Adaptive management: Management practices that promote a system’s ability to take advantage of opportunities or cope with problems occurring in the environment (FAO, 2009).
Adaptive strategies: Ways in which individuals, households, and communities have changed their mix of productive activities and modified their community rules and institutions over the long term, in response to economic or environmental shocks or stresses, in order to meet their livelihood needs. Adaptive strategies are a mix of traditional livelihood systems, modified by locally or externally induced innovations, and coping strategies that have become permanent (CASL, 2014).
Agrarian society: A culture or community in which agriculture is the primary means of subsistence; an economy that relies heavily on agriculture (Agrarian Civilizations, 2014).
Agricultural intensification: Any practice that increases productivity per unit land area at some cost in labor or capital inputs. One important dimension of agricultural intensification is the length of fallow period (i.e., letting land lie uncultivated for a period) and whether the management approach uses ecological or technological means (FAO, 2009).
Agricultural product/product of agricultural origin: Any product or commodity, raw or processed, that is marketed for human consumption (excluding water, salt, and additives) or animal feed (FAO, 2001).
Agricultural productivity: The output produced by a given level of input(s) in the agricultural sector of a given economy. More formally, it can be defined as “the ratio of the value of total farm outputs to the value of total inputs used in farm production” (Liverpool-Tasie et al., 2011).
Agricultural sustainability: Agricultural sustainability is defined by four generally agreed-upon goals:
- Satisfy human food, feed, and fiber needs, and contribute to biofuel needs.
- Enhance environmental quality and the resource base.
- Sustain the economic viability of agriculture.
- Enhance the quality of life for farmers, farm workers, and society as a whole.
Sustainability is best evaluated not as a particular end state, but rather as a process that moves farming systems along a trajectory toward greater sustainability on each of the four goals (NRC, 2010).
Animal agriculture: Agricultural activities for livestock, poultry, and aquaculture in total (see definitions of livestock, poultry, and aquaculture in this appendix).
Animal husbandry: Controlled cultivation, management, and production of domestic animals, including improvement of the qualities considered desirable by humans by means of breeding. Animals are bred and raised for utility (e.g., food, fur), sport, pleasure, and research (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Animal products: A product made from animal material.
Animal protein: Dietary components derived from meat, fish, and animal products such as milk.
Animal sciences: Refers to all disciplines currently contributing to animal food production systems. These disciplines are generally housed in departments focused on conventional animal sciences, animal husbandry, food sciences, dairy husbandry, poultry husbandry, veterinary science, veterinary medicine, and agricultural economics.
Animal welfare: How an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention and veterinary treatment, appropriate shelter, management, nutrition, humane handling, and human slaughter/killing. Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an
animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment (OIE, 2014).
Anthropogenic: Of, relating to, or resulting from the influence of human beings on nature (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Antibiotic: A metabolic product of one microorganism or a chemical that in low concentrations is detrimental to activities of specific other microorganisms. Examples include penicillin, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Not effective against viruses. A drug that kills microorganisms that cause mastitis or other infectious diseases (FAO, 2009).
Antimicrobial: Destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and especially pathogenic microorganisms (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR): Resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was originally effective for treatment of infections caused by it (WHO, 2014).
Aquaculture: Also known as fish or shellfish farming, aquaculture refers to the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals in all types of water environments including ponds, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Researchers and aquaculture producers are “farming” all kinds of freshwater and marine species of fish, shellfish, and plants. Aquaculture produces food fish, sport fish, bait fish, ornamental fish, crustaceans, mollusks, algae, sea vegetables, and fish eggs (NOAA, 2014).
Beef: Meat from cattle (bovine species) other than calves. Meat from calves is called veal (EPA, 2012).
Biofloc technology: A system that has a self-nutrification process within culture pond water with zero water exchange (Yoram, 2012).
Bioinformatics: Collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using computers especially as applied to molecular genetics and genomics (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Biosecurity: Security from exposure to harmful biological agents; also: measures taken to ensure this security (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Capacity building: Strengthening groups, organizations, and networks to increase their ability to contribute to the elimination of poverty (FAO, 2014a).
Carbon footprint: The amount of greenhouse gases and specifically carbon dioxide emitted by something (e.g., a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport) during a given period (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Climate change: A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer (OECD, 2014). Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcing, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.
Dairy cow: A bovine from which milk production is intended for human consumption, or is kept for raising replacement dairy heifers (EPA, 2012).
Domesticated fowl: Poultry. A bird of one of the breeds developed from the jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) including some specialized for meat production and others for egg laying, for fighting, or purely for ornament or show (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Ecosystem: A system in which the interaction between different organisms and their environment generates a cyclic interchange of materials and energy (OECD, 2014).
Environmental footprint: The effect that a person, company, activity, etc., has on the environment, for example, the amount of natural resources that they use and the amount of harmful gases that they produce (Cambridge Dictionaries, 2014).
Epidemiology: A branch of medical science that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population; the sum of the factors controlling the presence or absence of a disease or pathogen (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Epigenetics: The study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in DNA sequence (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Ethology: The scientific and objective study of animal behavior, especially under natural conditions (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Feed conversion ratio (FCR): A measure of feed efficiency that is used for all livestock production (New and Wijkström, 2002).
Food animal: An animal used in the production of food for humans. Includes, in common usage, the species and breeds that also supply fiber and hides for human use (FAO, 2014a).
Food security: When all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life (FAO, 1996).
Functional genomics: A branch of genomics that uses various techniques (as RNA interference and mass spectrometry) to analyze the function of genes and the proteins they produce (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Freshwater aquaculture: Produces species that are native to rivers, lakes, and streams. U.S. freshwater aquaculture is dominated by catfish but also produces trout, tilapia, and bass. Freshwater aquaculture takes place primarily in ponds and in on-land, manmade systems such as recirculating aquaculture systems (NOAA, 2014).
Genome: One haploid set of chromosomes with the genes they contain (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Genomics: A branch of biotechnology concerned with applying the techniques of genetics and molecular biology to the genetic mapping and DNA sequencing of sets of genes or the complete genomes of selected organisms, with organizing the results in databases, and with applications of the data (as in medicine or biology) (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Greenhouse gases (GHGs): Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons occurring naturally and resulting from human (production and consumption) activities, and contributing to the greenhouse effect (global warming) (OECD, 2014).
Growth promoters: Synthetic substances that are included to the feed in order to maximize growth of animals; when applied to a plant, they promote, inhibit, or otherwise modify the growth of a plant (FAO, 2009).
Growth promotants: Among the many sophisticated tools used by feedlots and other producers to raise more rapidly, using less feed, while maintaining high standards of animal health, carcass quality, and food safety. Growth promotants include ionophores, growth implants, and beta-agonists (Beef Cattle Research Council, 2013).
Holistic approach: Looks at the whole picture. The totality of something is much greater than the sum of its component parts and they cannot be
understood by the isolated examination of their parts (Encyclo.co.uk, 2014).
Human capital: Productive wealth embodied in labor, skills, and knowledge (OECD, 2014).
Industrial agriculture: A form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops. The methods of industrial agriculture are technoscientific, economic, and political. They include innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, the application of patent protection to genetic information, and global trade (FAO, 2009).
Life-cycle assessment: Life-cycle assessment is an objective process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment. LCA addresses the environmental aspects and potential impacts throughout a product’s life cycle from raw material acquisition through production, use, and end-of-life treatment (FAO, 2009).
Livestock: Includes cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and other domestic animals ordinarily raised or used on the farm. Turkeys or domesticated fowl are considered poultry and not livestock within the meaning of this exemption (29 CFR § 780.328).
Marine aquaculture: Refers to the culturing of species that live in the ocean. U.S. marine aquaculture primarily produces oysters, clams, mussels, shrimp, and salmon as well as lesser amounts of cod, moi, yellowtail, barramundi, seabass, and seabream. Marine aquaculture can take place in the ocean (i.e., in cages, on the seafloor, or suspended in the water column) or in on-land, manmade systems such as ponds or tanks. Recirculating aquaculture systems that reduce, reuse, and recycle water and waste can support some marine species (NOAA, 2014).
Meat: Tissue of the animal body that are used for food (EPA, 2012).
Meat products: Meat that has been subjected to a treatment irreversibly modifying its organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics (OIE, 2014).
Medically important antibiotics: Those belonging to seven classes, specific entities of which are also used in human medicine (Animal Health Institute, 2014).
Micronutrient: Organic compound (e.g., vitamin) essential in minute amounts to the growth and health of an animal (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Mycotoxin: Toxic substance of fungal origin (e.g., aflatoxin) that proliferates on crops at specific levels of moisture, temperature, and oxygen in air (FAO, 2014).
NAHMS: The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Program Unit conducts national studies on the health and health management of U.S. domestic livestock and poultry populations (USDA, 2014).
Natural system: A biological classification based upon morphological and anatomical relationships and affinities considered in the light of phylogeny and embryology; specifically: a system in botany other than the artificial or sexual system established by Linnaeus (Merriam-Webster, 2014)
Nutrient cycle: A repeated pathway of a particular nutrient or element from the environment through one or more organisms and back to the environment. Examples include the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and the phosphorus cycle (OECD, 2014).
Organic agriculture: A holistic production management system that promotes and enhances agroecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs, taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. This is accomplished by using, where possible, cultural, biological, and mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials, to fulfill any specific function within the system (FAO, 2009).
Pastoralism: Livestock raising; social organization based on livestock raising as the primary economic activity (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Phytosanitary: Of, relating to, or being measured for the control of plant diseases especially in agricultural crops (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Production efficiency: The most efficient means of producing a given good (FAO, 2014a).
Proteomics: A branch of biotechnology concerned with applying the techniques of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics to analyzing the structure, function, and interactions of the proteins produced by the genes of a particular cell, tissue, or organism, with organizing the information in databases, and with applications of the data (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Poultry: All domesticated birds, including backyard poultry, used for the production of meat or eggs for consumption, for the production of other commercial products, for restocking supplies of game, or for breeding these categories of birds, as well as fighting cocks used for any purpose.
Birds that are kept in captivity for any reason other than reasons referred to in the preceding paragraph, including those that are kept for shows, races, exhibitions, competitions, or for breeding or selling these categories of birds as well as pet birds, are not considered to be poultry (OIE, 2014).
Smallholder farmers: Those marginal and submarginal farm households that own or/and cultivate less than 2.0 hectares of land (Singh et al., 2002).
Sociocultural: Of, relating to, or involving a combination of social and cultural factors (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Socioeconomic: Of, relating to, or involving a combination of social and economic factors (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Subsistence: The minimum necessary to support life (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Subtherapeutic: Not producing a therapeutic effect (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Sustainability: To create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations (National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; Executive Order 13514 ; NRC 2010).
Sustainable aquaculture: A dynamic concept and the sustainability of an aquaculture system will vary with species, location, societal norms, and the state of knowledge and technology. Several certification programs have made progress in defining key characteristics of sustainable aquaculture. Some essential practices include environment
practices, community practices, and sustainable business and farm management practices (Word Bank, 2014).
Sustainable intensification: Maximization of primary production per unit area without compromising the ability of the system to sustain its productive capacity. This entails management practices that optimize nutrient and energy flows and use local resources, including horizontal combinations (e.g., multiple cropping systems or polycultures), vertical combinations (e.g., agroforestry), spatial integration (e.g., crop-livestock or crop-fish systems), and temporal combinations (rotations) (FAO, 2009).
Systems approach: The consideration of different interacting parts of a distinct entity (i.e., system). In a food system, this involves the integration of all biophysical and sociopolitical variables involved in the performance of the system (FAO, 2009).
Therapeutic: Of or relating to the treatment of disease or disorders by remedial agents or methods (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Traditional agriculture: An indigenous form of farming, resulting from the coevolution of local social and environmental systems, that exhibits a high level of ecological rationale expressed through the intensive use of local knowledge and natural resources, including the management of agrobiodiversity in the form of diversified agricultural systems (FAO, 2009).
Tropospheric ozone (O3): A major air and climate pollutant. It causes warming and is a highly reactive oxidant, harmful to crop production and human health. O3 is known as a “secondary” pollutant because it is not emitted directly, but instead forms when precursor gases react in the presence of sunlight (UNEP, 2014).
Water footprint: An indicator of water use that looks at both direct and indirect water use. The water footprint of a product (good or service) is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, summed over the various steps of the production chain (FAO, 2014b).
Wicked problem: A term from the 1970s social planning literature. Such a problem has the essential characteristic that it is not solvable; it can only be managed. The combination of Rittel and Webber (1973) with Conklin (2006) provides a lengthy list of relevant criteria that characterize wicked problems. Four of these criteria are adopted here as an efficient set to define the concept:
- No definitive formulation of the problem exists.
- Its solution is not true of false, but rather better or worse.
- Stakeholders have radically different frames of reference concerning the problem.
- The underlying cause-and-effect relationships related to the problem are complex, systemic, and either unknown or highly uncertain (Peterson, 2013).
Zoonotic: Any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from animals to humans (OIE, 2014).
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