Thomas D. Albright, Ph.D., (NAS) is Professor and Conrad T. Prebys Chair in Vision Research at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he joined the faculty in 1986. Dr. Albright is also Director of the Salk Institute Center for the Neurobiology of Vision, Adjunct Professor of Psychology and Neurosciences at the University of California, San Diego, and Visiting Centenary Professor at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Dr. Albright is an authority on the neural basis of visual perception, memory, and visually guided behavior. Probing the relationship between the activity of brain cells and perceptual state, his laboratory seeks to understand how visual perception is affected by attention, behavioral goals, and memories of previous experiences. His discoveries address the ways in which context influences visual perceptual experience and the mechanisms of visual associative memory and visual imagery. An important goal of this work is the development of therapies for blindness and perceptual impairments resulting from disease, trauma, or developmental disorders of the brain. A second aim of Dr. Albright’s work is to use our growing knowledge of brain, perception, and memory to inform design in architecture and the arts, and to leverage societal decisions and public policy.
Albright received a Ph.D. in psychology and neuroscience from Princeton University in 1983. He is a recipient of numerous honors for his work, including the National Academy of Sciences Award for Initiatives in Research. Dr. Albright is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science, and an associate of the Neuroscience Research Program. He is currently president of the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture; a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science, Technology, and Law; and serves on the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Indian National Brain Research Center.
Jed S. Rakoff, J.D., has been a United States District Judge for the Southern District of New York since 1996. Prior to his appointment, he was a federal prosecutor (1973–1980) and a criminal defense lawyer at two large New York law firms (1980–1995). Judge Rakoff is coauthor of 5 books and the author of more than 110 published articles, 500 speeches, and 1,200 judicial opinions. He has been an Adjunct Professor at Columbia Law School since 1988, teaching upper class seminars in science and the law, class actions, white collar crime, and the interplay of civil and criminal law.
Judge Rakoff is a Commissioner on the National Commission on Forensic Science and is a former member of the Governance Board of the MacArthur Foundation Initiative on Law and Neuroscience. He was a member of the National Research Council Committee on the Development of the Third Edition of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence and the Committee on the Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Bacillus anthracis Mailings. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Law Institute. He is a Judicial Fellow at the American College of Trial Lawyers, a former director of the New York Council of Defense Lawyers, and former chair of the Criminal Law Committee, New York City Bar Association.
Judge Rakoff received a B.A. from Swarthmore College in 1964, an M.Phil. from Oxford University in 1966, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1969.
William G. Brooks III is the Chief of the Norwood, Massachusetts Police Department. He began his tenure on May 1, 2012. He served as the Deputy Chief with the Wellesley Police Department from 2000 to 2012. As Deputy Chief, Brooks was involved in hiring, discipline, administration, budgeting, training, and multi-agency coordination. Prior to 2000, he served as a patrolman with the Westwood Police Department from 1977 to 1982 and as an officer with the Norwood Police Department from 1982 to 2000. In Norwood, he served as a patrolman and sergeant and as a detective sergeant for 14 years, supervising all criminal investigations conducted by detectives. Chief Brooks has been a police academy instructor for 30 years and a presenter on eyewitness identification for 6 years. He presents nation-
ally on behalf of the Innocence Project, is a member of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court’s Study Committee on Eyewitness Identification, and was the 2012 recipient of the Innocence Network’s Champion of Justice Award. Chief Brooks holds a master’s degree in criminal justice and is a graduate of the FBI National Academy.
Joe S. Cecil, Ph.D., J.D, is a Project Director in the Division of Research at the Federal Judicial Center. Currently, he is directing the Center’s Program on Scientific and Technical Evidence. As director, Dr. Cecil is responsible for judicial education and training in the area of scientific and technical evidence and served as principal editor of the first two editions of the Center’s Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, which is the primary source book on evidence for federal judges. He also has published several articles on the use of court-appointed experts. Dr. Cecil is currently directing a research project that examines the difficulties that arise with expert testimony in federal courts, with an emphasis on clinical medical testimony and forensic science evidence. Other areas of research interest include federal civil and appellate procedure, jury competence in complex civil litigation, and assessment of rule of law in emerging democracies. Dr. Cecil serves on the editorial boards of social science and legal journals. He previously served on the National Academies’ Panel on Confidentiality and Data Access and the Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community. He currently is a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Science, Technology, and Law and was a member of its Access to Research Data: Balancing Risks and Opportunities subcommittee. Dr. Cecil received his doctorate (in psychology) and law degree from Northwestern University.
Winrich Freiwald, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor, Laboratory of Neural Systems, The Rockefeller University. Dr. Freiwald is interested in the neural processes that form object representations as well as those that allow attention to make those representations available for social behavior and cognition. Dr. Freiwald co-discovered a specialized neural machinery for face processing located in the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain. He and his colleagues further showed that this machinery is composed of a small network of a fixed number of face selective regions, termed face patches, each dedicated to a different aspect of face processing and all closely connected with each other. Dr. Freiwald’s laboratory aims to understand the inner workings of this system, from the level of individual cells to the interactions of brain areas, in order to answer questions such as: How does face selectivity emerge in a single cell? How is information transformed from one face patch to another? What is the contribution of each face patch to different face recognition abilities like the recognition of
a friend or a smile? How do the different face patches interact in different tasks? And how is information extracted from a patch when a perceptual decision is made?
Dr. Freiwald, a native of Oldenburg, Germany, performed his graduate work at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt and received his Ph.D. from Tübingen University in 1998. He then joined the Institute for Brain Research at the University of Bremen as a lecturer. Starting in 2001, he worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and the Hanse Institute for Advanced Study in Delmenhorst, Germany. He was head of the primate brain imaging group at the Centers for Advanced Imaging and Cognitive Sciences in Bremen from 2004 to 2008 and a visiting associate at the California Institute of Technology in 2009. He joined The Rockefeller University as assistant professor in 2009. Dr. Freiwald was named a Pew Scholar in 2010, a McKnight Scholar in 2011, and a NYSCF—Robertson Neuroscience Investigator in 2013.
Brandon L. Garrett is the Roy L. and Rosamond Woodruff Morgan Professor of Law at the University of Virginia Law School. Garrett joined the law faculty in 2005. His research and teaching interests include criminal procedure, wrongful convictions, habeas corpus, corporate crime, scientific evidence, civil rights, civil procedure, and constitutional law.
Mr. Garrett’s recent research includes studies of DNA exonerations, organizational prosecutions, and eyewitness identification procedures in Virginia. In 2011, Harvard University Press published Mr. Garrett’s book, Convicting the Innocent: Where Criminal Prosecutions Go Wrong, examining the cases of the first 250 people to be exonerated by DNA testing. In 2013, Foundation Press published his co-authored casebook, Federal Habeas Corpus: Executive Detention and Post-Conviction Litigation. Mr. Garrett is currently completing a new book, in contract with Harvard University Press, examining corporate prosecutions.
Mr. Garrett attended Columbia Law School, where he was an articles editor of the Columbia Law Review and a Kent Scholar. After graduating, he clerked for the Honorable Pierre N. Leval of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. He then worked as an associate at Neufeld, Scheck & Brustin LLP in New York City.
Karen Kafadar, Ph.D., is Commonwealth Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of Virginia. Dr. Kafadar received her B.S. in mathematics and M.S. in statistics at Stanford University and her Ph.D. instatistics from Princeton University. Before joining the Statistics Department in 2014, she was Mathematical Statistician at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, member of the technical staff at Hewlett Packard’s
RF/Microwave R&D Department, Fellow in the Division of Cancer Prevention at National Cancer Institute, Professor and Chancellor’s Scholar at University of Colorado-Denver, and Rudy Professor of Statistics at Indiana University-Bloomington. Her research focuses on robust methods, exploratory data analysis, characterization of uncertainty in the physical, chemical, biological, and engineering sciences, and methodology for the analysis of screening trials, with awards from CDC, American Statistical Association (ASA), and American Society for Quality.
Kafadar was editor of Technometrics and the review section of the Journal of the American Statistical Association and is currently Biology, Medicine, and Genetics Editor for The Annals for Applied Statistics. She has served on several National Research Council committees and is a past or present member on the governing boards for ASA, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, International Statistical Institute, and National Institute of Statistical Sciences. She is a Fellow of the ASA, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the International Statistics Institute; she has authored more than 100 journal articles and book chapters; and has advised numerous M.S. and Ph.D. students.
A.J. Kramer, J.D., is Federal Public Defender for the District of Columbia. He earned a Bachelor’s of Arts from Stanford University (1975), followed by a Juris Doctorate from the Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California at Berkeley (1979). Mr. Kramer clerked for the Honorable Procter Hug, Jr., at the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Reno, Nevada. He spent seven years as an Assistant Federal Public Defender in San Francisco, California, followed by three years as the Chief Assistant Federal Public Defender in Sacramento, California. He taught legal research and writing at Hastings College of the Law, University of California, San Francisco from 1982 to 1988. Mr. Kramer was appointed Federal Public Defender for the District of Columbia in 1990.
A permanent faculty member at the National Criminal Defense College in Macon, Georgia, and at the Western Trial Advocacy Institute in Laramie, Wyoming, Mr. Kramer is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers. He is currently a member of the American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section Council and a member of the United States Judicial Conference Advisory Committee on the Rules of Evidence.
Scott McNamara, J.D., graduated from Syracuse University with a major in mathematics. Mr. McNamara attended Vermont Law School, graduating cum laude in 1991. On July 20, 1992, he became an Oneida County Assistant District Attorney. As such, he handled thousands of cases with a concentration in narcotic and homicide prosecutions. McNamara was the Bureau Chief of the Narcotics Unit for twelve years, and he was also
the First Assistant District Attorney for six years. During his years in the District Attorney’s Office, he was a member and the lead prosecutor assigned to the Oneida County Drug Task Force. He also chaired the Oneida County District Attorney’s Office Death Penalty Committee. From 2001 to 2006, Mr. McNamara represented the District Attorney’s Office on the Joint Terrorism Task Force. In January of 2007, Mr. McNamara took office as the Oneida County District Attorney and has since been elected, and reelected, by the citizens of Oneida County. His tenure as District Attorney has been one of proactive engagement and problem-solving. He has created an Economic Crime Unit, a Conviction Integrity Unit, and he has appointed a community liaison to improve communication and accessibility between the District Attorney’s Office and the diverse population it serves. In addition, Mr. McNamara initiated a strategy of video recording all police interrogations in Oneida County. He has always maintained that his goal as the county’s chief law enforcement officer is to continue the legacy of bringing justice to those victimized by crime while recognizing the need to safeguard and enhance fairness within the legal system.
For 10 years, Mr. McNamara taught search and seizure at the Mohawk Valley Police Academy. He was also an adjunct instructor at Mohawk Valley Community College, where he taught both criminal law and constitutional criminal procedural law. McNamara currently is an adjunct instructor at Utica College, where he teaches legal concepts of criminal fraud.
Charles Alexander Morgan III, M.D., is Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine. Over the course of twenty years at Yale University and the Neurobiological Studies Unit of National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Dr. Morgan’s neurobiological and forensic research has established him as an international expert in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in eyewitness memory, and in human performance under conditions of high stress. He is a forensic psychiatrist and has testified as an expert on memory and PTSD at the International Tribunal on War Crimes, the Hague, Netherlands. Dr. Morgan is subject matter expert in the selection and assessment of U.S. Military Special Operations and Special Mission Units. His work has provided insight into the psycho-neurobiology of resilience in elite soldiers and has contributed to the training mission of U.S. Army special programs. For his work in the special operations community, Dr. Morgan was awarded the U.S. Army Award for Patriotic Service in 2008. In 2010, Dr. Morgan was awarded the Sir Henry Welcome Medal and Prize for his research on enhancing cognitive performance under stress in special operations personnel. In 2011, Dr. Morgan deployed to Afghanistan as an operational advisor with the Asymmetric Warfare Group.
Elizabeth A. Phelps, Ph.D., is Silver Professor of Psychology and Neural Science at New York University. Her research examines the cognitive neuroscience of emotion, learning, and memory. Her primary focus has been to understand how human learning and memory are changed by emotion and to investigate the neural systems mediating their interactions. She has approached this topic from a number of different perspectives, with an aim of achieving a more global understanding of the complex relations between emotion and memory. As much as possible, Dr. Phelps has tried to let the questions drive the research, not the techniques or traditional definitions of research areas. Dr. Phelps has used a number of techniques (behavioral studies, physiological measurements, brain-lesion studies, fMRI) and has collaborated with a number of people in other domains (social and clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, neuroscientists, economists, physicists). Dr. Phelps received a Ph.D. in neuroscience from Princeton University.
Daniel J. Simons, Ph.D., is a professor in the department of psychology at the University of Illinois, where he heads the Visual Cognition Laboratory. His research explores the limits of awareness and memory, the reasons why we often are unaware of those limits, and the implications of such limits for our personal and professional lives. He is best known for his research that demonstrates how people are far less aware of their visual surroundings than they think.
Dr. Simons received his B.A. from Carleton College and his Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Cornell University. He then spent 5 years on the faculty at Harvard University before being recruited to Illinois in 2002. He has published more than 50 articles for professional journals, and his work has been supported by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research. He is a Fellow and Charter Member of the Association for Psychological Science and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, and he has received many awards for his research and teaching, including the 2003 Early Career Award from the American Psychological Association. His research adopts methods ranging from real-world and video-based approaches to computer-based psycho-physical techniques, and it includes basic behavioral measures, survey and individual difference methods, simulator studies, and training studies. This diversity of approaches helps establish closer links between basic research on the mechanisms of attention, perception, memory, and awareness and how those mechanisms operate in the real world.
In addition to his scholarly research, Dr. Simons is the co-author (with Christopher Chabris) of the New York Times bestselling book, The Invisible Gorilla. He has penned articles for the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, the Los Angeles Times, and the Chicago Tribune (among others), and he appears regularly on radio and television.
Anthony D. Wagner, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience and Co-Director, Center for Cognitive and Neurobiological Imaging, Stanford University. He is also Director of the Stanford Memory Laboratory. At Stanford since 2003, Dr. Wagner’s research explores how the brain supports learning, memory, and executive function. In addition to his basic science, his research examines memory dysfunction in clinical populations and the role of neuroscience evidence in legal and educational settings. He is on the faculty in the Psychology Department and participates in the Neurosciences Program, the Symbolic Systems Program, the Human Biology Program, and the Stanford Center for Longevity. Externally, he is a member of the MacArthur Foundation’s Research Network on Law and Neuroscience. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a recipient of the American Psychological Association’s Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution, among other honors. Dr. Wagner received a Ph.D. in psychology from Stanford University in 1997.
Joanne Yaffe, Ph.D., is Professor, College of Social Work, University of Utah and Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Utah. Her scholarly interests are in evidence based practice and using scientific knowledge for policy and practice decisions. She is particularly interested in the synthesis of research through systematic reviews and meta-analysis, and, with colleagues in the United Kingdom, was funded by the Cochrane Collaboration to develop guidelines for reporting systematic reviews without included studies. She is affiliated with the Social Welfare Coordinating Group and the Knowledge Translation Group of the Campbell Collaboration and has worked with the Methods Group of the Cochrane Collaboration. Dr. Yaffe is a member of the International Advisory Group for CONSORT-SPI, which has developed guidelines for the reporting of randomized trials for complex social and psychological interventions. Dr. Yaffe received a B.S. in Psychology from University of Massachusetts, an M.S.W. from the University of Michigan, and a Ph.D. in Social Work and Psychology from the University of Michigan. She has advanced training in systematic reviews and meta-analysis.
Anne-Marie Mazza, Ph.D., is the Director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Mazza joined the National Academies in 1995. She has served as Senior Program Officer with both the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy and the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. In 1999, she was named the first director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, a newly created activity
designed to foster communication and analysis among scientists, engineers, and members of the legal community. Dr. Mazza has been the study director on numerous Academy reports including, Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Letters (2011); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009); Science and Security in A Post 9/11 World (2007); Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health (2005); and Intentional Human Dosing Studies for EPA Regulatory Purposes: Scientific and Ethical Issues (2004). Between October 1999 and October 2000, Dr. Mazza divided her time between the National Academies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a Senior Policy Analyst responsible for issues associated with a Presidential Review Directive on the government-university research partnership. Before joining the Academy, Dr. Mazza was a Senior Consultant with Resource Planning Corporation. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Mazza was awarded a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from The George Washington University.
Arlene F. Lee, J.D., is the Board Director for the Committee on Law and Justice (CLAJ). Prior to joining CLAJ, Ms. Lee was the Director of Policy at the Center for the Study of Social Policy, where she focused on helping federal and state elected officials develop research-informed policies and funding to improve results for children and families. In this capacity, she oversaw PolicyforResults.org, a leading national resource for results-based policy. Previously she was the Executive Director of the Maryland Governor’s Office for Children, where she chaired the Children’s Cabinet and was responsible for the cabinet’s fund of 60+ million dollars annually. She has served as the Deputy Director of the Georgetown University Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, Director of the Federal Resource Center for Children of Prisoners, and Youth Strategies Manager for the Governor’s Office of Crime Control and Prevention. Ms. Lee is also the author of numerous articles and coauthored The Impact of the Adoption and Safe Families Act on Children of Incarcerated Parents. She has a B.A. in Sociology from Washington College and a J.D. from Washington College of Law, American University. As a result of her work, Ms. Lee was named one of Maryland’s Top 100 Women and has received three Governor’s Citations.
Steven Kendall, Ph.D., is Program Officer for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Kendall has contributed to numerous Academy reports including the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Inves-
tigation of the 2001 Anthrax Mailings (2011); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). Dr. Kendall received his Ph.D. from the Department of the History of Art and Architecture at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he wrote a dissertation on 19th century British painting. He received his M.A. in Victorian Art and Architecture at the University of London. Prior to joining the National Research Council in 2007, Dr. Kendall worked at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and The Huntington in San Marino, California.
Karolina Konarzewska is Program Coordinator for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Ms. Konzarzewska received a B.A. in Political Science from the College of Staten Island, City University of New York and an M.A. in International Relations, New York University. Prior to joining The National Academies, she worked at various research institutions in Washington, DC, where she covered political and economic issues pertaining to Europe, Russia, and Eurasia.