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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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NUTRIENT
REQUIREMENTS

OF BEEF

CATTLE

Eighth Revised Edition

Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, DC

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract No. HHSP233201400020B/HHSP23337015 with the DHHS/FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine and grants from the American Society of Animal Science, Canadian Beef Cattle Research Council, Institute for Feed Education and Research, Illinois Beef Association, Illinois Corn Marketing Board, Iowa Corn Promotion Board and Iowa Corn Marketing Association, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, Nebraska Corn Board and Nebraska Corn Growers Association, and the Minnesota Corn Research & Promotion Council and Minnesota Corn Growers Association with additional support from the National Animal Nutrition Program (NRSP-9). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-31702-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-31702-9
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/19014

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, issuing body.

Title: Nutrient requirements of beef cattle / Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Description: Eighth revised edition. | Washington, DC : National Academies Press, 2016. | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2015043170| ISBN 9780309317023 (hard cover : alk. paper) | ISBN 0309317029 (hard cover : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Beef cattle—Feeding and feeds.

Classification: LCC SF203 .N87 2016 | DDC 636.2/13—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.locgov/2015043170

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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COMMITTEE ON NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF BEEF CATTLE

MICHAEL L. GALYEAN, Chair, Texas Tech University, Lubbock

KAREN A. BEAUCHEMIN, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta

JOEL CATON, North Dakota State University, Fargo

NOEL ANDY COLE, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Retired)

JOAN H. EISEMANN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

TERRY ENGLE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins

GALEN E. ERICKSON, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

CLINTON R. KREHBIEL, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

RONALD P. LEMENAGER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

LUIS O. TEDESCHI, Texas A&M University, College Station

Staff

CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Study Director

KATI REIMER, Senior Program Assistant (until January 2014)

External Support

AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Consultant to the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
×

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

NORMAN R. SCOTT, Chair, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

PEGGY F. BARLETT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

HAROLD L. BERGMAN, University of Wyoming, Laramie

SUSAN CAPALBO, Oregon State University, Corvallis

GAIL CZARNECKI-MAULDEN, Nestle Research Center, St. Louis, Missouri

RICHARD A. DIXON, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma

GIBISA EJETA, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

ROBERT B. GOLDBERG, University of California, Los Angeles

FRED GOULD, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

GARY F. HARTNELL, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri

GENE HUGOSON, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, St. Paul

MOLLY M. JAHN, University of Wisconsin, Madison

ROBBIN S. JOHNSON, Cargill Foundation, Wayzata, Minnesota

JAMES W. JONES, University of Florida, Gainesville

A. G. KAWAMURA, Solutions from the Land, Irvine, California

STEPHEN S. KELLY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

JULIA L. KORNEGAY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

CHARLES W. RICE, Kansas State University, Manhattan

JIM E. RIVIERE, Kansas State University, Manhattan

ROGER A. SEDJO, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.

KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs

MERCEDES VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, Missouri

Staff

ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director

PEGGY TSAI YIH, Senior Program Officer

CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Program Officer

KARA N. LANEY, Program Officer

JANET M. MULLIGAN, Associate Program Officer

JENNA BRISCOE, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
×

Contents

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

SUMMARY

1 BEEF PRODUCTION: SYSTEMS, QUALITY, AND SAFETY

Introduction

Beef Breeds

Production Systems

Food Safety

Nutritional Profiles

Taste and Tenderness

Animal Well-Being

Feed Additives and Growth Modifiers

Environmental Impact of Production Systems

References

2 ANATOMY, DIGESTION, AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION

Introduction

Mechanics and Role of Eating

Anatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

The Ruminal Environment and Microbiome

Digestion Kinetics

Fermentative Processes

Ruminal pH and Acidosis

Ruminal Nitrogen Metabolism

Postruminal Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients

References

3 ENERGY TERMS AND CONCEPTS

Energy Units

Expressing Energy Values of Feeds

Summary Recommendations Regarding Energy Terms and Concepts

References

4 CARBOHYDRATES

Introduction

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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Non-Neutral Detergent Fiber Carbohydrates

Neutral Detergent Fiber (Fractions CB3 and CC)

Forages and Their Utilization

Fiber and Prediction of Ruminal pH

References

5 LIPIDS

Introduction

Digestion and Absorption

Digestibility and Energy Value

Essential Fatty Acids

Fat Supplementation

References

6 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS

Introduction

Metabolizable Protein System

Microbial Protein Synthesis

Urea Recycling

Synchrony of Energy and Protein

Ruminal Outflow of Intact Dietary Protein

Protein Supply to the Small Intestine

Amino Acid Absorption

Metabolic Protein Requirements

Amino Acid Requirements

Empirical and Mechanistic Levels of Solution

Summary of Recommended Adjustments for Protein

References

7 MINERALS

Introduction

Macrominerals

Microminerals

References

8 VITAMINS

Introduction

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Water-Soluble Vitamins

References

9 WATER

Introduction

Body Water Distribution

Requirements

Summary

References

10 FEED INTAKE

Introduction

Factors Affecting Feed Intake by Beef Cattle

Prediction of Feed Intake by Beef Cattle

References

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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11 MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATION: ENERGY AND PROTEIN

Requirements for Energy

Maintenance Requirements for Protein

References

12 GROWTH

Introduction

Energy and Protein Requirements for Growing and Finishing Cattle

Previous Plane of Nutrition Effects

Effects of Special Dietary Factors

Unique Breed Effects

Evaluation of the Energy System

References

13 REPRODUCTION

Introduction

Body Condition Score

Puberty and Heifer Development

Postpartum Interval

Pregnancy

Lactation

Bulls

Energy and Protein Requirements

Significant Changes

References

14 COMPOUNDS THAT MODIFY DIGESTION AND METABOLISM

Introduction

Additives That Alter Ruminal Fermentation

Additives That Alter Ruminal Fermentation and Other Aspects of Gastrointestinal Tract Function

Metabolic Modifiers That Affect Postabsorptive Metabolism

Summary of Recommended Adjustments for Inclusion of Modifiers

References

15 EFFECTS OF STRESS ON BEEF CATTLE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS

Overview

Dietary Energy

Dietary Protein

Minerals

Vitamins

Feed Additives

Summary

References

16 ENVIRONMENT

Background

Dietary Effects on Nutrient Excretion

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Ammonia Emissions

Hydrogen Sulfide and Reduced Sulfur

Particulate Matter and Dust

Odors/Volatile Organic Compounds

References

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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17 UTILIZATION OF BYPRODUCT FEEDS BY BEEF CATTLE

Availability and Overview

Corn Byproducts

Soybean Byproducts

References

18 COMPOSITION OF SELECTED FEEDS FOR BEEF CATTLE

Introduction

Data Background

Use of the Data

Grazed Forages

Effects of Processing Treatment

Minerals

References

19 MODEL EQUATIONS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES

Introduction

Requirements for Energy and Protein

Requirements for Minerals and Vitamins

Requirements for Amino Acids

Predicting Dry Matter Intake

Predicting Water Intake

Supply of Energy and Nutrients

Nutrient Balances

Feed Library

Model Comparison

Sensitivity Analyses

References

20 TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS

Introduction

Table for Growing and Finishing Cattle

Table for Breeding Bulls

Table for Pregnant Replacement Heifers

Table for Beef Cows

Table of Energy Reserves for Beef Cows

References

21 RESEARCH NEEDS

Introduction

General

Beef Production Systems/Beef Quality and Safety

Energy, Carbohydrates, and Lipids

Protein

Minerals, Vitamins, and Water

Feed Intake

Maintenance, Growth, Reproduction, and Stress

Compounds That Modify Digestion and Metabolism

Environment

Byproduct Feeds and Feed Composition

Computer Models for Nutrient Requirements

Reference

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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APPENDIXES

A A USER’S GUIDE FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE BEEF CATTLE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS MODEL

B COMMITTEE STATEMENT OF TASK

C ABBREVIATONS AND ACRONYMS

D COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOGRAPHIES

E RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

INDEX

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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Tables and Figures

TABLES

2-1 VFA Production and Reductive Processes in the Rumen

4-1 Typical Concentrations of Some Carbohydrates (g/kg dry matter) in Forages

4-2 Summary of Digestibility Studies with Beef Feedlot Cattle and Dairy Cows Fed Processed Grains

4-3 Overview of Factors Affecting Forage Fiber Utilization by Ruminants

4-4 Some Factors Affecting Ruminal pH and the Risk of Acidosis in Feedlot Cattle

5-1 Fatty Acid Composition of Some Typical Feedstuffs

5-2 Fatty Acid Composition of Selected Sources of Fats and Oils

6-1 Comparisons of Values Generated Using the New Equations to Predict MCP with Values Generated from the Previous NRC (1996, 2000) Equation

7-1 Mineral Requirements and Maximum Tolerable Concentrations (Dry Matter Basis)

7-2 Maximum Tolerable Concentrations of Mineral Elements Toxic to Cattle

7-3 Sulfur Concentration (%) in Common Feedstuffs

7-4 Calculated Influence of Water Sulfate Concentration and Distillers Grains Addition to Finishing Diets on Total Dietary Sulfur Content (%)

8-1 Definitions and Relationships of International Units (IU) and Retinol Equivalents (RE) as Related to Vitamin A

8-2 Factors for Converting International Units (IU) of Vitamins E to α-Tocopherol in Milligrams

9-1 Approximate Total Daily Water Intake (Liters) of Beef Cattle

9-2 Guidelines for Total Soluble Salts (TSS) in Water for Cattle

9-3 Water Hardness Guidelines

9-4 Nitrate in Water

9-5 Generally Considered Safe Concentrations of Some Potentially Toxic Nutrients and Contaminants in Water for Cattle

10-1 Forage Intake Guidelines for Beef Cows

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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12-1 Relationship of Stage of Growth and Rate of Gain to Body Composition, Based on NRC (1984) Medium-Framed Steer

12-2 Standard Reference Weights for Different Final Body Compositions

13-1 Description of Cow Body Condition Score (BCS)

13-2 Cow Body Condition Score (BCS) Decision Tree

13-3 Estimated Shrunk Body Weights for Cows Differing in Body Condition Score (BCS) and Weight

13-4 Estimated Body Energy Reserves for Cows Differing in Body Condition Score (BCS) and Weight

13-5 Energy Reserves (Mcal) for Cows with Different Body Weights and Condition Scores to Change One Body Condition Score

13-6 Estimated Birth Weight of Calves of Different Breeds or Breed Crosses (kg)

13-7 Estimates of NEm (Mcal/d) Required for Pregnancy

13-8 Estimates of Available Net Protein Required for Pregnancy by Beef Cows for Several Stages of Gestation

13-9 Net Energy (NEm, Mcal/d) Required for Milk Production

13-10 Net Protein (g/d) Required for Milk Production

14-1 List of Anabolic Implants Available for Use in Beef Cattle

15-1 Dry Matter Intake of Newly Arrived Calves (% of BW)

15-2 Suggested Nutrient Concentrations for Stressed Calves (Dry Matter Basis)

16-1 Empirical and Mechanistic Models Developed to Estimate Enteric CH4 Emissions from Cattle

16-2 Equations Used in the Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model to Predict Enteric Methane Production from Beef Cattle

17-1 Byproduct Energy and Protein Feeds Used in Beef Cattle Diets

17-2 Amino Acid Composition of Corn Grain and Dried Distillers Grains plus Solubles (DDGS) from Corn, Sorghum, and Wheat

17-3 Meta-Analysis of Finishing Steer Performance When Fed Different Dietary Inclusions of Corn Wet Distillers Grains Plus Solubles (WDGS), Modified Distillers Grains Plus Solubles (MDGS), or Dried Distillers Grains Plus Solubles (DDGS) Replacing Dry-Rolled and High-Moisture Corn

18-1 Means and Standard Deviations for the Composition Data of Feeds Commonly Used in Beef Diets

18-2 Energy, Fiber (NDF), and Protein (CP) Content of Forage Samples from Different Regions

18-3 Compositions of Common Macromineral Sources on a 100% Dry Matter Basis

18-4 Inorganic Sources and Estimated Bioavailabilities of Trace Minerals

19-1 Maintenance Requirement Multipliers for Breeds and Physiological Stages, Calf Birth Weight, Peak Milk Production and Milk Composition, and Expected Body Weight at Conception as a Percentage of Mature Body Weight

19-2 Energy Reserves for Cows with Different Current Shrunk Body Weights (SBW) and Body Condition Scores (BCS)

19-3 Calcium and Phosphorus Requirements and Maximum Tolerable Concentrations (g/d)

19-4 Other Mineral (DMI Basis) and Vitamin (DMI and SBW Bases) Requirements and Maximum Tolerable Concentrations

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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19-5 Amino Acid Composition of Tissue and Milk Protein (g AA/100 g Protein) and Partial Efficiency of Use of Absorbed Amino Acids for Pregnancy and Lactation

19-6 Dry Matter Intake Adjustment Factors for Anabolic Implant and Feed Additive

19-7 Amino Acid Composition (%) of Bacterial Cell-Wall and Non-Cell Wall Protein

19-8 Postruminal Starch (CB1) Digestibilities (% of flow to the intestine)

19-9 Equations to Compute Mass Fraction of Lactate, Acetate-to-Propionate Ratio (Ac:Prop), and Butyrate from Sugar, Starch, and Fiber

19-10 Estimated peNDF Requirements

19-11 Mean, SD, and Spearman Correlations of Environmental Variables Used in the Sensitivity Analysis

19-12 Mean, SD, and Spearman Correlations of Dietary Variables Used in the Sensitivity Analysis

20-1 Nutrient Requirements (left) and Diet Evaluation (right) for Growing and Finishing Cattle

20-2 Nutrient Requirements (left) and Diet Evaluation (right) for Growing Bulls

20-3 Nutrient Requirements for Replacement Heifers

20-4 Diet Evaluation for Replacement Heifers

20-5 Nutrient Requirements for Lactating Cows

20-6 Diet Evaluation for Lactating Cows

FIGURES

2-1 The digestive system of the beef cow

2-2 The reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum of the bovine

2-3 Schematic diagram of the major pathways of fermentation in the rumen

3-1 The idealized flow of energy through an animal

3-2 Representation of the relationship of ME to DE

3-3 Representation of the relationship between RE and NE

4-1 Simplified fractionation of plant carbohydrates

4-2A Cellulose strands surrounded by hemicellulose and lignin

4-2B Structural organization of the plant cell wall

4-3 Linkages between lignin and polysaccharides

5-1 Major biohydrogenation pathways of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the rumen

5-2 Synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the two essential FA (C18) precursors

6-1 Relationship between N recycled to the rumen or urea N used for anabolism (g N/d) and nitrogen intake (g N/d) using the equations developed by the NRC (1985) (urea N recycled to the rumen, dashed lines), Reynolds and Kristensen (2008) (urea N used for anabolism, UUA, solid lines), and the current beef committee (UUA, dotted lines) for (A) DMI = 5 kg/d and (B) DMI = 10 kg/d

10-1 Dry matter intake predicted for a 550-kg beef cow at day 160 of gestation using the guidelines in Table 10-1, the NRC (1996, 2000) equation (Eq. 10-5), and the equation for dry cows of Coleman et al. (2014)

10-2 Dry matter intake predicted for a 550-kg beef cow at week 6 of lactation using the guidelines in Table 10-1, the NRC (1996, 2000) equation (Eq. 10-5 with adjustment for milk yield), and the equation for lactating cows of Coleman et al. (2014)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
×

12-1 Relationship between empty body weight (kg) and body fat (kg) in male castrates of British beef breeds

12-2 Relationship between empty body weight (kg) and body fat (%) in Angus and Holstein heifers, steers, and bulls; composition differs even when weight is the same

12-3 Use of the NRC (1984) medium-framed steer as a standard reference base to predict retained energy (A) and retained protein (B) in growing cattle across wide variations in cattle breed, body size, implant, and nutritional management systems

12-4 Use of the NRC (1984) medium-framed steer as a standard reference base to predict net energy requirements for growth across wide variations in cattle breed, body size, implant, and nutritional management systems

12-5 Use of the NRC (1984) medium-framed steer as a standard reference base to predict net energy requirements for growth across wide variations in cattle breed, body size, implant, and nutritional management systems

12-6 Use of the NRC (1984) medium-framed steer as a standard reference base to predict net energy requirements for growth across wide variations in cattle breed, body size, implant, and nutritional management systems

13-1 Relationships between body condition score (BCS) and empty body percentage of fat, protein, water, and ash (NRC, 1996, 2000)

13-2 Relationship of calf birth weight to cow condition score in mature cows of nine breeds (NRC, 1996, 2000)

13-3 Relationship of fetal weight to day of gestation in cattle (NRC, 1996, 2000)

13-4 Generalized lactation curves for cows producing 5, 8, 11, or 14 kg of milk at peak milk production (NRC, 1996, 2000)

17-1 Schematic of the dry milling industry with the feed products produced

17-2 Ethanol production by year in the United States

17-3 Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on ADG for growing cattle supplemented DDGS

17-4 Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on intake for cattle fed in confinement studies

18-1 Normal distribution of a population based on observed values

19-1 Comparison of the previous NRC (2000) and the current model’s predicted (A) metabolizable energy (ME) or (B) metabolizable protein (MP) allowable gain, using data of steers and heifers from 20 feedlot studies (n = 2,539 animals)

19-2 Effect of the variation in environmental factors on the distribution of predicted ME required for maintenance (A) and predicted ME available for growth (B), and influential variables affecting the change of predicted ME for maintenance (C) and predicted ME available for growth (D)

19-3 Effect of the variation in dietary nutrients on the distribution of predicted ME required for maintenance (A) and predicted ME available for growth (B), and influential variables affecting the change of predicted ME for maintenance (C) and predicted ME available for growth (D)

19-4 Effect of the variation of dietary nutrients (constant DMI) on the distribution of predicted methane production (CH4 g/d) (A), standardized regression coefficients (B) and Spearman rank (C) of influential variables affecting methane production (CH4g/d) and methane yield (g/kg ruminally degraded carbohydrate, (D)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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Preface

This eighth revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle reflects an effort by the Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, to substantially update and expand the previous National Research Council beef cattle publications.1Although many approaches used to calculate nutrient requirements in the seventh revised edition and the Update 2000 remain unchanged (e.g., energy requirements for maintenance and growth), extensive analyses of published data were used to update several other areas (e.g., estimation of microbial growth, nitrogen recycling, changes in body energy and protein reserves in beef cows relative to body condition score, and effects of ionophores on energy requirements). A major effort was made to update and expand feed composition data using extensive analysis of samples analyzed at commercial laboratories to provide information on average composition and associated variability of nutrients in common feedstuffs used in beef cattle production. All chapters were updated (with some rearrangement of original material into separate chapters—e.g., maintenance and growth) to reflect relevant literature published since the release of the seventh revised edition and the Update 2000, and a large amount of new information has been added as additional chapters that were not part of the previous edition and the Update 2000. New areas include in-depth reviews of beef cattle production systems, beef quality, and safety; ruminant physiology, digestion, and metabolism; carbohydrates and lipids; compounds that modify ruminant digestion and metabolism; nutrition and the environment (including new prediction equations for methane); and nutritional value of byproduct feeds. In addition, the computer software has been updated in a more intuitive and user-friendly format. Consistent with the Statement of Task, the committee also has identified research areas needed to fill the significant gaps in knowledge that remain as a challenge for subsequent revisions.

Similar to other NRC reports in the animal nutrient requirements series, the committee did not change requirements established by the previous edition and the Update 2000 unless sufficient evidence in the published literature or analyses of published and unpublished data suggested a change was justified. Whenever possible, recommendations were evaluated with independent data.

Establishing nutrient requirements for beef cattle poses significant challenges. Beef cattle production systems vary considerably across North America and around the globe, and the wide variety of feedstuffs used in beef production, along with diversity in breeds, environmental conditions, and management strategies make it virtually impossible to define all possible scenarios that might affect nutrient requirements. Despite these challenges, the eighth revised edition reflects a significant step forward in our understanding of the nutrient requirements of beef cattle, and it should serve as an important resource to scientists and beef cattle producers for many years to come.

___________________

1NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 7th Rev. Ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; NRC. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Update 2000. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19014.
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Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Steve Armbruster, Steve Armbruster Consulting, Stillwater, OK

John Arthington, University of Florida, Ona

Antonello Cannas, University of Sassari, Sardinia, Italy

Ed Charmley, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

Tony Bryant, JBS Five Rivers Cattle Feeding, Greeley, CO

George Fahey, Jr., University of Illinois, Urbana

Mary Beth Hall, U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, Madison, WI

David Harmon, University of Kentucky, Lexington

Kristen Johnson, Washington State University, Pullman

John McKinnon, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

James Oltjen, University of California, Davis

Eric Scholljegerdes, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dale E. Bauman, Cornell University. Appointed by the National Academies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The committee wishes to thank the Illinois Corn Marketing Board, Illinois Beef Association, Iowa Corn Promotion Board and Iowa Corn Marketing Association, Minnesota Corn Growers/Minnesota Corn Research and Promotion Council, Nebraska Corn Board and Nebraska Corn Growers Association, Institute for Feed Education and Research, Canadian Beef Cattle Research Council, Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine, American Society of Animal Science Foundation, and the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association. Support from the Plains Nutrition Council, Amarillo, TX, in providing meeting facilities and a meal for the committee at a meeting in San Antonio, TX, is greatly appreciated. The assistance of the National Animal Nutrition Program (NANP), a National Research Support Project (NRSP-9) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture was vital to the completion of this project. In particular, the effort by Phil Miller of the NANP Feed Composition Committee and Huyen Tran to summarize feed composition data was essential to the committee’s mission.

The committee is indebted to Camilla Yandoc Ables, Program Officer for this project. Her commitment to producing a report of the highest quality in a timely manner was the “glue” that held this project together, and her pleasant personality and helpful approach to the job were inspirational throughout the process. Likewise, the committee appreciates the guidance and support of Austin Lewis, Consultant to the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources (BANR), whose wisdom, sound advice, and encouragement were vital to producing the report. The committee also thanks Robin Schoen, Director of BANR, for the support and guidance she provided during the preparation of the report.

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Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Eighth Revised Edition Get This Book
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Since 1944, the National Research Council (NRC) has published seven editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the cattle and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for beef cattle. The cattle industry has undergone considerable changes since the seventh revised edition was published in 2000 and some of the requirements and recommendations set forth at that time are no longer relevant or appropriate.

The eighth revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle builds on the previous editions. A great deal of new research has been published during the past 14 years and there is a large amount of new information for many nutrients. In addition to a thorough and current evaluation of the literature on the energy and nutrient requirements of beef in all stages of life, this volume includes new information about phosphorus and sulfur contents; a review of nutritional and feeding strategies to minimize nutrient losses in manure and reduce greenhouse gas production; a discussion of the effect of feeding on the nutritional quality and food safety of beef; new information about nutrient metabolism and utilization; new information on feed additives that alter rumen metabolism and postabsorptive metabolism; and future areas of needed research. The tables of feed ingredient composition are significantly updated.

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle represents a comprehensive review of the most recent information available on beef cattle nutrition and ingredient composition that will allow efficient, profitable, and environmentally conscious beef production.

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