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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
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Index

A

Accelerated Studies to Associate Programs, 157 n.12

Access to health care (see also Transition from pediatric to adult health care)

ACA and, 305, 309-310

chronic disease screening, 241

for disabilities, 245

disparities, 210-211, 310, 430

and health and well-being, 26, 52

information technology and social media and, 51, 232-233, 321-322

insurance coverage and, 276, 293, 298, 304, 305-306

mental/behavioral health services, 218, 245, 277, 292, 293, 302, 319

navigation challenges, 14, 28, 57, 273, 277, 278, 295, 316

preventive services, 252, 297, 298, 300, 302, 319, 328

public health services, 241, 242, 245, 250-251

research needs, 415

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), 314, 315

Actionable Intelligence for Social Policy (AISP), 386

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 283, 286, 287

Administration for Children and Families (ACF), 249, 356, 368, 369, 371

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Program, 287

Adolescent and Young Adult Health Program, 12, 250-251, 254

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 298, 299

Affordable Care Act (ACA)

and access to care, 305, 309-310

eligibility, 25, 245, 246, 250, 276, 279, 306, 355

enrollments, 307

Federally Qualified Health Centers, 251

and integration of behavioral and medical care, 318

Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program, 246

and Medicaid benefits, 355

mental health and substance abuse care, 292, 311, 318

pathways for increasing insurance coverage, 306-308

preventive care opportunities, 56-57, 66, 200, 252-253, 276, 298, 300, 318

services covered, 292, 298, 299, 308, 311, 317

and transitions of care, 325

and utilization of health care, 280-282, 298

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

African Americans/non-Hispanic blacks

civic engagement, 175, 176

discrimination against, 58, 430-431, 432, 433

earnings, assets, and financial independence, 103, 132

education, 3, 47, 58, 61, 104, 128, 132, 135, 137, 138, 139 n.5, 431

employment/labor force participation, 3, 48, 61, 104, 128, 132, 133, 431

health disparities, 57, 205, 210, 211, 212, 213, 221-222, 230, 431, 432, 433

idleness, 128, 129

incarceration, 105-106, 147, 357

military service, 188, 190

parenthood patterns, 88-89, 90, 93, 106, 109

programs and interventions, 109, 221-222, 230, 364, 369, 374, 442, 444, 445

romantic relationships and union formations, 44-45, 83, 88-89, 90, 109

substance use, 57, 212, 213

tobacco use, 213

utilization of preventive care, 296

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 14, 15, 21, 289, 300-301, 326, 328, 410, 415

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 373, 376

Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures Incentive Grants I, 248

Alcohol Open Container Requirements, 249

Alcohol use

advertising and promotion, 239, 258

age access laws, 236-239

binge drinking, 5, 12, 54, 56, 63, 87, 144-145, 205, 208, 212, 218, 219, 302

college students, 54, 144-145, 208, 218-219, 226, 233

discrimination and, 431

and educational difficulties, 150

former foster youth, 353

gender and, 212

health risks, 218, 237, 277

heavy drinking, 208

impaired driving and motor vehicle accidents, 12, 206, 214, 219, 229, 236-237

needs for or interests in services and supports, 286

patterns, 54, 80, 95, 144-145, 208, 212, 353

pregnancy and, 237, 277

preventive screening and counseling, 299

psychological health and, 95, 431

public health policies and interventions, 12, 201, 205, 214, 218-219, 224-225, 229, 230, 231, 233, 236-239, 247, 248, 249, 302

race/ethnicity and, 212

research needs, 258, 417

and sexual victimization, 224-225

social relationships and, 80, 86, 87

utilization of health services, 226, 282

American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), 288, 289, 290, 298, 326

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 299-300

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 288, 289, 290, 298, 326

American College Health Association, 245, 248

American College of Physicians (ACP), 288, 289, 290, 298, 326

American Congress of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (ACOG), 298, 316, 327

American Evaluation Association, Guiding Principles for Evaluators, 255

American Indians/Alaska Natives, 57, 88, 205, 211, 213, 240, 361

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 152, 153, 154

American Medical Association

Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services, 297-298

AmeriCorps

education award, 181

National Civilian Community Corps, 180, 183, 184, 448, 449

overview, 178, 179, 180-181

research on, 183-185

State and National Program, 181-183

AMIGAS (Amigas, Mujeres Latinas, Inform andonos, Gui andonos, y Apoy andonos contra el SIDA), 221-222

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2, 20, 96-97

Antisocial personality disorders, 41, 358

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Anxiety, 90, 94, 173, 207, 208, 224, 226, 227, 277, 293, 302, 319, 321, 431-432

Asians/Pacific Islanders, 88, 103-104, 213, 296-297, 430-431, 432, 433, 442

Aspen Institute, 98

Association of Social Work Boards, 315

Atlanta Partnership, 96, 97

Attention-deficit disorders, 149, 208, 277, 293

Autism, 148, 150

B

Basic Center Program (BCP), 368-369

Behavioral health (see also Mental health services; Relationships; specific behaviors)

adaptive coping, 95, 100-101, 435

bias and discrimination and, 59, 431-433

burden of disability, 56

college students, 144-145

defined, 26

effortful control, 100-101

emotional disabilities/disturbances, 148, 244, 293, 309

emotional processing, 36, 38-39, 40-42, 236

and employment, 125

executive control, 38-39, 40, 41-42, 157 n.14

family environment and, 93-94, 100-101, 102, 277

foster youth, 309

gender differences, 41

motivational modulation, 36, 38-40, 41-42

parenthood and, 90

preventive health care, 66, 299, 302-304

protective factors, 100-101

psychopathologies, 41, 56

reward processing, 37, 39-40

social stigma, 149, 278

system transitions, 291-294

transition from pediatric to adult care, 57, 66, 277, 291-294

union formation and, 87

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 300

Bias and discrimination

acculturation stress, 58, 433-434

and alcohol use, 431

cultural socialization and, 435

and educational and job performance, 58, 431

experience of, 429-431

health effects, 58-59, 61-62

in hiring, 104, 133

lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults, 62, 430-431

protective processes, 59, 434-435

and psychological and physical functioning, 59, 431-433

race/ethnic-based, 31, 58, 62, 430-431, 432, 433

social support, connections, and belongingness and, 434

Big Brother, 280

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 95, 447

Blacks (see African Americans/non-Hispanic blacks)

Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents, 298, 316, 327

Building Strong Families, 109

Bush, George H. W., 179

Bush, George W., 152, 179, 446

C

Campus Compact, 193

Campus Suicide Prevention Grants, 302

Cardiovascular disease risk, 56, 204, 215, 218, 220, 256, 302, 432

Career academies, 142

Career and technical education (vocational), 10, 13, 111, 127, 141-142, 153, 154, 157, 160, 181, 255, 362, 363, 447-448

CareerAdvance®, 96-97

Carl D. Perkins Act, 154

Center for Health Care Transition Improvement, 290

Center for Working Families, 97

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 13, 21, 209, 247, 248, 252, 257

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), 14, 15, 300-301, 326, 328, 411

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Centers for Research and Demonstration for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 248

Chafee Foster Care Independence Program (CFCIP), 353-354, 355, 356

Chapin Hall, 385-386

Child abuse/maltreatment, 95, 189-190, 367, 373

Child care, 49, 93, 95, 96, 180, 189, 250, 286, 369, 373, 452-453

Child Care and Development Block Grant, 272, 373

Child support, 48, 91, 103, 147-148

Choice Neighborhoods, 255

Chronic health conditions (see also specific conditions)

access to screening, 241

discrimination and, 59

and education and employment, 124

prevention, 200, 219-221

status of young adults, 55-57

City University of New York, 157 n.12

City Year, 185, 441, 442, 444-445

Civic engagement (see also Military service; National service)

causes and consequences, 177

changes during transition to adulthood, 174-175

conclusions and recommendations, 11-12, 192-194

education and, 49, 171, 176, 445

and employment outcomes, 185, 192

overview, 173-177

programs and policies, 97, 443, 446-447

social class, race/ethnicity, and gender differences, 171, 175-176

social media and, 51

voting, 174-175, 176, 177, 184, 443, 445, 447

and well-being, 171, 173-174, 243

Civic Justice Corps, 187, 193, 447-448

Civilian Conservation Corps, 178-179

Clinton, Bill, 179, 192

Colorado 9to25, 242, 243, 255

Community Action Project (CAP) of Tulsa, 96, 97

Community colleges, 10, 96, 98, 127, 140-141, 142, 153, 154, 157 n.12, 160, 255, 257

Community Development Block Grants program, 370

Community Transformation Grant (CTG) program, 13, 252, 256-257, 413, 415

Compendium of Proven Community-Based Prevention Programs, 257

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, 151 n.8

Conduct disorder, 149, 277

Congenital heart disease (CHD), 283, 284

Context for this study

federal initiatives on young adults, 20, 22-23

intellectual and scientific, 23

policy, 23

Continuum of Care, 367, 370

Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS), 11-12, 172, 179-180, 183, 186-187, 192, 193, 388, 389, 402, 410, 444, 447, 448, 449

Criminal involvement, 86 (see also Incarceration; Justice system–involved individuals)

Crittenden Women’s Union, 157

Cystic fibrosis, 282, 284, 285, 286, 314, 315

D

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, 312-313

Definitions and key terms

adolescents, 25-26

behavioral health, 26

children 26

disadvantaged young adults, 27

disconnected young adults, 27

health and well-being, 26

health care, 26

marginalized young adults, 26-27

physical health, 26

young adults, 25-26

youth, 25

Delivery of health care

frameworks for, 324

harnessing technology, 51, 320-322

innovative approaches, 319-323

peer-led approaches, 322-323

the quantified self, 322

Demographic shifts

elder dependency ratio, 18, 67, 413-414

fertility rate, 67

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

immigration, 67

racial/ethnic diversity, 57-58, 62-63, 67

Depression, 41, 56, 80, 86, 90, 94, 95, 110, 144, 173, 191, 205, 207, 220, 226, 227, 277, 299, 301, 302, 303, 319, 321, 358, 431-432, 433, 434

Developmental aspects of young adulthood

brain maturation process, 37-41

findings and implications, 2, 19, 59-60

gender differences, 41

physical, 19, 35-36

psychological, 19, 36-37, 41-42, 125

Diabetes, 53, 55, 93, 220, 241, 252, 257, 283, 284, 295-296, 299

Diet and nutrition, 5, 52, 54, 56, 57, 63, 204, 205, 207, 214, 219-221, 229, 250, 252, 256-257, 286, 296, 297, 299, 302, 369, 372, 374-375, 376-377

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 257

Disabilities (see Young adults with disabilities)

Disadvantaged young adults, defined, 27

Disconnected young adults

characteristics, 147-148

crime and incarceration, 145

defined, 27

education and employment, 124, 126, 127, 145, 147-148, 156, 157, 162, 416

idleness, 3, 48, 61, 126, 127-128, 129-130

parents, 94, 147

research needs, 162

social isolation, 103, 110

Domestic violence, 95, 109, 376 (see also Intimate partner violence)

Dopamine, 39-40

Drug Court Training and Technical Assistance, 247

Drug-Free Communities, 247

E

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, 88

Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 377-378

Earnings, assets, and financial independence, 3, 48, 49-50, 103-104, 123, 125-126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134

Education

academic and career guidance and information, 141

alcohol use by college students, 54, 144-145, 208, 218-219, 226, 233

attendance patterns, 136

career academies, 142

career and technical (vocational), 10, 13, 111, 127, 141-142, 153, 154, 157, 160, 181, 255, 362, 363, 447-448

and civic engagement, 49, 171, 176, 445

community colleges and, 10, 96, 98, 127, 140-141, 142, 153, 154, 157 n.12, 160, 255, 257

completion of, 9, 10, 28, 42, 47, 48, 89, 124, 126, 127, 129 n.2, 135, 137-138, 139

conclusions and recommendations, 9-11, 158-163

cost and debt issues, 126, 138, 139

developmental/remedial, 140, 156

disabilities and chronic health conditions and, 49, 124, 126, 148-150, 152-153

disconnected youth, 126, 147-148

distance learning, 162

dropouts, 3, 9, 58, 61, 83, 95, 123, 126, 132, 134-136, 139, 147, 156, 159, 173, 175, 410, 412, 431, 443, 447

economic status and, 47, 108

effectiveness of policies and programs, 154-158

and employment and earnings, 3, 47-48, 49, 50, 61, 107, 123, 125-126, 131, 132, 133, 134, 138, 143, 155

enrollment rates, 9, 47, 48, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 135, 136, 149

and family formation patterns, 44-45, 46, 61

financial aid, 48, 51, 140, 141, 153, 155-156, 181

findings and implications, 60-61

gender and, 47, 128, 129, 132, 135, 137, 138-139

General Educational Development (GED) credential, 9, 83, 95, 96-97, 98, 126, 132, 139, 156, 157 n.12, 158, 313, 363, 364, 410, 412, 442, 445

geographic differences, 159

and health outcomes, 49, 55, 124, 143-145, 147-148

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

higher education, 3, 46-47, 48, 49, 51, 61, 83, 95, 123, 126, 134-139, 153-154, 155-156

immigrants, 47

massive open online courses (MOOCs), 141, 162

military service and, 190-191, 193

and outcomes of young adults, 3, 134-143

parental financing, 67, 103

and partnership and parenting patterns, 3, 83, 89, 126

policies and programs, 48, 95, 96, 97, 153-154, 155-156

race/ethnicity and, 3, 44, 47, 58, 61, 104, 128, 129-130, 132, 133, 135, 137, 138-139, 431

research needs, 162-163

school-to-work transition patterns, 46-49

socioeconomic position and, 137, 138-139

special education students, 148-150

substance use and, 150

work-based learning, 10, 142-143, 155, 157, 160, 446

Educational Alliance, 96

Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act, 179, 180, 181, 182, 185 n.9, 186, 441 n.2, 448

Effective Citizenship toolkit, 183

Elder dependency ratio, 18, 67, 413-414

Emergency Shelter Grants program, 370

Emerging Adulthood Initiative, 290-291

Employment (see also Unemployment)

apprenticeships, 10, 142-143, 155, 157, 160, 446

civic engagement and, 185, 192

conclusions and recommendations, 9-11, 158-163

disabilities and chronic health conditions and, 49, 150

disability law and, 152-153

disconnected youth, 147-148

discrimination in hiring, 104, 133

earnings and benefits, 3, 48, 49-50, 103-104, 123, 125-126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134

economic and labor market conditions and, 125-126, 129, 130, 133-134

educational attainment and, 3, 47-48, 49, 50, 61, 107, 123, 125-126, 131, 132, 133, 134, 138, 143, 155

effectiveness of policies and programs, 124, 154-158

gender and, 128, 130, 131, 132

and health outcomes, 49, 124-125, 145-147

immigrants, 67, 133, 134

informal hiring networks, 133

military service and, 190-191, 193

outcomes of young adults, 127-134

race/ethnicity and, 3, 48, 61, 103-104, 128, 130, 132, 133, 431

research needs, 162-163

socioeconomic position and, 107, 108, 111

spatial mismatch, 133

workforce programs, 64, 96-97, 98, 111, 124, 151-152, 178-179, 192

workplace safety, 145-147

Employment Training Administration, 362

Executive Office of the President, 247, 378

F

Family and Youth Services Bureau, 368

Family patterns (see also Parenthood and parenting)

cohabitation, 3, 4, 43-44, 45, 46, 50-51, 61, 77, 83, 84-85, 86-87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 94-95, 99, 107

economic conditions and, 49-51, 61, 67

educational attainment and, 44-45, 46, 61

environment and behavioral health, 93-94, 100, 102, 277

findings and implications, 62

formation patterns, 43-46, 50, 61, 62

gender differences, 44, 46

and health and well-being, 91-92

intergenerational relationships, 78, 90, 92, 99

lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults, 3-4, 45, 61, 83, 85-86

racial/ethnic differences, 44, 46, 90

support of adult children, 4, 43, 61, 77, 92, 98, 99, 100, 111

Family Readiness System, 189

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, 238

Family Unification Program, 370

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 358

Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 22

Federal Interagency Working Group for Children of Incarcerated Parents, 110-111

Federal Work-Study Program, 178

Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), 248, 251

Firearms/guns, 22, 54, 146, 206, 236, 299

Foster youth aging out

access to health care, 292, 305, 309-310

characteristics, 4, 352-353, 367-368

criminal justice system involvement, 4, 353, 355, 381, 385

data collection on, 354, 385

education, 4, 353, 354-355

employment, 4, 309, 353

engagement in policy and program development, 7, 406

evidence of program effectiveness, 355-356

exit age, 309

extension of foster care entitlement, 354-355, 382

government investments in, 4, 351-356, 389

health and well-being, 4, 309, 353

health care coverage, 245, 276, 301, 306, 309, 310, 353, 355

independent living, 353, 354, 355

parenthood, 353, 355

programs for, 243, 349, 353-354, 370, 381-382, 402, 403

purposes of the foster care system, 351-352

relationships, 4, 309, 353

substance abuse, 309, 353

transition to adulthood, 4, 62, 347

Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoption Act, 309, 354-355

Foundation for Child Development, 95, 96

Fresh Start program (Wisconsin), 186, 441

G

Garrett County Community Action Committee, 96

Gateways to College program, 157

GED Bridge, 157 n.12

Gender differences

behavioral health, 41, 52, 54, 212, 213

civic engagement, 171, 175-176

developmental paterns, 41

discrimination, 431

education, 47, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 135, 137, 138-139

employment, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 138

family formation patterns, 44, 46

health status, 41, 57, 205

incarceration, 357

and preventive care use, 296

psychopathologies, 41

in relationship patterns, 77, 79, 83-84, 92, 101, 108

GI Bill, 190

Gonorrhea, 203, 210, 299

Got Transition initiative, 289-290, 318, 326

Government Accountability Office, 151

Government investments in marginalized individuals

characteristics common to young adults and their programs, 380-383

conclusions and recommendations, 384-392

evidence base for, 383-384

foster youth aging out, 351-356

homeless young adults, 366-371

justice system–involved individuals, 356-366

key findings, 347-348

policy recommendations, 387-392

research recommendations, 384-387

unauthorized immigrants, 378-380

young parents, 371-378

Grants

SAMHSA Grants to Improve Mental Health Services for Young People, 22

Great Recession, 3, 43, 48, 61, 123, 125, 135, 147

Guide to Community Preventive Services, 257

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Guidelines for preventive care

existing, 297-300

implementation, 300

monitoring adherence, 300-301

H

Habitat for Humanity, 185, 441

Head Start, 95, 442

Health and well-being

access to health care and, 26, 52

behavioral influences, 52-55, 63

bias and discrimination effects, 57-59, 61-62

defined, 26

developmentally, 52

disabilities and chronic health conditions, 148-150

disconnected youth, 147-148

disparities, 57, 212, 213

diversity and, 57-59

education and, 49, 55, 124, 143-145, 147-148

employment and, 49, 124-125, 145-147

findings and implications, 61-62, 63

marriage and, 85-86

racial/ethnic disparities, 57, 205, 210, 211, 212, 213, 221-222, 230, 431, 432, 433

risk-taking behaviors and, 5-6, 36-37, 41, 52, 54, 56, 57, 63, 95, 97, 100, 145, 204, 205, 214, 218, 221, 222, 229-230, 235-236, 275-276, 368, 381

social roles and activities and, 52-57

status, 54, 55-57, 63

system-level approaches, 26

volunteering and, 171, 173-174, 243

Health behaviors (see also Diet and nutrition; Physical activity exercise; Sexual behavior; Substance abuse; Tobacco use)

causes of death, 52, 53

gender differences, 41, 52, 54, 212

health-promoting, 54-55

physical and dental checkups, 5, 54, 63, 280, 298

risky, 52-54

Health care system (see also Access to health care; Delivery of health care; Health insurance coverage; Preventive care; Transition from pediatric to adult health care; Utilization of health care)

barriers to optimal care, 278

behavioral health interventions, 304, 329

conclusions and recommendations, 13-16, 323-330

confidentiality concerns, 316-318

high-quality characteristics, 323, 324

improving the system for young adults, 313-323

integrating medical and behavioral systems, 318-319

key findings, 275-276

navigation challenges, 277, 278, 295, 316

research priorities, 330

and utilization of services, 280-282

workforce knowledge and training, 313-316

Health conditions (see Chronic health conditions; specific conditions)

Health Corps, 185, 441

Health insurance coverage (see also Affordable Care Act)

access to, 85-86

and access to health care, 276, 293, 298, 304, 305-306

for behavioral health disorders, 311-312

employment and, 3, 123, 125

foster care children, 309-310

justice system–involved individuals, 310-311

by parents of young adults, 111

preventive care, 15, 56-57, 66, 298, 299, 318

state-level efforts to improve, 306

unauthorized immigrants, 312-313

and utilization of health care, 125

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), 111, 317-318

Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 306

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 2, 12, 15, 20, 21, 22, 246, 247, 249, 250-251, 254, 290, 327, 328, 387, 411

Healthy Marriage Initiative, 109

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Healthy People 2020 Adolescent and Young Adult Indicators, 22, 25 n.4, 54, 204-205, 206, 325

Healthy Transitions to Adulthood, 13, 22, 255, 256, 413, 414-415

High Growth Job Training Initiative, 152 n.9

High School Graduation Initiative, 9, 159

High Schools That Work, 142

Hispanics

discrimination, 58, 430, 431, 432

earnings, assets, and financial independence, 130, 133

education, 47, 58, 83, 128, 129-130, 132, 133, 135, 137, 138, 139 n.5, 431

employment/labor force participation, 128, 129-130, 132, 133, 431

health disparities, 210-211, 212, 432

incarceration, 105, 357

military service, 188

parenthood patterns, 88, 89, 90

programs and interventions, 313, 374, 442, 444

romantic relationships and union formations, 44, 83, 88, 89

substance use, 212, 213

tobacco use, 213

HIV Prevention Programs for Women, 247

HIV/AIDS, 52, 53, 145, 205, 209, 210, 212, 221-223, 231, 239, 242, 247, 248, 250-251, 296, 299, 327

Homeless young adults

characteristics of, 366-367

evidence for program effectiveness, 371

government investiments in, 366-371

programs for, 368-371

Homicide, 52, 53, 57, 204, 205, 206, 210, 237

Housing Choice Voucher program (Section 8), 370

Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS program, 370

Housing Opportunity and Services Together (HOST) program, 97

Human papillomavirus vaccination, 210, 223

Hypertension, 5, 55, 92, 220, 257

I

I-BEST, 157 n.12

Idleness, 3, 48, 61, 126, 127-128, 129-130

Immigrants/immigration (see also Unauthorized immigrants)

employment, 67, 133, 134

Immunizations, 205, 210-211, 240, 299

Incarceration

intergenerational effects, 105-107

and parenthood and parenting, 78, 105-107

race/ethnicity and, 105-106, 147, 357

research needs, 107, 110

Incentive Grant Program to Increase Motorcycle Safety, 249

Independent Living Initiative of 1986, 354

Indian Health Service, 15, 328, 411

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 153, 154

Information and communication technology

and access to health care, 51, 110, 232-233, 321-322

and social roles, 3, 51

Injuries, unintentional, 52, 53, 56, 145-147, 206

Injury Prevention and Control—Research and State and Community Based Programs, 248

Innovation Strategies for Increasing Self-Sufficiency, 157 n.13

Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 290

Triple Aim framework, 289

Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2, 20, 237, 238, 239, 240, 292, 324, 385 n.13

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 229 n.5

Integrated Database on Child and Family Programs, 385

Intergenerational relationships

and autonomy of children, 101-104

gender differences, 101

and health and well-being, 101, 108

incarceration and, 105-107

living arrangements, 43, 99

quality, social support, and parenting, 99-101, 108

race/ethnicity and, 103-104

research needs, 107

transmission of parenting practives, 104-105

and two-generation programs, 8, 9, 95-98, 110, 157, 320, 377, 409, 414, 416

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Interventions (see Policies and programs; specific programs)

Intimate partner violence, 189-190, 205, 207, 210, 211, 224-225

J

Job Corps, 151, 155, 363, 365, 366

Job Training Partnership Act, 151 n.8, 155

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 23

Johnson, Lyndon B., 179

Jumpstart, 185, 441

Justice system–involved individuals (see also Incarceration)

characteristics, 357-360

employment, 48

evidence of program effectiveness, 365-366

government investment in, 356-366

jurisdictional issues, 360-361

programs for young adults, 107, 361-365

substance abuse, 310

Juvenile Accountability Block Grant (JABG) program, 361-362

K

Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Young Adult Specialist Model, 316

Kennedy, John F., 179

Kresge Foundation, 97

L

LaGuardia Community College, 157 n.12

Latino/as (see Hispanics)

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people

bias and discrimination, 62, 430-431

civic engagement, 176

family formation, 3-4, 45, 61, 83, 85-86

health disparities, 57, 212, 213

military service, 188

policies and programs, 188, 350, 369, 384, 446

same-sex marriage, 3-4, 45, 61, 83, 85-86

Linked Learning, 142

M

Marginalized young adults (see also specific populations)

defined, 26-27

findings and implications, 62

guiding principles for policies and programs, 65

social inclusion perspective, 4 n.2, 27, 349, 383

Marijuana use, 5, 54, 63, 144, 205, 208, 212, 213, 230, 236, 237-238, 239, 258, 259, 295, 417

Maryland Interagency Transition Council for Youth with Disabilities, 244

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 21, 254, 290, 327, 411

Adolescent and Young Adult Health Program, 250-251

Maternal and Child Health Federal Consolidated Programs, 246

Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grants to States Program, 241, 246, 248, 250

Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program, 246

Maternity Group Home (MGH) Program, 369

Media multiplexity theory, 80

Medicaid, 66, 240, 245, 291, 292-293, 295, 301, 306, 307, 309, 310-312, 313, 317, 323, 325, 353, 354, 355, 375, 380, 382, 390, 402

Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), 282, 300, 301

Medicare, 240, 291

Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, 291

Mental health services

ACA and, 292, 311, 318

access to, 218, 245, 277, 292, 293, 302, 319

insurance coverage, 291-292, 311, 318

integration with medical care, 318

preventive, 296

SAMHSA Grants to Improve Mental Health Services for Young People, 22

training of professionals, 22

utilization, 56, 280, 282

mHealth initiatives, 320

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Military service

benefits, 11, 99, 171, 189, 190-191

and child maltreatment, 189-190

Don’t Ask Don’t Tell policy, 188

and education and employment outside military, 190-191, 193

and family formation, 188-189, 191

ineligibility for, 6, 57, 188

and mental and physical health patterns, 191-192, 302

and parenthood and parenting, 189-190

postmilitary transition, 171-172, 189-190, 191-192

programs for veterans and families, 179-180, 189, 191, 402

racial/ethnic diversity, 188, 190

research needs, 194

and sexual assault and intimate partner violence, 189-190, 207

socioeconomic background and, 188

support systems, 189

transitional nature of, 187-188

Minnesota Reading Corps, 185, 441

Model State Drug Laws Initiative, 247

Monitoring the Future study, 136

Mortality rates and causes of death for young adults, 203-204, 206, 208, 211

Motor vehicle crashes, 5, 52, 54, 56, 204, 205, 206, 211, 219, 228-230, 231, 236-237, 242, 248-249

Multi-Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs, 354 n.5, 356

Muslim Americans, 58, 430, 431

My Brother’s Keeper, 22, 162 n.16

N

National Adolescent and Young Adult Health Information Center, 316

National Alliance to Advance Adolescent Health, 290

National Alliance to End Homelessness, 367

National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 282, 300

National and Community Service Act of 1990, 179

National Association of Social Workers, 31

National Center for Health Statistics, 385 n.13

National Certification Examination for Addiction Counselors, 315

National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC), 180, 183, 184, 448, 449

National Committee for Quality Assurance, 14, 325, 326, 415

National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), 135, 173-174

National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention, 364

National Guard ChalleNGe program, 156, 157 n.12

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 209

National Health Interview Survey, 297, 300, 301

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 248-249

National Institute of Justice, 365-366

National Institutes of Health, 15, 21, 97, 329, 411, 412-413

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), 5, 54, 55, 386

National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 44, 47, 386

National Prevention Council, 245

National Priority Safety Programs, 249

National Quality Forum, 14, 326, 415

National service (see also AmeriCorps; Civic engagement; Military service; other specific programs)

conclusions and recommendations, 11-12, 192-194

and education and employment, 171, 178

gender differences, 176

key findings, 171-172

new directions, 171-172, 186-187

programs in the United States, 29, 178-186, 441-449

racial/ethnic representation in, 171

top 10 national direct grantees, 185-186

volunteerism, 24, 171, 172, 173-174, 175, 177, 178, 179-180, 185, 192

National State-Based Tobacco Control Programs, 244, 247

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 207, 208, 209, 282

National Transitions of Care Coalition Measures Working Group, 325

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

National Youth in Transition Database, 354, 356

Network on Transitions to Adulthood, 23

New York Academy of Medicine, 257

Notre Dame Mission Volunteers, 185, 441

Now Is the Time plan, 22

Nutrition (see Diet and nutrition)

O

Obama, Barack, 22, 152, 179, 193, 312, 378

Obesity, 5, 13, 55, 56, 63, 80, 205, 209, 210, 220, 241, 242, 256-257, 295-296, 299, 301, 402, 404

Occupant Protection Incentive Grants, 249

Office of Management and Budget, 387

Office of National Drug Control Policy, 364

Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, 14, 326, 411

Open Society Institute, 97, 447

Opportunity youth, 27 n.5

P

Parenthood and parenting

characteristics of young parents, 371-372

and child support by fathers, 48, 91, 103, 147-148

cohabitation and, 88-89

conflict and violence, 93-94

delays in childbearing, 77, 87, 89

education and, 3-4, 94

evidence for program effectiveness, 375-378

executive functioning difficulties, 157 n.14

findings and implications, 62, 108-109

government investments in, 371-378

grandparents as caregivers, 92-93

and health and well-being, 90, 91-95, 107-108

“helicopter,” 50

incarceration and, 78, 105-107, 110-111

intergenerational factors, 90, 92-93, 95-99, 111

interventions/programs, 94, 95-98, 108-109, 110-111, 372-375

modeling hypothesis, 104-105

multiple-partner fertility, 77, 89-91, 107, 109

nonmarital and unintended births, 3, 61, 77, 84, 87-88, 89, 90, 91-92, 93, 94, 107-108, 109, 353, 373

other-mothering, 90

parenting styles and parent-child relationships, 94-95

race/ethnicity and, 88-89, 90, 92, 93, 106, 109

research needs, 90-91, 92, 110-111

role transition, 45, 87-89

same-sex partnership and, 45

socioeconomic position and, 50-51, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93-95

timing and sequencing of, 3-4, 45-47

transmission of practices across generations, 62, 100, 104-105

two-generation programs, 65, 95-98

union formation and, 83

PASCO, 185-186, 441

Patient-Centered Medical Home, 325

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (see Affordable Care Act)

Paul Allen Foundation, 97

Peace Corps, 179, 192, 442, 444-445

Pell grants, 48, 140, 141, 153, 155-156, 181

Per Scholas, 155

Performance Partnerships for Disconnected Youth, 388-389

Pew Research Center, 51, 58, 430

Physical activity/exercise, 5, 13, 52, 54-55, 57, 63, 87, 144, 205, 209, 214, 219-221, 230, 233, 252, 256-257, 286, 296, 302, 327

Physical health (see also Health and well-being; specific conditions)

defined, 26

Planned Parenthood, 222

Points of Light Foundation, 179

Policies and programs

civic engagement promoted through, 97, 443, 446-447

context for this study, 20, 22-23

data limitations, 28

developmentally appropriate outcomes, 406

disability law and, 152-153

economic opportunities, 64

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

education, 48, 95, 96, 97, 153-154, 155-156

engaging young adults in, 65-66, 406

evaluation evidence, 154-158

evidence base, 6, 7, 8, 15, 31, 97, 108-109, 124, 143, 158, 214, 215-216, 221, 224-225, 227-228, 231, 233, 234, 237, 240, 245, 249, 252, 253, 278, 294, 295, 302, 303, 319, 351, 355-356, 365-366, 375-378, 383-384, 389, 403-405, 408

experimentation with, 7, 9-10, 31, 141, 159, 162-163, 389-390, 406-407, 408

flexibility in, 65, 390, 391

fragmentation and uncoordination, 6, 17, 31, 240, 241, 290, 347-348, 388-389, 390, 402-403, 404-405

for least advantaged and most marginalized, 65

overall conclusions, 401-405

preventive health care, 66, 219-223, 252-253

principles to guide action, 64-66

program selection for this study, 28

social inclusion perspective, 4 n.2, 27, 349, 383

support during critical transitions, 405-406

two-generation approach, 8, 9, 65, 95-98, 110, 157, 320, 377, 409, 414, 416

workforce programs, 64, 96-97, 98, 111, 124, 151-152, 178-179, 192

young adulthood as developmental period and, 403, 405

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 191, 207, 302, 303

PreK-3rd initiative, 96

Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF), 252

Preventive care (see also Guidelines for preventive care)

ACA and, 56-57, 66, 200, 252-253, 276, 298, 300, 318

access to, 252-253, 297, 298, 300, 302, 319, 328

barriers to, 13-14, 56-57, 300

for behavioral health conditions, 66, 299, 302-304, 405-406

chronic diseases, 219-221

conclusions and recommendations, 14-16, 327-329, 410, 411, 413, 417

guidelines, 57, 257, 278, 297-301, 316, 327, 330, 404, 417

immunizations, 205, 210-211, 240, 299

insurance coverage, 15, 56-57, 66, 298, 299, 318

policies, programs, and interventions, 66, 219-223, 252-253

race/ethnicity and, 296-297

reproductive health, 66

research needs, 404

screening and counseling, 66, 276, 296, 297, 299, 327

self-monitoring, 322

STI/HIV infection, 209, 212, 221-223, 241, 242, 247, 296, 299, 327

substance abuse, 6-7, 66, 299

tobacco use, 276, 296, 297, 299, 327

transition from pediatric systems, 287

two-generation approaches, 320

utilization, 282, 296-297, 427

Principles to guide action, 64-66 (see also Policies and programs)

Project Pericles, 178

Promise Neighborhoods, 255

Promoting Readiness of Minors in Supplemental Security Income (PROMISE), 22, 157-158

Public Allies, 185-186, 441, 446

Public health (see also specific issues)

access to services, 241, 242, 245, 250-251

conclusions and recommendations, 12-13, 253-259

essential services and infrastructure, 202

key findings, 199-200

overview of perspectives and activities, 201-203

priority issues, 203-212

social media and, 232-235

Public health interventions

alcohol use, 218-219

chronic disease prevention, 200, 219-221

goals, 214-215

immunizations, 205, 210-211, 223, 240, 299

integration of services, 241-242

lessons learned, 231-232

mental health conditions, 225-228

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

motor vehicle safety, 228-230

multiple risk behaviors, 231

sexual assault and intimate partner violence, 224-225

STI/HIV infection prevention, 221-223

tobacco use, 215-217

Public health policies and programs

alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, 12, 201, 205, 214, 218-219, 224-225, 229, 230, 231, 233, 236-239, 247, 248, 249, 302

community transformation grants, 256-257

federal, 242-251

improving and coordinating, 239-253

preventive care opportunities under ACA, 252-253

research needs, 257-258

state and local coordination, 240-242, 254-256

Public Housing program, 370

R

Race to the Top program, 10, 160

Race/ethnicity (see also African Americans/non-Hispanic blacks; American Indians/Alaska Natives; Asians/Pacific Islanders; Hispanics)

and alcohol abuse, 212

and civic engagement, 171, 175-176

diversity trends, 57-58, 62-63

and education, 3, 44, 47, 58, 61, 104, 128, 129-130, 132, 133, 135, 137, 138-139, 431

and employment, 103-104, 128, 130, 132, 133

family patterns, 44, 46, 90

focus and scope of this report, 30-31

health disparities, 57, 58-59

parenthood patterns, 88-89, 90, 92, 93, 106, 109

prejudice and discrimination based on, 31, 58-59

preventive health services, 296-297

research needs, 162-163

and union formation, 83

Rape/sexual assault, 205, 207, 211-212, 224-225, 360 (see also Intimate partner violence)

Recommendations (see also specific domains)

cross-cutting, 407-408

domain-specific organized by responsible entity, 408-415

focus, 31

two-generation programs, 9, 110

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 152-153, 154

Reintegration of Ex-Offenders program, 362, 365

Relationships (see also Intergenerational relationships; Parenthood and parenting; Romantic/intimate relationships and union formation; Social relationships)

conclusions and recommendations, 107-111

key findings, 77-78

socioecological framework, 78-79

Reproductive health

access to services, 66, 205, 241

alcohol abuse and pregnancy, 237, 277

challenges, 208-209

data collection, 301, 404

disparities, 211

public health programs, 246-247

utilization of health services, 282

Research

guiding principles, 64

methods for this study, 23-24

needs, 110, 162-163, 412-413, 415, 416-417

outcome measures, 64

young adults’ treatment in, 20

Risk-taking behavior, 5-6, 36-37, 41, 52, 54, 56, 57, 63, 95, 97, 100, 145, 204, 205, 214, 218, 221, 222, 229-230, 235-236, 275-276, 368, 381

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2, 20, 234

Roca, 157

Romantic/intimate relationships and union formation

birth control and, 82, 84, 88

cohabitation, 3, 4, 43-44, 45, 46, 50-51, 61, 77, 83, 84-85, 86-87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 94-95, 99, 107

economic stability and, 84

education and, 3, 83, 89, 126

family stability and, 83

gender and, 83-84

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

health and other benefits, 3-4, 85-86, 91, 93

health selection, 86

marriage, 3-4, 23, 43-44, 45-46, 50-51, 61, 82, 83-84, 85-86, 89, 91, 93, 94, 99, 107, 108, 109, 124, 372

and mental health, 86-87

parenthood and, 83

patterns, 3-4, 43-44, 61, 82-85

programs/interventions, 108

race/ethnicity and, 44-45, 83, 88-89, 90, 109

same-sex, 3-4, 45, 61, 83, 85-86

social media and, 51

stress and conflict, 90

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 178-179

Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (RHYA), 368, 371

Runaway and Homeless Youth Management Information System, 369

Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, 368

Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, 247, 248, 250-251

S

Schools of Choice in New York City, 156 n.13

Scope and focus of this report

challenges, 28-29

data limitations, 28

haves and have-nots, 30

heterogeneity of population, 29-30

policy-relevant domains, 29

program selection, 28

racial and ethnic disparities, 30-31

recommendations, 31

Seattle Children’s Hospital, 287

Second Chance Act Grant Program, 362

Second Chance Act Prisoner Reentry Initiative, 365

Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons with Disabilities, 370

Senior Corps, 179-180

Sensation seeking, 40, 41, 236, 360

Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative, 365

Sexual behavior (see also Reproductive health)

unprotected, 56, 57, 205, 239, 241, 317, 402

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

access to health services, 317

consequences, 221, 317

disparities, 212, 221

patterns, 5, 54, 63, 204

prevention, 209, 212, 221-223, 241, 242, 247, 296, 299, 327

utilization of health services, 282, 296

Shared Youth Vision Federal Partnership, 388

Sheltering Arms Early Learning and Resource Center, 97

Sickle cell disease, 283, 284, 285, 287

SiSTA (Sistas Informing Sistas about Topics on AIDS) program, 221, 222

SMART (Start Making a Real Transformation) initiative, 364

Smoking (see Tobacco use)

Social capital, 81, 82, 94, 98, 99, 174, 377, 445

Social exclusion, 27

Social expectations, 19-20

Social Innovation Fund (SIF), 179-180

Social media, 24, 51, 62, 65-66, 80, 107, 110, 162-163, 180, 217, 232-235, 258, 320, 321, 416, 417

Social mobility, 2, 60, 64

Social networks/networking

and civic engagement, 11, 180, 181, 183, 186

connection, 81, 82

defined, 80

employment, 133

family relations, 99, 189

and health and well-being, 26, 77, 80, 108, 144

incarcerated young adults, 106

information technology and social media and, 51, 60, 80, 81, 82, 230, 233, 235, 253

lifestreaming, 82, 322

national service and, 189, 192

and parenthood, 93, 98, 106

public health interventions, 12, 97, 98, 110, 199, 201, 230, 233, 235, 253

research needs, 110

and union formation, 85

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Social relationships (see also Social networks/networking)

and alcohol abuse, 80, 86, 87

expression, 82

parental modeling and, 105

Social roles and activities

family, 43-46, 62

findings and implications, 19, 60-62

information technology and social media and, 3, 51

patterns, 3, 42-49

socioeconomic context, 19, 46-49, 60-61

Social Security Act, Titles IV-B and IV-E, 351, 354

Social Security Administration (SSA), 157, 293, 388

Social Services Block Grant, 373

Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine, 314-315

Socioeconomic position

and civic engagement, 171, 175-176

and educational attainment, 137, 138-139

and employment, 107, 108, 111

and family patterns, 49-51, 61, 67

Socioeconomic restructuring, 3, 49-51, 60, 62-63, 67

Special education students, 148-150

State and Community Highway Safety, 248

Statement of Task, 21

Street Outreach Program (SOP), 370

Stroke, 13, 55, 56, 256

Study charge, 20

Study Group on the Transitions between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime, 361, 365-366

Substance abuse (see also Alcohol use)

college students, 150

disparities, 57, 309

and employment, 376

foster youth aging out, 309, 353

health outcomes, 204

insurance coverage, 291-292, 295, 311

interventions, 22, 242, 247, 302, 362

justice system–involved individuals, 310, 365

marijuana, 5, 54, 63, 144, 205, 208, 212, 213, 230, 236, 237-238, 239, 258, 259, 295, 417

multiple partner fertility and, 90

patterns, 54, 57, 212, 213

prevention, 6-7, 238, 299, 361, 368-369

public health burden, 56, 204, 205, 208

race/ethnicity and, 57, 212, 213

social stigma, 295

socioeconomic position and, 54, 90

transition from pediatric to adult care, 295

treatment and services, 6-7, 238, 279, 291, 292, 295, 311, 318, 365, 411

and unprotected sex, 239

utilization of health services, 280, 282

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 15, 21, 328, 387, 411

Campus Suicide Prevention Grants, 302

Drug-Free Communities, 247

Emerging Adulthood Initiative, 290-291

Grants to Improve Mental Health Services for Young People, 22

Services Grant Program for Residential Treatment for Pregnant and Postpartum Women, 246

Suicide, 22, 52, 53, 56, 149, 191, 203, 208, 213, 225, 227-228, 237, 299, 302, 303, 433

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), 151, 372, 374-375, 376-377, 380, 382, 383

Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 150, 157-158, 292-293, 381, 382-383

Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 131, 137

Synar Amendment, 238

T

Talent Development model, 156 n.12

Task Force on the Expansion of National Service, 193

Teach for America (TFA), 185, 441, 444-445, 446-447

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 151, 349, 372-374, 375-376, 380, 381, 382

Title V Community Prevention Grants Program, 362

Title X Family Planning Program, 240, 244, 246

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Tobacco Regulation Awareness, Communication, and Education Program, 247

Tobacco Rule, 238

Tobacco use

advertising and promotion, 235, 239

age access laws, 236-239

and educational difficulties, 150

health impacts, 204, 217, 256, 277

and insurance premiums, 308

interventions, 12, 209, 214, 215-217, 231, 235

patterns, 5, 54, 63, 80, 87, 144, 203 n.1, 209, 213, 214

pregnancy and, 277

public health policies and initiatives, 13, 201, 205, 214, 236-239, 241, 244, 245, 248, 252, 256-257, 402

race/ethnicity and, 213

research needs, 258-259, 417

screening and preventive counseling, 276, 296, 297, 299, 327

Tobacco-Free College Campus initiative, 245, 248

Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training grants, 152 n.9

Transition Age Youth (TAY) initiative, 242, 244-245

Transition Assistance Program, 191

Transition from adolescence to adulthood

interrelated domains, 124

school-to-work patterns, 46-49

theoretical perspectives, 76-77

timing and sequencing of social role acquisition, 42-49, 60-61

Transition from pediatric to adult health care

ACA and, 325

aging out of child-serving systems, 292-293

behavioral health care, 57, 66, 277, 291-294

for chronic health conditions, 57, 283-291

conclusions and recommendations, 323-327

improvement efforts, 288-291

navigation challenges, 14, 28, 57, 276, 277, 278, 295, 316

preventive services, 66

provider limitations, 285-286

substance abuse care, 295

system differences, 286-288, 293-294

Transition of young adults with disabilities, 22, 29

Transition Youth Demonstration, 157-158

Transitional Living Program (TLP), 369

Two Generations, One Future, 98

U

Unauthorized immigrants

access to health care, 305, 309

characteristics, 47, 312, 378-380

health insurance coverage, 276, 312

services and supports, 29, 312-313, 380, 381

Unemployment

health effects, 175, 213

insurance, 151

and program eligibility, 374

rates, 47-48, 127, 128, 129, 130

United Service Organizations, Inc., 189

University of Arizona, 181

University of Chicago, 385-386

University of Michigan, 245, 248

University of Pennsylvania, 386

Urban Institute, 97

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 151, 257, 374, 375, 376-377

U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), 2, 6, 15, 20, 21, 57, 191, 247, 257, 328, 388, 411-412

U.S. Department of Education, 9-10, 11, 16, 17, 151, 153, 157, 159, 160, 161, 181, 193, 255, 364, 386, 387, 388, 389, 409, 410

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 364, 387, 389

Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Grant Programs, 243-244, 246

dual-generations program, 97

HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 247, 248, 250-251

Innovation Strategies for Increasing Self-Sufficiency, 157 n.13

mental health grants and initiatives, 22

Office of Family Planning, 244

Office of Population Affairs, 246

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
×

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2, 20

Pregnancy Assistance Fund Program, 246

recommendations for, 16, 17, 386, 387, 409

Services Grant Program for Residential Treatment for Pregnant and Postpartum Women, 243-244, 246

Shared Youth Vision Federal Partnership, 388

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 16, 17, 255, 364, 367, 386, 387, 388, 402, 409, 449

U.S. Department of Justice, 11, 16, 17, 21, 110, 193, 237-238, 361, 364, 365, 386, 387, 388, 409

U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 21, 151-152, 153-154, 160, 161, 191, 193, 362, 363, 364, 386, 387, 388, 389, 402, 409, 410, 442, 443, 447, 448, 449

U.S. Department of the Interior, 402, 449

U.S. Department of Transportation, 248-249, 388

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 15, 191, 247, 257, 328, 370, 411

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 238-239, 247

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), 15, 297, 298, 300, 301, 316, 327, 328, 410, 411, 413

U.S. Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 237

USA Freedom Corps, 179

Utilization of health care

ACA and, 280-282, 298

behavioral health services, 226, 282

emergency room visits, 5, 146, 206, 208, 228, 275, 280-281, 282, 284, 291, 306, 320

insurance coverage and, 125

mental health services, 56, 280, 282

physical and dental checkups, 5, 54, 55, 63, 280, 298

preventive services, 282, 296-297, 427

race/ethnicity and, 296

reproductive/sexual health services, 282, 296

V

Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing, 370

Veterans Rehabilitation Alcohol and Drug Dependence, 247

Violence (see also Domestic violence; Homicide)

risk taking and poor decision making and, 56

VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America), 179, 180, 181

Vocational education (see Career and technical education)

Vocational Rehabilitation, 151

Volunteer Generation Fund, 179-180

Volunteerism, 24, 171, 172, 173-174, 175, 177, 178, 179-180, 185, 192

Voting, 174-175, 176, 177, 184, 443, 445, 447

W

War on Poverty, 151, 179

War on Terror, 187

Washington Service Corps, 185, 441

Welfare reform, 96, 375, 380

White House Office of National Service, 179

WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children), 372, 375, 377

Wisconsin Regional Training Partnership, 155

W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 96-98

Women’s Preventive Services Guidelines, 298-299

Work-based learning, 10, 142-143, 155, 157, 160, 446

Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), 151, 152, 153-154

Workforce Innovation Funds, 152 n.9

Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development grants, 152 n.9

Workforce Investment Act, 151 n.8

World Health Organization, 26, 323

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18869.
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Y

Year Up, 155

Yellow Ribbon Reintegration Program, 189

YMCA Military Outreach, 189

Young Adult Indicator Data, 22

Young adults with disabilities

access to health care, 245

bias and discrimination, 62, 150, 154

and education and employment, 49, 124, 126, 148-150, 152-153

mental health, 56

parental support of, 102-103

transition to self-sufficiency, 22

Youth Corps, 186, 449

Youth Transition Demonstration, 157

Youth-Adult Council, 242

YouthBuild, 179, 185-186, 193, 363-364, 403, 441, 442-444, 446

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Young adulthood - ages approximately 18 to 26 - is a critical period of development with long-lasting implications for a person's economic security, health and well-being. Young adults are key contributors to the nation's workforce and military services and, since many are parents, to the healthy development of the next generation. Although 'millennials' have received attention in the popular media in recent years, young adults are too rarely treated as a distinct population in policy, programs, and research. Instead, they are often grouped with adolescents or, more often, with all adults. Currently, the nation is experiencing economic restructuring, widening inequality, a rapidly rising ratio of older adults, and an increasingly diverse population. The possible transformative effects of these features make focus on young adults especially important. A systematic approach to understanding and responding to the unique circumstances and needs of today's young adults can help to pave the way to a more productive and equitable tomorrow for young adults in particular and our society at large.

Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults describes what is meant by the term young adulthood, who young adults are, what they are doing, and what they need. This study recommends actions that nonprofit programs and federal, state, and local agencies can take to help young adults make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. According to this report, young adults should be considered as a separate group from adolescents and older adults. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults makes the case that increased efforts to improve high school and college graduate rates and education and workforce development systems that are more closely tied to high-demand economic sectors will help this age group achieve greater opportunity and success. The report also discusses the health status of young adults and makes recommendations to develop evidence-based practices for young adults for medical and behavioral health, including preventions.

What happens during the young adult years has profound implications for the rest of the life course, and the stability and progress of society at large depends on how any cohort of young adults fares as a whole. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults will provide a roadmap to improving outcomes for this age group as they transition from adolescence to adulthood.

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