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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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Review of NASA’s Evidence
Reports on Human Health Risks

2014 LETTER REPORT

Committee to Review NASA’s Evidence Reports
on Human Health Risks

Board on Health Sciences Policy

Carol E. H. Scott-Conner, Daniel R. Masys,
Catharyn T. Liverman, and Margaret A. McCoy, Editors

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This project was supported by Contract NNH13CK19B, Task Order NNH13CK20D, between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The views presented in this publication are those of the editors and attributing authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-31451-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-31451-8

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For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu.

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2015. Review of NASA’s evidence reports on human health risks: 2014 letter report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.
”      

                                                —Goethe

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INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW NASA’S EVIDENCE REPORTS
ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS

CAROL E. H. SCOTT-CONNER (Chair), University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City

DANIEL R. MASYS (Vice Chair), University of Washington, Seattle

SUSAN A. BLOOMFIELD, Texas A&M University, College Station

KAREN S. COOK, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

CHERYL NICKERSON, Arizona State University, Tempe

JAMES A. PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

ROBERT L. SATCHER, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston

RANDALL SHUMAKER, University of Central Florida, Orlando

JACK STUSTER, Anacapa Sciences, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA

GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

LAURENCE R. YOUNG, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

IOM Staff

CATHARYN T. LIVERMAN, Study Director

MARGARET A. MCCOY, Study Director

CLAIRE F. GIAMMARIA, Research Associate

JUDITH L. ESTEP, Program Associate

ANDREW M. POPE, Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

JAY C. BUCKEY, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center

MARY L. CUMMINGS, Duke University

PETER A. HANCOCK, University of Central Florida

CHRISTINE E. KASPER, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

DAVID M. KLAUS, University of Colorado Boulder

ANDREW LIU, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Man Vehicle Lab

DEAN M. OLSON, Wright State University

NEAL PELLIS, Universities Space Research Association

Although reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by GLORIA LEON, University of Minnesota, who served as the Coordinator and MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona, who served as the Monitor.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2014 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18983.
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Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks 2014 Letter Report is the second in a series of five reports from the Institute of Medicine that will independently review more than 30 evidence reports that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has compiled on human health risks for long-duration and exploration space flights. This report builds on the 2008 IOM report Review of NASA's Human Research Program Evidence Books: A Letter Report, which provided an initial and brief review of the evidence reports.

This letter report reviews seven evidence reports and examines the quality of the evidence, analysis, and overall construction of each report; identifies existing gaps in report content; and provides suggestions for additional sources of expert input. The report analyzes each evidence report's overall quality, which included readability; internal consistency; the source and breadth of cited evidence; identification of existing knowledge and research gaps; authorship expertise; and, if applicable, response to recommendations from the 2008 IOM letter report.

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