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Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth (2015)

Chapter: Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
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APPENDIX F

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AGU American Geophysical Union
AOD aerosol optical depth
AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
BECCS bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration
BPC Bipartisan Policy Center
CALIOP Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization
CALIPSO Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation
CARMA Cloud Aerosol Research in the Marine Atmosphere experiment
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CCN cloud condensation nuclei
CCS carbon capture and sequestration
CDN cloud droplet number
CDR carbon dioxide removal
CERES Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System
CIFEX Cloud Indirect Forcing Experiment
CIRPAS Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies
CLRTAP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
CMIP5 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
CN condensation nuclei
CRM cloud-resolving model
DACS direct air capture and sequestration
DECS Drizzle and Entrainment Cloud Study
DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
×
DIC dissolved inorganic carbon
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DYCOMS II Second Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus experiment
ENMOD Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
ENSO El Niño–Southern Oscillation
EOP Executive Office of the President
E-PEACE Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment
ERF effective radiative forcing
GCAM Global Change Assessment Model
GCM general circulation model
GeoMIP Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project
GHG greenhouse gas
IASS Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies
ICSU International Council for Science
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPSL-CM5a Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Climate Model
ISS International Space Station
JPSS Joint Polar Satellite System
LES large eddy simulation
LWC liquid water content
LWP liquid water path
MAGIC Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds
MASE Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment
MAST Monterey Area Ship Track experiment
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
×
MCB marine cloud brightening
MESSAGE Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impact
MIROC-ESM-CHEM Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate—Earth System Model—Chemistry
MISR Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
MPI-ESM Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model
MSU microwave sounding unit
Mtoe million tons oil equivalent
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NEPA National Environmental Policy Act
NH Northern Hemisphere
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NorESM Norwegian Earth System Model
NPP NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) Preparatory Project
OMPS Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite
ONR Office of Naval Research
OSIRIS Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System
OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy
PACE Pre-Aerosol, Clouds, and ocean Ecosystem
PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation
POC pocket of open cells
PSAC President’s Science Advisory Committee
ReMIND Regional Model of Investments and Development
SAAM Stratospheric Aerosol Albedo Modification
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
×
SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment
SH Southern Hemisphere
SMAP soil moisture active and passive
SOLEDAD Stratocumulus Observation of Los Angeles Emission Derived Aerosol-Droplets
SPICE Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering
SRM solar radiation management or sunlight reflection methods
SRMGI Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative
TOA top of atmosphere
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
UV-B Ultraviolet-B
VIIRS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite
VOCALS-REx VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
×
Page 241
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
×
Page 242
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
×
Page 243
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18988.
×
Page 244
Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth Get This Book
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The growing problem of changing environmental conditions caused by climate destabilization is well recognized as one of the defining issues of our time. The root problem is greenhouse gas emissions, and the fundamental solution is curbing those emissions. Climate geoengineering has often been considered to be a "last-ditch" response to climate change, to be used only if climate change damage should produce extreme hardship. Although the likelihood of eventually needing to resort to these efforts grows with every year of inaction on emissions control, there is a lack of information on these ways of potentially intervening in the climate system.

As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses albedo modification - changing the fraction of incoming solar radiation that reaches the surface. This approach would deliberately modify the energy budget of Earth to produce a cooling designed to compensate for some of the effects of warming associated with greenhouse gas increases. The prospect of large-scale albedo modification raises political and governance issues at national and global levels, as well as ethical concerns. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth discusses some of the social, political, and legal issues surrounding these proposed techniques.

It is far easier to modify Earth's albedo than to determine whether it should be done or what the consequences might be of such an action. One serious concern is that such an action could be unilaterally undertaken by a small nation or smaller entity for its own benefit without international sanction and regardless of international consequences. Transparency in discussing this subject is critical. In the spirit of that transparency, Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth was based on peer-reviewed literature and the judgments of the authoring committee; no new research was done as part of this study and all data and information used are from entirely open sources. By helping to bring light to this topic area, this book will help leaders to be far more knowledgeable about the consequences of albedo modification approaches before they face a decision whether or not to use them.

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