Regarding the Effect of Irradiation on Sex Ratio . TABLE 7.4 National Statistics of Livebirths, 1935-1952 TABLE 7.5 The Frequency of Male Births among Infants Born After April, 1946 but Prior to June, 1948, by Parental Exposure TABLE 7.6 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Male Births among Infants Born After April, 1946 but Prior to June, 1948 PAGE 56 57 57 58 59 59 60 61 62 63 64 66 67 68 68 70 70 71 77 79 79 90 91 92 94 95 95

List of Tables ix PAGE TABLE 7.7 The Frequency of Male Births by Parental Exposure and City, 1954- 1955 97 TABLE 7.8 Chi-square Analysis of the Frequency of Male Births during the Years 1948-1955 by Time of Birth, City, and Parental Exposure .... 98 Chapter VIII TABLE 8.1 An Alphabetical Listing of Those Malformations Observed in This Study which Occurring Alone or in Combination with One Another Were Graded as Major Congenital Defect 100 TABLE 8.2 The Types and Frequency of Various Major Congenital Malformations Observed at the Tokyo Red Cross Maternity Hospital during the Years 1922 through 1940 101 TABLE 8.3 A Comparison, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, of the Findings as Regards Major Congenital Malformation in Infants Examined at Approximately Age 9 Months, and in Those Same Infants When Examined Shortly After Birth 103 TABLE 8.4 The Effect of Maternal Age at Fixed Parity on the Frequency of Mal- formed Infants 106 TABLE 8.5 The Effect of Maternal Parity at Fixed Age on the Frequency of Mal- formed Infants 108 TABLE 8.6 The Frequency of Malformed Infants by Parental Exposure, Sex of Infant, and City Ill TABLE 8.7 The Frequency of Malformed Infants by Parental Exposure, City, and Maternal Age 113 TABLE 8.8 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Congenitally Malformed Infants by Sex, City, and Parental Exposure 114 TABLE 8.9 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Congenitally Malformed Infants by City, Maternal Age, and Parental Exposure 114 TABLE 8.10 The Distribution of Frequency of Malformed Infants Classified by Mother's Age and Exposure Only 115 TABLE 8.11 Chi-Square Analysis of the Effect of Mother's Exposure on the Frequency of Malformed Infants at Each of Five Different Age Levels . . . . 115 TABLE 8.12 The Distribution by Maternal Exposure and Parity of Malformed Infants Born to Mothers of Ages 15-20 115 TABLE 8.13 The Distribution of Frequency of Malformed Infants Classified by Mother's Age and Father's Exposure Only 115 TABLE 8.14 The Frequency of Malformed Infants among All Infants Re-examined at 9 Months of Age, by City and Parental Exposure 116 TABLE 8.15 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Malformed Infants at 9 Months of Age by City and Parental Exposure 116 TABLE 8.16 The Distribution by Maternal Exposure of the Seven Most Common Major Congenital Malformations in the Japanese, Exclusive of Congenital Heart Disease 116 Chapter IX TABLE 9.1 Congenital Syphilis among Living Infants Born in Nagasaki in 1951: Incidence and Relation to Maternal Age (After Wright, S. W. et al., 1952) 119 TABLE 9.2 The Effect of Maternal Age at Fixed Parity on the Frequency of Stillborn Infants 120 TABLE 9.3 The Effect of Maternal Parity at Fixed Age on the Frequency of Stillborn Infants 122 TABLE 9.4 Frequency of Stillbirths by Sex, Parental Exposure and City .... 125

List of Tables PAGE TABLE 9.5 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Stillbirths by Sex, Parental Exposure and City 127 TABLE 9.6 The Frequency of Stillbirths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity . . 128 TABLE 9.7 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Stillbirths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity 129 TABLE 9.8 The Frequency of Stillbirths among Firstborn Infants by City and Paternal Exposure 129 TABLE 9.9 The Frequency of Stillbirths among Firstborn Infants by Paternal Exposure and Maternal Age 130 Chapter X TABLE 10.1 Mean Birthweight by Parental Exposure, Sex and City 134 TABLE 10.2 Analysis of Variance of Birthweight by Parental Exposure and City . . 135 TABLE 10.3 The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Weighted Mean Squares of Deviations 136 TABLE 10.4 Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Males, Hiroshima .... 136 TABLE 10.5 Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birth- weight on Maternal Age and Parity: Males, Hiroshima 137 TABLE 10.6 Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Hiroshima 138 TABLE 10.7 The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Hiroshima 138 TABLE 10.8 The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Males, Hiroshima 139 TABLE 10.9 Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Females, Hiroshima . ... 139 TABLE 10.10 Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birth- weight on Maternal Age and Parity: Females, Hiroshima 140 TABLE 10.11 Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Hiroshima 140 TABLE 10.12 The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Hiroshima 141 TABLE 10.13 The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Fe- males, Hiroshima 141 TABLE 10.14 Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Males, Nagasaki 142 TABLE 10.15 Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birth- weight on Maternal Age and Parity: Males, Nagasaki 142 TABLE 10.16 Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Nagasaki 143 TABLE 10.17 The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Nagasaki 143 TABLE 10.18 The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Males, Nagasaki 144 TABLE 10.19 Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Females, Nagasaki .... 144 TABLE 10.20 Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birth- weight on Maternal Age and Parity: Females, Nagasaki 145 TABLE 10.21 Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Nagasaki 145 TABLE 10.22 The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Nagasaki 146 TABLE 10.23 The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Fe- males, Nagasaki 146 TABLE 10.24 A Summary of the Salient Findings of the Covariance Analysis . . . 147 TABLE 10.25 The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Males, Hiroshima 149 TABLE 10.26 The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Females, Hiroshima 149

List of Tables PAGE TABLE 10.27 The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Males, Nagasaki 149 TABLE 10.28 The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Females, Nagasaki 149 Chapter XI TABLE 11.1 The Effect of Maternal Age at Fixed Parity on the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths 154 TABLE 11.2 The Effect of Parity at Fixed Maternal Age on the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths 156 TABLE 11.3 The Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Sex of Infant 158 TABLE 11.4 The Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity 160 TABLE 11.5 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Sex .... 161 TABLE 11.6 Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity 162 TABLE 11.7 The Frequency of Deaths between Birth and Nine Months of Age by Parental Exposure and City 163 TABLE 11.8 Analysis of the Frequency of Deaths between Birth and Nine Months of Age, by Parental Exposure and City 163 Chapter XII TABLE 12.1 Distribution of Mean Weight in Decagrams at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure 165 TABLE 12.2 Distribution of Mean Height in Millimeters at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure 166 TABLE 12.3 Distribution of Mean Head Girth in Millimeters at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure 167 TABLE 12.4 Distribution of Mean Chest Girth in Millimeters at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure 168 TABLE 12.5 Analysis of Dispersion (All Exposure Cells), (a) Sums of Squares and Cross Products of Deviations for the Two-Factor Interactions, (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance 169 TABLE 12.6 Analysis of Dispersion (All Exposure Cells), (a) Sums of Squares and Cross Products of Deviations for Main Effects and Additivity. (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance (on Main Effects and Addi- tivity). (c) Analysis of Dispersion Test, Wilks' (Using Bartlett's Approximation) 170 TABLE 12.7 Estimates of Constants and Their Variances for Tests of Equality . . . 171 TABLE 12.8 A Summary of the Significance of Tests Comparing All Possible Pairs of Exposure for Each Parent with Respect to the Variables w, x, y, and z . 172 TABLE 12.9 Analysis of Dispersion (Only Those Cells Where Both Parents Were Exposed), (a) Sums of Squares and Cross Products of Deviations for the Two-Factor Interactions, (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance (on Two-Factor Interactions) 173 TABLE 12.10 Analysis of Dispersion (Only Those Cells Where Both Parents Were Exposed), (a) Sums of Squares and Products of Deviations for Main Effects and Additivity. (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance for Main Effects and Additivity 174

Xll List of Tables PAGE TABLE 12.11 Estimates of Constants and Their Variances for Test of Equality . . . 175 TABLE 12.12 Mean Product Matrices: Males, Hiroshima 176 TABLE 12.13 Mean Product Matrices: Females, Hiroshima 176 TABLE 12.14 Mean Product Matrices: Males, Nagasaki 177 TABLE 12.15 Mean Product Matrices: Females, Nagasaki 177 TABLE 12.16 Tests of the Homogeneity of the Variances of the Anthropometric Meas- urements Over All Exposure Cells, and Subdivisions Thereof, for Specified Sex and City 178 TABLE 12.17 Tests of the Homogeneity of the Variances of the Anthropometric Meas- urements Over All Exposure Cells, and Subdivisions Thereof, for Specified Sex and City 178 TABLE 12.18 Test of the Generalized Variances on the Anthropometric Measurements by Specified Sex and City 179 TABLE 12.19 Analysis of Dispersion, with Age at Examination Included as a Way of Classification (All Exposure Cells), (a) Sums of Squares and Cross Products of Deviations for the Two-Factor Interactions, (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance 180 TABLE 12.20 Analysis of Dispersion with Age at Examination Included as a Way of Classification, (a) Sums of Squares and Products of Deviations for Main Effects and Additivity. (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance for Main Effects and Additivity 181 TABLE 12.21 Estimates of Constants and Their Variances for Tests of Equality . . 182 TABLE 12.22 A Summary of the Significance Tests Comparing All Possible Pairs of Exposure for Each Parent with Respect to the Variables x, y, w, and z, after Allowance Is Made for Age at Examination 183 ChapterXIII TABLE 13.1 A. The Randomness of the Distribution of Autopsied Infants by Sex of Infant and Parental Exposure. B. Chi-Square Analysis of the Fre- quency of Autopsy by Sex of Infant and Parental Exposure .... 185 TABLE 13.2 Mean Maternal Age of Infants Stillborn or Dying during the First Six Days of Life by Sex of Infant, Parental Exposure and the Occurrence of Autopsy 186 TABLE 13.3 The Distribution of Economic Status among Autopsied and Non-Autopsied Infants 186 TABLE 13.4 The Distribution of Positive Serologies by Parental Exposure among Autopsied and Non-Autopsied Infants 187 TABLE 13.5 The Distribution by Parental Exposure of Infants Born in Hiroshima and Found to be Grossly Abnormal at Autopsy 188 TABLE 13.6 The Distribution by Exposure Class of the Exposed Parents Given in Table 13.5 188 TABLE 13.7 Hayashi's Data on Congenital Abnormalities in Relation to Exposure of Parents (After Sevitt, 1955) 189 TABLE 13.8 A Comparison of the Exposure Distribution of Hayashi's Data and That of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Collected in Nagasaki . . 190 TABLE 13.9 Distribution by Exposure Class of Exposed Parents Whose Infants Came to Autopsy at ABCC in Nagasaki 190 Chapter XIV TABLE 14.1 A Summarization of the Comparisons of the Various Indicators with Parental Exposure When (a) All Exposure Cells Are Considered, and (b) Only Those Cells Where Both Parents Were Exposed Are Considered 195

List of Tables Xlll TABLE 14.2 TABLE 14.3 TABLE 14.4 Chapter XV TABLE 15.1 TABLE 15.2 TABLE 15.3 PAGE The Effect of Irradiation of Male Mice on the Sex Ratio of Offspring Conceived during the Post-Sterile Period (After Hertwig, 1938) . . . 200 The Sex Ratio among Livebirths and Fetal Deaths in the Study of Macht and Lawrence (1955) 201 The Effect of Irradiation of Male Mice on the Frequency of Stillbirths among Offspring Conceived during the Post-Sterile Period (After Hert- wig, 1938) 202 Frequency of Occurrence of Spontaneous "Visible" Mutations in Drosoph- ila and in the House Mouse 208 Estimated Average Mutation Rates per Lethal-Producing Locus in Several Drosophila Species (After Dobzhansky, Spassky, and Spassky, 1952) . . 209 Frequency of Occurrence of Nine Different Dominant or Sex-Linked Mutations in Man 210

LIST OF FIGURES Chapter II PAGE FIGURE 2.1 English Translation of the Japanese-Language Genetics "Short Form" . . 6 FIGURE 2.2 English Translation of the Japanese-Language Pamphlet Distributed at the Time of Pregnancy Registration 8 FIGURE 2.3 The Genetics "Long Form" 10 FIGURE 2.4 The Form Used for Recording Pediatric Information at Age 9 Months . . 16 Chapter III FIGURE 3.1 The Topography of the Hiroshima City Region 30 FIGURE 3.2 The Topography of the Nagasaki City Region 31 Chapter IV FIGURE 4.1 Symptom Ratio in Relation to Distance from Hypocenter for Hiroshima (Husbands and Wives Combined) 42 FIGURE 4.2 Symptom Ratio in Relation to Distance from Hypocenter for Nagasaki (Husbands and Wives Combined) 43 FIGURE 4.3 Total Dosage of Initial Gamma Radiation as a Function of Distance from the Hypocenter of the Explosion of a "Nominal" Atomic Bomb, from "The Effects of Atomic Weapons" 46 FIGURE 4.4 Fast and Slow Neutrons Delivered per Square Centimeter as a Function of Distance from the Hypocenter of the Explosion of a "Nominal" Atomic Bomb, from "The Effects of Atomic Weapons" 46 FIGURE 4.5 Neutron and Gamma Radiation Distance-Dosage Curves for the Atomic Bomb Explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki 51 Chapter VI FIGURE 6.1 A Schematic Representation of the Method of Sorting the Data to Obtain Non-Overlapping Indicators 73 Chapter Vll FIGURE 7.1 The Distribution of the Frequency of Male Births by Age of Mother at the Birth of the Infant with Parity Ignored 89 FIGURE 7.2 The Distribution of the Frequency of Male Births by Parity with Maternal Age Ignored 89 Chapter Vlll FIGURE 8.1 The Distribution of the Frequency of Infants with Major Malformation by Maternal Age for Specified Parities 107 FIGURE 8.2 The Distribution of the Frequency of Grossly Malformed Infants by Parity for Specified Maternal Ages 108 Chapter IX FIGURE 9.1 The Distribution of the Frequency of Stillborn Infants by Age of Mother for Specified Parities 123 FIGURE 9.2 The Distribution of the Frequency of Stillborn Infants by Parity for Speci- fied Maternal Ages 124 Chapter X FIGURE 10.1 The Distribution of Mean Birthweight in Decagrams by Parity for All Maternal Ages, and for Maternal Age 30 Only 133

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