Committee on Integrating Humans, Machines and Networks: A Global Review of Data-to-Decision Technologies
JACQUES S. GANSLER (Chair)
Dr. Jacques S. Gansler joined the faculty of the University of Maryland School of Public Affairs in 2001, where he holds the Roger C. Lipitz Chair in Public Policy and Private Enterprise. He teaches graduate school courses, and leads the school’s new Center for Public Policy and Private Enterprise, which fosters collaboration among the public, private, and nonprofit sectors in order to promote mutually beneficial public and private interests. Previously, Dr. Gansler served as the under secretary of defense for acquisition, technology and logistics from November 1997 until January 2001. In this position, he was responsible for all matters relating to Department of Defense acquisition, research and development, logistics, acquisition reform, advanced technology, international programs, environmental security, nuclear, chemical, and bio logical programs, and the defense technology and industrial base. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Gansler was senior vice president and corporate director for TASC, Incorporated, an applied information technology company, in Arlington, Virginia (from 1977 to 1997), during which time he played a major role in building the company from a small operation into a large, widely recognized corporation, serving both the government and the private sector. From 1972 to 1977, he served in the government as deputy assistant secretary of defense (materiel acquisition), responsible for all defense procurements and the defense industry; and as assistant director of defense research and engineering (electronics), responsible for all defense electronics research and development. His prior industrial experience included vice president (business development), I.T.T. (1970–1972); program management, director of advanced programs, and director of international marketing, Singer Corporation (1962–1970); and engineering management, Raytheon Corporation (1956–1962). Dr. Gansler has served on numerous corporation boards of directors and governmental special committees and advisory boards, including vice chairman, Defense Science Board; chairman, Board of Visitors, Defense Acquisition University; director, Procurement Round Table; chairman, Industry Advisory Board, University of Virginia, School of Engineering; chairman, Board of Visitors, University of Maryland, School of Public Affairs; member of the Federal Aviation Administration Blue Ribbon Panel on Acquisition Reform; and senior consultant to the Packard Commission on defense acquisition reform. Additionally, from 1984 to 1997, Dr. Gansler was a visiting scholar at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (a frequent guest lecturer in executive management courses). He is the author of 5 books, a contributing author of 23 other books, author of more than 100 papers, and a frequent speaker and congressional witness. Dr. Gansler is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He holds a B.E. in electrical engineering from Yale University, an M.S. in electrical engineering from Northeastern University, an M.A. in political economy from the New School for Social Research, and a Ph.D. in economics from American University.
MARY (MISSY) CUMMINGS
Dr. Cummings received her B.S. in Mathematics from the US Naval Academy in 1988, her M.S. in Space Systems Engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1994, and her Ph.D. in Systems Engineering from the University of Virginia in 2004. A naval officer and military pilot from 1988-1999, she was one of the Navy's first female fighter pilots. She is currently an associate professor in the Duke University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, the Duke Institute of Brain Sciences, and is the director of the Humans and Autonomy Laboratory. Her research interests include human-unmanned vehicle interaction, human-autonomous system collaboration, human-systems engineering, public policy implications of unmanned vehicles, and the ethical and social impact of technology.
BARBARA J. GROSZ
Dr. Barbara Grosz is Higgins Professor of Natural Sciences in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University. From 2007 to 2011, she served as interim dean and then dean of Harvard’s Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and from 2001 to 2007, she was the institute’s first dean of science, designing and building its science program. Dr. Grosz is known for her seminal contributions to the fields of natural-language processing and multiagent systems. She developed some of the earliest computer dialogue systems and established the research field of computational modeling of discourse. Her work on models of collaboration helped establish that field and provides the framework for several collaborative multiagent and human-computer interface systems. Dr. Grosz is also known for her leadership in the field of artificial intelligence and her role in the establishment and leadership of interdisciplinary institutions, and she is widely respected for her contributions to the advancement of women in science.
Dr. Grosz is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2009, she received the ACM/AAAI Allen Newell Award for “fundamental contributions to research in natural language processing and in multi-agent systems, for her leadership in the field of artificial intelligence, and for her role in the establishment and leadership of interdisciplinary institutions.”
Dr. Anita Jones has been a researcher and educator in computer science first at Carnegie Mellon University and then at the University of Virginia, where she was granted the title of University Professor. From 1993 to 1997, she served at the U.S. Department of Defense as director of defense research and engineering with oversight of the department’s science and technology program, research laboratories, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. She served as vice chair of the National Science Board. Dr. Jones is a fellow of the Defense Science Board, the Association for Computing Machinery, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and the Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She is currently a member of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Corporation, a member of the MIT
Corporation, a trustee of Science Foundation Arizona, and a trustee of In-Q-Tel. Dr. Jones serves on the Executive Council of the National Academy of Engineering and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Several awards have honored her accomplishments in science, technology, and national policy, including the National Academy of Engineering’s Arthur M. Bueche Award (2010); the AAAS’s highest award, the Philip Hague Abelson Award (2012); and the IEEE’s Founder’s Medal (2007). Dr. Jones earned a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Rice University, a master’s in literature from the University of Texas, and a doctoral degree in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University.
AMY A. KRUSE
Dr. Amy Kruse joined Intific in January 2010 as an executive director, forming their new Neuroscience Division. She has recently led the release of their first commercial product, the RealWorld with NeuroBridge software platform. She also directs active Intific programs with the Office of Naval Research (team neurogaming), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (ENGAGE, NowTu, Narrative Networks, Detection and Computational Analysis of Psychological Signals, Social Media in Strategic Communication), and the intelligence community. Dr. Kruse has more than 10 years of experience developing novel neuroscience-based programs and technologies for the Department of Defense. From January 2005 to January 2010, Dr. Kruse served as a program manager in the Defense Sciences Office at DARPA in Arlington, Virginia. During her tenure at DARPA, Dr. Kruse managed more than nine programs, including efforts in the Augmented Cognition, Neurotechnology for Intelligence Analysts, Accelerated Learning, and Cognitive Technology Threat Warning Systems programs, among others. Prior to DARPA, Dr. Kruse served as a technology and program management consultant at Strategic Analysis Inc. in Arlington, Virginia. During her time with SAINC, she provided hands-on technical assistance to nascent neuroscience programs at DARPA, the Office of Naval Research, and the Naval Research labs. She has been actively involved in neuroscience research for more than 15 years. Dr. Kruse earned her B.S. in cell and structural biology (1995) and her Ph.D. in neuroscience (2001) from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, where she was awarded a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship in Neuroscience.
GEORGE R. MANGUN
Dr. George R. Mangun is dean of the Division of Social Sciences, and professor of psychology and neurology in the Center for Mind and Brain at the University of California (UC), Davis. Dr. Mangun, an international leader in cognitive neuroscience, has taught and conducted research at UC San Diego, Dartmouth College, Duke University, and UC Davis. He was the founding director of the Duke Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, and the UC Davis Center for Mind and Brain. Dr. Mangun was editor of Cognitive Brain Research (Elsevier), and is currently associate editor for the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (MIT Press) and editor-in-chief for the edited book series The Neuroscience of Attention (Oxford University Press). He has and continues to serve on editorial boards, advisory committees, and review panels nationally and internationally, including for the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council of the U.S. National Academies, and the European Research Council. Dr. Mangun is currently the director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience. He has published more than 130 scientific papers, chapters, books, edited volumes, and special journal issues, including his celebrated coauthored undergraduate textbook Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (W. W. Norton, 3rd
Edition, 2009). His research incorporates cognitive neuroscience methods in the study of the mechanisms of attention and awareness in health and disease using human volunteers and animal models. Among other honors, he received the Distinguished Early Career Contributions Award from the Society for Psychophysiological Research, a Distinguished Scientist Lecturer Award from the American Psychological Association, and a Senior Scientist Award from NIMH. Mangun is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Dr. Tom Mitchell is the chair of the Machine Learning Department at Carnegie Mellon University and E. Fredkin Professor of AI and Learning. Dr. Mitchell is known for his contributions to the advancement of machine learning, artificial intelligence, and cognitive neuroscience and is the author of the textbook Machine Learning. He received his bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1973 and a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1979. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2010 “for pioneering contributions and leadership in the methods and applications of machine learning.” He is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science since 2008 and a fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence since 1990. Dr. Mitchell was also a recipient of the National Science Foundation’s Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1984.
Dr. See-Kiong Ng is program director of the Urban Systems Initiative of Singapore’s Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR). The initiative seeks to address the new challenges of the rapidly urbanizing world through technology and innovation. Dr. Ng also holds a concurrent appointment as a principal scientist and the advisor to the Data Analytics Department at A*STAR’s Institute for Infocomm Research. Before joining A*STAR, Dr. Ng worked as a postdoc at Keio University in Japan, as a senior investigator at SmithKline Beecham in England, and at DNA Sciences, a Silicon Valley biotech start-up in the United States. In 1986, Dr. Ng was awarded the prestigious Singapore National Computer Board’s Overseas Scholarship. He holds a B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University (1989, 1994, and 1998) and an M.S. in computer science from the University of Pennsylvania (1991).
DONALD A. NORMAN
Dr. Donald A. Norman is Director and founder of the Design at UC San Diego initiative, cofounder of the Nielsen Norman Group, former vice president of Apple, and former executive at Hewlett Packard. Dr. Norman serves as an IDEO fellow and is on several company boards and advisory boards. In addition to his role as Director of the design initiative, he is professor emeritus at the University of California, San Diego, where he served as chair of the Psychology Department and founder and chair of the Cognitive Science Department. At Northwestern University, he is the Breed Professor of Design, emeritus, and professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences, emeritus. He has been a Distinguished Visiting Professor of Industrial Design at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. He has honorary degrees from the University of Padua (Italy) and the Technical University of Delft (the Netherlands), the Lifetime Achievement Award from SIGCHI, the professional organization for Computer-Human
Interaction, and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science from the Franklin Institute (Philadelphia). He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Association for Computing Machinery, American Psychological Association, Association for Psychological Science, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, and the Design Research Society. He serves on the Board of Trustees of the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Institute of Design in Chicago. He is well known for his books, including Things That Make Us Smart and Design of Future Things, both of which dealt with the topics in this report. His books Emotional Design and the newly revised and expanded edition of Design of Everyday Things have been important contributions to the field of human-machine interaction.
GUILLERMO R. SAPIRO
Dr. Guillermo R. Sapiro received his B.S. (summa cum laude), M.S., and Ph.D. from the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Technion—Israel Institute of Technology in 1989, 1991, and 1993, respectively. After postdoctoral research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Sapiro became Member of Technical Staff at the research facilities of Hewlett Packard Labs in Palo Alto, California. He was with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Minnesota, where he held the position of Distinguished McKnight University Professor and Vincentine Hermes-Luh Chair in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Currently he is the Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. School Professor at Duke University. Dr. Sapiro works on the foundations of image processing with applications ranging from consumer imaging to neurosurgery. He has published more than 200 peer-reviewed papers and has transferred technology to companies such as Adobe as well as to neuroscientists and Department of Defense and National Institutes of Health sites. Dr. Sapiro was awarded the Gutwirth Scholarship for Special Excellence in Graduate Studies in 1991, the Ollendorff Fellowship for Excellence in Vision and Image Understanding Work in 1992, the Rothschild Fellowship for Post-Doctoral Studies in 1993, the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award in 1998, the Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers in 1998, the National Science Foundation Career Award in 1999, and the National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellowship in 2010. Dr. Sapiro is the founding editor-in-chief of the SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences.
ROSS D. SHACHTER
Dr. Ross Shachter is associate professor of management science and engineering at Stanford University. He joined Stanford’s faculty directly after receiving his Ph.D. degree. His doctoral dissertation developed a method for purchasing an expert’s forecast that encourages accurate revelation of the expert’s beliefs as probabilities. Since then his research has focused on the representation, manipulation, and analysis of uncertainty and probabilistic reasoning in decision systems. As part of this work, he developed the DAVID influence diagram processing system for the Macintosh. He has developed models scheduling patients for cancer follow-up, and analyzing vaccination strategies for HIV and Helobacter pylori. He has worked closely with many students in bioinformatics, where he holds a courtesy appointment. He has been active in the Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence and is a full member of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences and its Decision Analysis Society. He has
held memberships in the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, the Society for Medical Decision Making, and the Society for Decision Professionals.
JAMES D. SHIELDS
Mr. Jim Shields is the president and chief executive officer of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, an independent not-for-profit research institution that develops innovative solutions to some of the nation’s most difficult problems in national security and space. The laboratory also supports pioneering collaborations between traditional engineers and life scientists to demonstrate the value of biomedical engineering in creating systems solutions to health care problems that would not evolve if the disciplines worked independently. Previously, Mr. Shields was the vice president for programs, where he was responsible for developing and executing the laboratory’s business and strategic plans. In addition to his operational role at Draper, Mr. Shields has supported a number of senior advisory boards and study panels, including the Defense Science Board, the Army Science Board, and the Navy Strategic Systems Programs Executive Steering Task Group as a board member, and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board as a study participant. Prior to joining Draper in February 2001, Mr. Shields had a 28-year career at TASC, Inc., distinguished by a series of positions of increasing scope and responsibility. His final position was as the vice president for strategic development, where he was responsible for the planning process and the creation of TASC’s strategic plans. His technical experience includes integrated multisensor navigation analysis, modeling and simulation, weapon system performance analysis, information management systems development, and logistics management. He earned S.B. and S.M. degrees in electrical engineering from MIT in 1972. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and a member of Tau Beta Pi and Eta Kappa Nu.
Dr. Liz Sonenberg is a professor in the Department of Computing and Information Systems at the University of Melbourne, and since August 2009, she has also had the part-time role of pro vice-chancellor (research collaboration) in Melbourne Research. The integrating theme of her research is the conceptualization and construction of more adaptive, distributed, and intelligent information systems. Much of the work focuses on agent technology, which views a distributed system in terms of interacting autonomous software entities. Using the agent metaphor can allow system developers to adopt a level of abstraction in design that is useful for modeling complex tasks and environments, and in building software systems that are robust in the face of change and unexpected events. An important aspect of the research is the requirement of the human-machine interface and consequent implications for the development of computational mechanisms to support decision making in complex settings. Her specialized interests are multiagent systems, especially collaboration and teamwork; automated negotiation and decision support; context-aware computing and technologies for personalization; and computational modeling of human problem solving.
Dr. Katia Sycara is a research professor in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University and holds the Sixth Century Chair in Computing Science (part time) at the University of Aberdeen in the United Kingdom. She holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Georgia Tech
and an honorary doctorate from the University of the Aegean. Her research emphasis is on multiagent systems, composed of humans, robots, and software agents, and semantic web technologies. She has authored or coauthored more than 450 scientific publications and received many best paper and influential paper awards. She is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, and the recipient of the 2002 ACM/SIGART Autonomous Agents Research Award. She has served as a member of scientific advisory boards of many industrial research organizations and has been a member of evaluation panels of various government institutes and programs. She has also served on standards committees, for example, the World Wide Web Consortium and OASIS. She has served as program chair for many conferences and on numerous conference program committees. She is a founding member and member of the Board of Directors of the International Foundation of Multi-Agent Systems, founding member of the Semantic Web Science Association, and serves as the U.S. cochair of the U.S.-Europe Semantic Web Services Initiative. She has been a founding editor-in-chief of the journal Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems and serves on the editorial board of six additional journals.
Dr. Alyson Wilson is associate professor in the Department of Statistics at North Carolina State University (NCSU). She is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recognized expert in statistical reliability, Bayesian methods, and the application of statistics to problems in defense and national security. Prior to joining NCSU, Dr. Wilson was a research staff member at the Institute for Defense Analyses Science and Technology Policy Institute (2012–2013) and an associate professor in the Department of Statistics at Iowa State University (2008–2011). She continues as a collaborating associate professor with ISU and a guest scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. From 1999 to 2008, she was a project leader and technical lead for the Department of Defense Programs in the Statistical Sciences Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this role, she developed and led a portfolio of work in the application of statistics to the reliability of conventional and nuclear weapons. Prior to her move to Los Alamos, Dr. Wilson was a senior operations research analyst with Cowboy Programming Resources (1995–1999), where she planned, executed, and analyzed U.S. Army air defense artillery operational evaluations. In addition to numerous publications, Dr. Wilson recently coauthored a book, Bayesian Reliability, and has coedited two other books, Statistical Methods in Counterterrorism: Game Theory, Modeling, Syndromic Surveillance, and Biometric Authentication and Modern Statistical and Mathematical Methods in Reliability. She holds a patent for her early work in medical imaging. Dr. Wilson received her Ph.D. in statistics from Duke University, her M.S. in statistics from Carnegie Mellon University, and her B.A. in mathematical sciences from Rice University.