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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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Force Multiplying Technologies
for Logistics Support to Military Operations

Committee on Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. W911NF-13-D-0002-0001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON FORCE MULTIPLYING TECHNOLOGIES FOR LOGISTICS SUPPORT TO MILITARY OPERATIONS

GERALD E. GALLOWAY, JR., University of Maryland, College Park, Chair

GERALD G. BROWN, Naval Postgraduate School, California

CHARLES R. CUSHING, C.R. Cushing & Company, New York

STEVEN W. DELLENBACK, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas

THOMAS M. DONNELLAN, Pennsylvania State University, State College

JULIA D. ERDLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College

RONALD P. FUCHS, Independent Consultant, Bellevue, Washington

CHARLES F. GAY, Greenstar Foundation, Westlake Village, California

THOM J. HODGSON, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

LEON A. JOHNSON, Independent Consultant, Irving, Texas

GREG H. PARLIER, GH Parlier Consulting, Madison, Alabama

KAUSHIK RAJASHEKARA, University of Texas, Dallas

LEON E. SALOMON, Independent Consultant, Gulfport, Florida

PRABHJOT SINGH, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York

BRUCE M. THOMPSON, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

DALE G. UHLER, Battelle Memorial Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida

Staff

BRUCE BRAUN, Director, Board on Army Science and Technology

JAMES C. MYSKA, Senior Research Associate, Study Director

NIA D. JOHNSON, Senior Research Associate

DEANNA SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DAVID M. MADDOX, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia, Chair

JEAN D. REED, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia, Vice Chair

DUANE ADAMS, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia

ILESANMI ADESIDA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

STEVEN W. BOUTELLE, CISCO Consulting Services, Herndon, Virginia

MARY E. BOYCE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

EDWARD C. BRADY, Strategic Perspectives, Inc., McLean, Virginia

W. PETER CHERRY, Independent Consultant, Ann Arbor, Michigan

EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

JULIA D. ERDLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College

LESTER A. FOSTER, Electronic Warfare Associates, Herndon, Virginia

JAMES A. FREEBERSYSER, BBN Technology, St. Louis Park, Minnesota

PETER N. FULLER, Cypress International, Springfield, Virginia

W. HARVEY GRAY, Independent Consultant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

JOHN J. HAMMOND, Independent Consultant, Fairfax, Virginia

RANDALL W. HILL, JR., University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies, Playa Vista

JOHN W. HUTCHINSON, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

BRUCE D. JETTE, Synovision Solutions, LLC, Burke, Virginia

ROBIN L. KEESEE, Independent Consultant, Fairfax, Virginia

WILLIAM L. MELVIN, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Smyrna

WALTER F. MORRISON, Independent Consultant, Alexandria, Virginia

ROBIN MURPHY, Texas A&M University, College Station

SCOTT PARAZYNSKI, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston

RICHARD R. PAUL, Independent Consultant, Bellevue, Washington

DANIEL PODOLSKY, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

LEON E. SALOMON, Independent Consultant, Gulfport, Florida

ALBERT A. SCIARRETTA, CNS Technologies, Inc., Springfield, Virginia

JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

DAVID A. TIRRELL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

MICHAEL A. VANE, DynCorp International, Lorton, Virginia

JOSEPH YAKOVAC, JVM LLC, Hampton, Virginia

Staff

BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director

CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate

JAMES C. MYSKA, Senior Research Associate

DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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Preface

Logistics provides the backbone for Army combat operations. Without fuel, ammunition, water, rations, and other supplies, the Army would grind to a halt. This fact is frequently acknowledged in conversation but not as often rewarded in the allocation of resources necessary to carry out logistics functions. In 1997, I was asked to chair the Committee to Perform a Technical Assessment Focused on Logistics Support Requirements for Future Army Combat Systems. That committee authored the report Reducing the Logistics Burden for the Army After Next: Doing More with Less.1 The charge to the 1999 committee was similar to the charge to the authoring committee of this report, the Committee on Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations—examine logistics burdens and identify where technology, operating adjustments, and efficiencies might offer opportunities for improvements. In 1999, the committee found that there were several areas in which logistics burdens could be reduced through the use of emerging technologies. It also identified ways for Army logistics to be better supported in its analytical efforts. Some of the committee’s recommendations were adopted, especially with respect to weapon systems reliability. Other recommendations, however, were either put into the “too hard box” or the “awaiting funding drawer.” Now, 15 years later, many of the findings and recommendations of this report follow in the footsteps of the earlier report.

This committee is concerned that logistics activities within the Army do not receive the attention necessary to ensure the effective sustainment of operational forces on the battlefield over the long term. Because the logistics community has worked tirelessly to ensure that soldiers get what they need when they need it, the assumption is frequently made that these activities are being performed in the most efficient manner, and at the least fiscal and personal cost. In research and development, analyses, exercises, and planning, logistics challenges are often minimized, or the need to come to grips with them is postponed until another day. A recent study by the Joint and Coalition Operational Analysis division, a part of the Joint Staff J-7, identified “enduring lessons” from the past decade of military operations.2 Although many of the lessons from that study touched on issues raised in this report, the analysis did not address any specific logistics topics, even though a substantial number of the challenges faced over this last decade involved the sustainment of the force. It is time to give appropriate attention to logistics.

The National Research Council assembled an outstanding group of experts to carry out this study. It brought together scientists, engineers, policymakers, analysts, and logisticians. The members brought their exceptional expertise and years of experience to the study. I would like to express my personal appreciation to GEN (ret.) Leon Salomon, a former Army G-4 and former commander of the Army Material Command, and also a member of the 1999 committee that authored Reducing the Logistics Burden for the Army After Next: Doing More with Less. GEN Salomon served as chair of this committee when I was not available. I would also like to express my personal appreciation to the other members of the committee for their professionalism, willingness to operate in a collaborative environment during difficult discussions, and to continuously focus their efforts on providing the most useful study possible to the United States Army.

________________________

1 National Research Council, Reducing the Logistics Burden for the Army After Next: Doing More with Less, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1999.

2 Joint and Coalition Operational Analysis, Decade of War, Volume 1: Enduring Lessons from the Past Decade of Operations, June 15, 2012, http://blogs.defensenews.com/saxotech-access/pdfs/decade-of-war-lessons-learned.pdf.

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The committee very much appreciated the efforts made by organizations to provide the information that was requested and to share their insights into the challenges that they and the Army face. The committee expresses its appreciation to all of those who took time out of their busy schedules to meet with the committee as a whole or with individual members. Their dedication to mission accomplishment was evident. A list of the majority of people and organizations contacted by the committee is given in Table 1-1, and a more detailed listing is in Appendix A. At the request of some interviewees, their names were not included on this list.

This study was directed to be unclassified, and as a result, some information identified as “For Official Use Only” was not provided to the committee. This may have resulted in small gaps in the study coverage.

In its deliberations the committee examined the potential for developing a strawman research and development (R&D) strategy for logistics and logistics-related actions, but quickly learned that the absence of information needed and the complexities of integrating such a strategy across all Army elements would make such development infeasible. A strategy begins with a clear definition of the mission and goals to be achieved. It was clear to the committee that the Army is in a period of great transition and is seeking, through organizations such as the Army Capabilities Integration Center, to better define how the Army will doctrinally and organizationally meet future challenges and how a new force will be equipped. Logistics burdens follow equipment choices and tactical demands, strategies employed and missions assigned to the Army. Much is said about the Army becoming expeditionary, yet much of the large forward operating base memory still drives planning. Development of a strategy for science and technology and R&D affecting logistics will require agreement on the tradeoffs among operational capabilities, logistics demands, and personnel requirements in programs far outside the purview of the G-4. While the committee determined that development of forward looking logistics R&D strategy would be infeasible (especially considering that none currently exists), it did provide advice in Chapter 9 as to the collaborative development of such a strategy by the Army staff as a whole.

The committee would like to express its sincere thanks to our study director, Mr. James Myska. His tireless efforts to provide the committee the information it requested, identify opportunities to expand the horizons of the committee, and, of critical importance, shepherd final writing of the report merits the highest levels of praise. The committee also expresses its appreciation to Mr. Bruce Braun, BAST director, Ms. Deana Sparger, and Ms. Nia Johnson for their assistance to the committee throughout its life.

Finally, the committee would like to pay special tribute to LTG Ray Mason, the Army G4 at the inception of the study, for his willingness to undertake this study and to share his personal views on logistics with the committee. His dedication to the improvement of Army logistics will make a difference to the Army as a whole in the years ahead.

Gerald E. Galloway, Chair
Committee on Force Multiplying Technologies for
Logistics Support to Military Operations

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Claude M. Bolton, Jr, Claude Bolton & Associates, LLC;

Lillian C. Borrone, NAE, Eno Center for Transportation;

W. Peter Cherry, NAE, Independent consultant;

Walt DeGrange, CANA Advisors, LLC;

Mitra Dutta, University of Illinois at Chicago;

Kathleen Gainey, Cypress International, Inc.;

Mary L. Good, NAE, University of Arkansas at Little Rock;

Michael R. Johnson, NAE, University of Arkansas;

David M. Maddox, NAE, Independent consultant;

M. Frank Rose, Radiance Technologies; and

Robert G. Traver, Villanova University.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Claude F. Christianson, independent consultant. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Tables and Figures

TABLES

S-1     Daily Resupply Requirements for a FIB and HBCT from CAMEX 2008 (tons)

S-2     Road Map and Areas to Focus Logistics S&T and R&D Efforts

2-1     Daily Resupply Requirements for a FIB and HBCT from CAMEX 2008 (tons)

2-2     Four-Day Sustainment Requirements for an HBCT and How the Required Cargo Was Delivered

2-3     Four-Day Sustainment Requirements for a FIB and How the Required Cargo Was Delivered

2-4     Total Sustainment Requirements Over CAMEX 2008 and How those Requirements Were Delivered

4-1     Percentage of Time Different Littoral Areas Experience Sea State 3 or Less

4-2     Major Classes of Army Hull-Borne Landing Craft

4-3     Planned Capabilities of the MSV, by Class

7-1     Contractor Support Breakout in Afghanistan, 2014

7-2     Breakdown of Contractor Personnel in Afghanistan in 2010, 2012, and 2014

9-1     Road Map and Areas to Focus Logistics S&T and R&D Efforts

D-1     Various Sea State Classification Systems

FIGURES

2-1-1  Aerial view of the hospital at Bagram Airfield

2-1     Phases of notional operation plan phases versus level of military effort

3-1     A containerized system of 100 kW rolls of flexible photovoltaic cell arrays

3-2     The High Energy Laser-Mobile Demonstrator (HEL-MD)

3-3     Soldiers unpack ammunition and prepare it for use during predeployment training at Fort Riley, Kansas

3-4     Two concepts for D-cell sized radionuclide power sources

4-1     MCRS-16, modeling and simulation overview of the flow of forces and materiel from the United States to an overseas contingency

4-2     The strategic mobility triad

4-3     Artist’s concept of an LMSR alongside, and transferring cargo, to an MLP

4-4     LCM-8

4-5     LCU-2000

4-6     Logistics Support Vessel

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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4-7     Artist’s conception of an MSV-light

4-8     LCAC

4-9     Artist’s concept of an SSC

4-10   Deployed JLOTS causeway segments

4-11   ELCAS-M in place

4-12   INLS

4-13   Artist’s conception of the LCMS in use by an M1 Abrams

4-14   The USNS Wheeler

4-15   An example of a road train

4-16   Ground Unmanned Support Surrogate undergoing testing

4-17   Artists’ renderings of ARES

4-18   JPADS

4-19   Helicopter sling for delivering cargo by JPADS, during testing

5-1   The prognostic replacement alert signal and order ship time (OST)

5-2   Test results for the AH-64 nose gear box

6-1   Army Logistics Enterprise Systems

6-2   Difference between the data resident in ERP systems, labeled “Operational,” and the data in prognostic, predictive, and prescriptive analytics, labeled “Analytical”

6-3   Officer ORSA (Army Functional Area 49) authorizations in AMC from FY1988 through FY2003

6-4   Civilian ORSA strength in AMC from FY1990 through FY2002

7-1   Contractor personnel and their functions in Iraq, 2008-2012

7-2   Size of the contractor workforce, by functional area, in Afghanistan in 2010 and 2012

F-1   Transformational analytics: Capacity, inventory, and knowledge

F-2   Management innovation for improved logistics decision-making

F-3   An organizational construct for an engine for innovation

BOXES

2-1     Base Camps in Iraq and Afghanistan

3-1     Current Army Research Efforts in Energy Efficiency and Fuel Demand Reduction

3-2     Types of Hybrid Power Trains

3-3     The Ammunition Industrial Base

6-1     The Value of Analysis

8-1     Integrating Army and SOF Support Activities

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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Abbreviations and Acronyms

A2/AD anti-access/area denial
AESIP Army Enterprise Systems Integration Program
AFSB Afloat Forward Staging Base
AGC Army Geospatial Center
AMAS Autonomous Mobility Appliqué System
AMC Army Materiel Command
ARES Aerial Reconfigurable Embedded System
ASL Authorized Stockage List
CAMEX computer aided map exercise
CASCOM Combined Arms Support Command
CAST Convoy Active Safety Technology
CBM condition-based maintenance
CBM+ condition-based maintenance-plus
CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DE directed energy
DLR depot level reparable
DoD Department of Defense
ELCAS-M elevated causeway system-modular
ERP enterprise resource planning
ESC Expeditionary Support Command
FIB fires brigade
GCSS-Army Global Combat Support System-Army
GPH gallons per hour
HBCT heavy brigade combat team
HEL-MD High Energy Laser Mobile Demonstrator
ICAAPS Intelligent Collaborative Aging Aircraft Spare Parts Support project
INLS Improves Navy Lighterage System
ISPDS Integrated Soldier Power and Data System
IT information technology
ITEP Improved Turbine Engine Program
JHSV Joint High Speed Vessel
JLOTS Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore
JOEI Joint Operational Energy Initiative
JPADS Joint Precision Airdrop System
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18832.
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LCAC Landing Craft Air Cushion
LCM Landing Craft, Mechanized
LCMS Lightweight Modular Causeway System
LCU Landing Craft, Utility
LMP Logistics Modernization Program
LMSR Large, Medium-speed, Roll-on/Roll-off Ship
LOC line of communication
LOTS logistics over-the-shore
MASMC Mobile Aircraft Sustainment Maintenance Capability
MBF mission-based forecasting
MLP Mobile Landing Platform
mpg miles per gallon
MRE meal-ready-to-eat
MSV Maneuver Support Vessel
NDU National Defense University
NRC National Research Council
OEF Operation Enduring Freedom
OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom
OR operations research
ORSA operations research/systems analysts
PV photovoltaic
R&D research and development
RBS readiness-based sparing
RCM reliability-centered maintenance
RFID radio frequency identification
ROWPU reverse osmosis water purification unit
S&T science and technology
SARTRE Safe Road Trains for the Environment
SMR small modular reactor
SMSS Squad Mission Support System
SOCOM Special Operations Command
SOF special operations forces
SOFC solid oxide fuel cell
SRL sustainment readiness level
SSA Supply Support Activity
SSC Ship-to-Shore Connector
T&E test and evaluation
TARDEC U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center
TOC theory of constraints
TRAC U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center
TRADOC U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command
TRANSCOM U.S. Transportation Command
TRL technology readiness level
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The mission of the United States Army is to fight and win our nation's wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders. Accomplishing this mission rests on the ability of the Army to equip and move its forces to the battle and sustain them while they are engaged. Logistics provides the backbone for Army combat operations. Without fuel, ammunition, rations, and other supplies, the Army would grind to a halt. The U.S. military must be prepared to fight anywhere on the globe and, in an era of coalition warfare, to logistically support its allies. While aircraft can move large amounts of supplies, the vast majority must be carried on ocean going vessels and unloaded at ports that may be at a great distance from the battlefield. As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have shown, the costs of convoying vast quantities of supplies is tallied not only in economic terms but also in terms of lives lost in the movement of the materiel. As the ability of potential enemies to interdict movement to the battlefield and interdict movements in the battlespace increases, the challenge of logistics grows even larger. No matter how the nature of battle develops, logistics will remain a key factor.

Force Multiplying Technologies for Logistics Support to Military Operations explores Army logistics in a global, complex environment that includes the increasing use of antiaccess and area-denial tactics and technologies by potential adversaries. This report describes new technologies and systems that would reduce the demand for logistics and meet the demand at the point of need, make maintenance more efficient, improve inter- and intratheater mobility, and improve near-real-time, in-transit visibility. Force Multiplying Technologies also explores options for the Army to operate with the other services and improve its support of Special Operations Forces. This report provides a logistics-centric research and development investment strategy and illustrative examples of how improved logistics could look in the future.

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