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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
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References

1.     Adams, S. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Larkin Street Youth Services, May 9, San Francisco, CA.

2.     Walts, K. K., S. French, H. Moore, and S. Ashai. 2011. Building child welfare response to child trafficking. Chicago, IL: Loyola University Chicago, Center for the Human Rights of Children.

3.     Child Welfare Information Gateway. 2013. Fact sheet: How the child welfare system works. https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/cpswork.pdf (accessed April 25, 2013).

4.     Dorsey, S., S. E. U. Kerns, E. W. Trupin, K. L. Conover, and L. Berliner. 2012. Child welfare caseworkers as service brokers for youth in foster care: Findings from Project Focus. Child Maltreatment 17(1):22-31.

5.     Piening, S., and T. Cross. 2012. From “the life” to my life: Sexually exploited children reclaiming their futures. Suffolk County Massachusetts’ response to commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). Boston, MA: Children’s Advocacy Center of Suffolk County.

6.     Wilson, J. M., and E. Dalton. 2008. Human trafficking in the heartland. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 24(3):296-313.

7.     HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2012. Services available to victims of human trafficking: A resource guide for social service providers. Washington, DC: HHS.

8.     My Life, My Choice. 2012. Preventing the exploitation of girls: A groundbreaking curriculum. Boston, MA: Justice Research Institute.

9.     Goldblatt Grace, L. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on My Life, My Choice, March 23, Boston, MA.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
×

10.    Frundt, T. 2012. Presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on Courtney’s House, February 29, Washington, DC.

11.    Knowles-Wirsing, E. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on The Salvation Army’s STOP-IT Initiative, July 11, Chicago, IL.

12.    Larkin Street Youth Services. 2011. Larkin Street Youth Services 2011 annual report. San Francisco, CA: Larkin Street Youth Services.

13.    Shared Hope International. 2006. Demand: A comparative examination of sex tourism and trafficking in Jamaica, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States. Vancouver, WA: Shared Hope International.

14.    Smith, L., S. H. Vardaman, and M. A. Snow. 2009. The national report on domestic minor sex trafficking: America’s prostituted children. Vancouver, WA: Shared Hope International.

15.    Shared Hope International. 2012. Protected innocence challenge: State report cards on the legal framework of protection for the nation’s children. Vancouver, WA: Shared Hope International.

16.    Smolenski, C. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitaiton and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the ECPAT-USA Code of Conduct, May 9, San Francisco, CA.

17.    Dunn Burque, A. 2009. Empowering young men to end sexual exploitation: Report, curriculum, and recommended resources. Chicago, IL: Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation.

18.    Cross, T. P., L. M. Jones, W. A. Walsh, M. Simone, D. J. Kolko, J. Szczepanski, T. Lippert, K. Davison, A. Cryns, P. Sosnowski, A. Shadoin, and S. Magnuson. 2008. Evaluating children’s advocacy centers’ response to child sexual abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

19.    Gwinn, C., G. Strack, S. Adams, R. Lovelace, and D. Norman. 2007. The Family Justice Center Collaborative Model. Saint Louis University Public Law Review 79.

20.    Greeson, M. R., and R. Campbell. 2013. Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs): An empirical review of their effectiveness and challenges to successful implementation. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 14(2):83-95.

21.    Latimer, D. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, Mount Sinai Sexual Assault and Violence Intervention (SAVI) Program, September 12, New York.

22.    National Sexual Violence Resource Center. 2006. Report on the national needs assessment of sexual assault response teams. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.

23.    Zajac, J. 2009. National Sexual Assault Response Team survey report 2009. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.

24.    Greene, J. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on Cook County State’s Attorney’s Office, Human Trafficking Task Force, July 11, Chicago, IL.

25.    Nasser, M. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the U.S. Attorney’s Office, Northern District of Illinois, July 11, Chicago, IL.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
×

26.    Bridge, B. J., N. Oakley, L. Briner, and B. Graef. 2012. Washington state model protocol for commercially sexually exploited children. Seattle, WA: Center for Children and Youth Justice.

27.    Baker, J., and E. Nelson. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on multi-disciplinary responses, May 9, San Francisco, CA.

28.    Multnomah County. 2012. Multnomah County: Community response to commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). Multnomah County, OR: Department of Community Justice.

29.    Johnson, N. L., and D. M. Johnson. 2013. Factors influencing the relationship between sexual trauma and risky sexual behavior in college students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 28(11):2315-2331.

30.    Zerk, D., P. Mertin, and M. Proeve. 2009. Domestic violence and maternal reports of young children’s functioning. Journal of Family Violence 24(7):423-432.

31.    Fortier, M. A., D. DiLillo, T. L. Messman-Moore, J. Peugh, K. A. DeNardi, and K. J. Gaffey. 2009. Severity of child sexual abuse and revictimization: The mediating role of coping and trauma symptoms. Psychology of Women Quarterly 33(3):308-320.

32.    DOJ (U.S. Department of Justice). 2012. Report of the Attorney General’s National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence. Washington, DC: DOJ.

33.    Guarino, K., P. Soares, K. Konnath, R. Clervil, and E. Bassuk. 2009. Trauma-informed organizational toolkit. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the Daniels Fund, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.

34.    Cohen, J. A., A. P. Mannarino, M. Kliethermes, and L. A. Murray. 2012. Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma. Child Abuse and Neglect 36(6):528-541.

35.    Conradi, L., and C. Wilson. 2010. Managing traumatized children: A trauma systems perspective. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 22(5):621-625.

36.    Covington, S. S., C. Burke, S. Keaton, and C. Norcott. 2008. Evaluation of a trauma-informed and gender-responsive intervention for women in drug treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (Suppl. 5):387-398.

37.    Olafson, E. 2011. Child sexual abuse: Demography, impact, and interventions. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma 4(1):8-21.

38.    Schneider, S. J., S. F. Grilli, and J. R. Schneider. 2013. Evidence-based treatments for traumatized children and adolescents. Current Psychiatry Reports 15(1):332-341.

39.    Clawson, H. J., and N. Dutch. 2008. Case management and the victim of human trafficking: A critical service for client success. Washington, DC: HHS, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

40.    Clawson, H. J., N. Dutch, and M. Cummings. 2006. Law enforcement response to human trafficking and the implications for victims: Current practices and lessons learned. Fairfax, VA: Caliber.

41.    Aron, L. Y., J. M. Zweig, and L. C. Newmark. 2006. Comprehensive services for survivors of human trafficking: Findings from clients in three communities. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Justice Policy Center.

42.    Clawson, H. J., N. M. Dutch, A. Solomon, and L. Goldblatt Grace. 2009. Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: HHS, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
×

43.    Clawson, H. J., N. M. Dutch, A. Solomon, and L. Goldblatt Grace. 2009. Study of HHS programs serving human trafficking victims. Washington, DC: HHS, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

44.    Clawson, H. J., and L. Goldblatt Grace. 2007. Finding a path to recovery: Residential facilities for minor victims of domestic sex trafficking. Washington, DC: HHS, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

45.    Ferguson, K. M., H. Soydan, S. Y. Lee, A. Yamanaka, A. S. Freer, and B. Xie. 2009. Evaluation of the CSEC Community Intervention Project (CCIP) in five U.S. cities. Evaluation Review 33(6):568-597.

46.    Finklea, K. M., A. L. Fernandes-Alcantara, and A. Siskin. 2011. Sex trafficking of children in the United States: Overview and issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

47.    Giardino, A. P., and R. D. Sanborn. 2011. Human trafficking: Awareness, data and policy. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk 2(1).

48.    Gragg, F., I. Petta, H. Bernstein, K. Eisen, and L. Quinn. 2007. New York prevalence study of commercially sexually exploited children. Rensselaer, NY: New York State Office of Children and Family Services.

49.    Polaris Project. 2012. Shelter beds for human trafficking survivors in the United States. https://na4.salesforce.com/sfc/p/300000006E4S9liF7eeqnplT97HRFH4FvCSI5v4= (accessed April 30, 2013).

50.    Holzman, J. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Girls Educational and Mentoring Services (GEMS) services and programs, September 12, New York.

51.    Westmacott, J. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, Safe Horizon, September 12, New York.

52.    Cornille, T. A., and T. W. Meyers. 1999. Secondary traumatic stress among child protective service workers: Prevalence, severity, and predictive factors. Traumatology 5(1):15-31.

53.    Pearlman, L. A., and P. S. Mac Ian. 1995. Vicarious traumatization: An empirical study of the effects of trauma work on trauma therapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 26(6):558-565.

54.    Salston, M., and C. R. Figley. 2003. Secondary traumatic stress effects of working with survivors of criminal victimization. Journal of Traumatic Stress 16(2):167.

55.    Kliner, M., and L. Stroud. 2012. Psychological and health impact of working with victims of sex trafficking. Journal of Occupational Health 54(1):9.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
×
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
×
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
×
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18798.
×
Page 48
Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services Get This Book
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Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States are frequently overlooked, misunderstood, and unaddressed domestic problems. In the past decade, they have received increasing attention from advocates, the media, academics, and policy makers. However, much of this attention has focused internationally. This international focus has overshadowed the reality that commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors also occur every day within the United States. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors not only are illegal activities, but also result in immediate and long-term physical, mental, and emotional harm to victims and survivors. A nation that is unaware of these problems or disengaged from solving them unwittingly contributes to the ongoing abuse of minors and all but ensures that these crimes will remain marginalized and misunderstood.

The 2013 Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council report Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States increases awareness and understanding of the crucial problem of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. By examining emerging strategies for preventing and identifying these crimes, for assisting and supporting victims and survivors, and for addressing exploiters and traffickers, that report offers a path forward through recommendations designed to increase awareness and understanding and to support efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to these crimes.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services offers a more concise and focused perspective on the problem and emerging solutions for providers of victim and support services for children and adolescents. These service providers include policy makers, leaders, practitioners, organizations, and programs at the local, state, and federal levels. This guide will be a valuable resource for them, and for child welfare and child protective services, other agencies and programs within the state and federal governments (e.g., the U.S. Department of Justice's Office for Victims of Crime), and nongovernmental organizations.

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