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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×

References

1. IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council). 2013. Confronting commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

2. Cohen, S. A. 2005. Ominous convergence: Sex trafficking, prostitution and international family planning. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 8(1):12-14.

3. Clawson, H. J., N. M. Dutch, A. Solomon, and L. Goldblatt Grace. 2009. Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

4. Clawson, H. J., N. M. Dutch, A. Solomon, and L. Goldblatt Grace. 2009. Study of HHS programs serving human trafficking victims. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

5. Irazola, S., E. Williamson, C. Chen, A. Garrett, and H. J. Clawson. 2008. Trafficking of U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents: The forgotten victims and survivors. Washington, DC: ICF International.

6. Logan, T. K., R. Walker, and G. Hunt. 2009. Understanding human trafficking in the United States. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 10(1):3-30.

7. Macy, R. J., and L. M. Graham. 2012. Identifying domestic and international sex-trafficking victims during human service provision. Trauma Violence and Abuse 13(2): 59-76.

8. Williamson, E., N. M. Dutch, and H. J. Clawson. 2009. National symposium on the health needs of human trafficking victims: Post-symposium brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

9. Clawson, H. J., and N. Dutch. 2008. Case management and the victim of human trafficking: A critical service for client success. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×

10. Crane, P. A., and M. Moreno. 2011. Human trafficking: What is the role of the health care provider? Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk 2(1).

11. Lillywhite, R., and P. Skidmore. 2006. Boys are not sexually exploited?: A challenge to practitioners. Child Abuse Review 15(5):351-361.

12. Smith, L., S. H. Vardaman, and M. A. Snow. 2009. The national report on domestic minor sex trafficking: America’s prostituted children. Vancouver, WA: Shared Hope International.

13. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2002. Confronting chronic neglect: The education and training of health professionals on family violence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

14. Clawson, H. J., and L. Goldblatt Grace. 2007. Finding a path to recovery: Residential facilities for minor victims of domestic sex trafficking. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

15. Fong, R., and J. Berger Cardoso. 2010. Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system. Evaluation and Program Planning 33(3):311-316.

16. Okech, D., W. Morreau, and K. Benson. 2011. Human trafficking: Improving victim identification and service provision. International Social Work 55(4):488-503.

17. Clawson, H. J., K. Small, E. S. Go, and B. W. Myles. 2013. Needs assessment for service providers and trafficking victims. Fairfax, VA: Caliber Associates, Inc.

18. Clawson, H. J., and N. Dutch. 2008. Identifying victims of human trafficking: Inherent challenges and promising strategies from the field. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

19. Farley, M., and V. Kelly. 2000. Prostitution: A critical review of the medical and social sciences literature. Women and Criminal Justice 11(4):29-64.

20. Chang, K. S. G. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Asian Health Services, May 9, 2012, San Francisco, CA.

21. Goldblatt Grace, L., M. Starck, J. Potenza, P. A. Kenney, and A. H. Sheetz. 2012. Commercial sexual exploitation of children and the school nurse. The Journal of School Nursing 28(6):410-417.

22. Siffermann, W. P. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the San Francisco Juvenile Probation Department, May 11, 2012, San Francisco, CA.

23. Nguyen, S. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Oakland High School Wellness Center, May 9, 2012, San Francisco, CA.

24. Holzman, J. 2012. Presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Girls Educational and Mentoring Services (GEMS) services and programs, September 12, 2012, New York.

25. Miller, E., M. R. Decker, J. G. Silverman, and A. Raj. 2007. Migration, sexual exploitation, and women’s health: A case report from a community health center. Violence Against Women 13(5):486-497.

26. Ring, M. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Standing Against Global Exploitation, May 12, 2012, San Francisco, CA.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×

27. Dovydaitis, T. 2009. Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health 55(5):462-467.

28. Durborow, N., K. C. Lizdas, A. O’Flaherty, and A. Marjavi. 2010. Compendium of state statutes and policies on domestic violence and health care. San Francisco, CA: Family Violence Prevention Fund.

29. Williamson, E., N. M. Dutch, and H. J. Clawson. 2010. Medical treatment of victims of sexual assault and domestic violence and its applicability to victims of human trafficking. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

30. Davidov, D. M., M. R. Nadorff, S. M. Jack, J. H. Coben, and NFP IVP Research Team. 2012. Nurse home visitors’ perspectives of mandatory reporting of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence to child protection agencies. Public Health Nursing 29(5):412-423.

31. Flaherty, E. G., and R. Sege. 2005. Barriers to physician identification and reporting of child abuse. Pediatric Annals 34(5):349-356.

32. Flaherty, E. G., R. Sege, L. L. Price, K. K. Christoffel, D. P. Norton, and K. G. O’Connor. 2006. Pediatrician characteristics associated with child abuse identification and reporting: Results from a national survey of pediatricians. Child Maltreatment 11(4):361-369.

33. Flaherty, E. G., R. D. Sege, J. Griffith, L. L. Price, R. Wasserman, E. Slora, N. Dhepyasuwan, D. Harris, D. Norton, M. L. Angelilli, D. Abney, and H. J. Binns. 2008. From suspicion of physical child abuse to reporting: Primary care clinician decision-making. Pediatrics 122(3):611-619.

34. Vulliamy, A. P., and R. Sullivan. 2000. Reporting child abuse: Pediatricians’ experiences with the child protection system. Child Abuse and Neglect 24(11):1461-1470.

35. Warner, J. E., and D. J. Hansen. 1994. The identification and reporting of physical abuse by physicians: A review and implications for research. Child Abuse and Neglect 18(1):11-25.

36. Pearce, J. 2006. Who needs to be involved in safeguarding sexually exploited young people? Child Abuse Review 15(5):326-340.

37. Lalor, K., and R. McElvaney. 2010. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 11(4):159-177.

38. Latimer, D. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Mount Sinai Sexual Assault and Violence Intervention (SAVI) Program, September 12, 2012, New York.

39. Mitchell, K., D. Finkelhor, L. Jones, and J. Wolak. 2010. Growth and change in undercover online child exploitation investigations, 2000-2006. Policing and Society 20(4):416-431.

40. Zimmerman, C., M. Hossain, and C. Watts. 2011. Human trafficking and health: A conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research. Social Science and Medicine 73(2):327-335.

41. Zimmerman, C., and C. Watts. 2007. Documenting the effects of trafficking in women. In Public health and human rights: Evidence-based approaches, edited by C. Breyer and H. F. Pizer. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×

42. Asian Health Services and Banteay Srei. 2012. Programs. http://banteaysrei.org (accessed April 16, 2013).

43. MacLeod, K. J., J. P. Marcin, C. Boyle, S. Miyamoto, R. J. Dimand, and K. K. Rogers. 2009. Using telemedicine to improve the care delivered to sexually abused children in rural, underserved hospitals. Pediatrics 123(1):223-228.

44. Thraen, I. M., L. Frasier, C. Cochella, J. Yaffe, and P. Goede. 2008. The use of telecam as a remote web-based application for child maltreatment assessment, peer review, and case documentation. Child Maltreatment 13(4):368-376.

45. Myers, K. M., J. M. Valentine, and S. M. Melzer. 2007. Feasibility, acceptability, and sustainability of telepsychiatry for children and adolescents. Psychiatric Services 58(11):1493-1496.

46. Myers, K. M., A. Vander Stoep, C. A. McCarty, J. B. Klein, N. B. Palmer, J. R. Geyer, and S. M. Melzer. 2010. Child and adolescent telepsychiatry: Variations in utilization, referral patterns and practice trends. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 16(3):128-133.

47. Hassija, C., and M. J. Gray. 2011. The effectiveness and feasibility of videoconferencing technology to provide evidence-based treatment to rural domestic violence and sexual assault populations. Telemedicine and E-Health 17(4):309-315.

48. Phillips, M. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting, and Serving Sexually Exploited Youth (MISSEY), May 9, 2012.

49. Steever, J. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center, September 12, 2012, New York.

50. Goldblatt Grace, L. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on My Life, My Choice, March 23, 2012, Boston, MA.

51. Greenbaum, V. J. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, May 9, 2012, San Francisco, CA.

52. Polenberg, M., and J. Westmacott. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Safe Horizon services, September 12, 2012, New York.

53. Isaac, R., J. Solak, and A. P. Giardino. 2011. Health care providers’ training needs related to human trafficking: Maximizing the opportunity to effectively screen and intervene. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk 2(1).

54. Walts, K. K., S. French, H. Moore, and S. Ashai. 2011. Building child welfare response to child trafficking. Chicago, IL: Loyola University Chicago, Center for the Human Rights of Children.

55. Asian Health Services and Banteay Srei. 2012. Asian Health Services and Banteay Srei CSEC Screening Protocol. http://www.asianhealthservices.org/docs/CSEC_Protocol.pdf (accessed April 11, 2013).

56. Administration for Children and Families, Office of Refugee Resettlement. 2012. Rescue & Restore Campaign Tool Kits. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/rescuerestore-campaign-tool-kits (accessed April 11, 2013).

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×

57. Polaris Project. 2012. Tools for service providers and law enforcement. http://www.polarisproject.org/resources/tools-for-service-providers-and-law-enforcement (accessed April 10, 2013).

58. Goldenring, J., and E. Cohen. 1988. Getting into adolescents heads. Contemporary Pediatrics 5(7):75-80.

59. Clawson, H. J., A. Salomon, and L. Goldblatt Grace. 2008. Treating the hidden wounds: Trauma treatment and mental health recovery for victims of human trafficking. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

60. Lebloch, E. K., and S. King. 2006. Child sexual exploitation: A partnership response and model intervention. Child Abuse Review 15(5):362-372.

61. Hossain, M., C. Zimmerman, M. Abas, M. Light, and C. Watts. 2010. The relationship of trauma to mental disorders among trafficked and sexually exploited girls and women. American Journal of Public Health 100(12):2442-2449.

62. Sabella, D. 2011. The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking. American Journal of Nursing 111(2):28-37.

63. Zimmerman, C., M. Hossain, K. Yun, V. Gajdadziev, N. Guzun, M. Tchomarova, R. A. Ciarrocchi, A. Johansson, A. Kefurtova, and S. Scodanibbio. 2008. The health of trafficked women: A survey of women entering posttrafficking services in Europe. American Journal of Public Health 98(1):55-59.

64. Knowles-Wirsing, E. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on Salvation Army STOP-IT, July 11, 2012, Chicago, IL.

65. Greene, J. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the Cook County State’s Attorney’s Office, Human Trafficking Task Force, July 11, 2012, Chicago, IL.

66. Nasser, M. 2012. Site visit presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on the U.S. Attorney’s Office, Northern District of Illinois, July 11, 2012, Chicago, IL.

67. Bridge, B. J., N. Oakley, L. Briner, and B. Graef. 2012. Washington state model protocol for commercially sexually exploited children. Seattle, WA: Center for Children and Youth Justice.

68. Baker, J., and E. Nelson. 2012. Workshop presentation to the Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States, on multi-disciplinary responses, May 9, 2012, San Francisco, CA.

69. Multnomah County. 2012. Multnomah County: Community response to Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC). Multnomah County, OR: Department of Community Justice.

70. Piening, S., and T. Cross. 2012. From “the life” to my life: Sexually exploited children reclaiming their futures Suffolk County Massachusetts’ response to Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC). Boston, MA: Children’s Advocacy Center of Suffolk County.

Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×

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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×
Page 33
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×
Page 37
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2014. Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18886.
×
Page 38
Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for the Health Care Sector Get This Book
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Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. These are not only illegal activities, but also forms of violence and abuse that result in immediate and long-term physical, mental, and emotional harm to victims and survivors. In 2013, the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council released the report Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. The report found that the United States is in the very early stages of recognizing, understanding, and developing solutions for these crimes.

Health care professionals need to be able to recognize past, ongoing, or potential victimization by commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking among the youth in their care. Failure to do so increases the possibility that those at risk may become victims, and victims may miss opportunities for assistance and remain vulnerable to further exploitation and abuse.

This Guide for the Health Care Sector provides a summary of information from the original report that is most relevant to individuals who and settings that see children and adolescents for prevention and treatment of injury, illness, and disease. This includes physicians, nurses, advanced practice nurses, physician assistants, mental health professionals, and dentists who practice in settings such as emergency departments, urgent care, primary care clinics, adolescent medicine clinics, school clinics, shelters, community health centers, and dental clinics among others.

This guide includes definitions of key terms and an overview of risk factors and consequences; barriers to identifying victims and survivors as well as opportunities for overcoming these barriers; examples of current practices in the health care sector; and recommendations aimed at identifying, preventing, and responding to these crimes.

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