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The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses (2015)

Chapter: Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
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Appendix A

Biographical Sketches of
Committee Members

Ronald Lee (Cochair) is a professor of demography, the Jordan Family professor of economics, and director of the Center on the Economics and Demography of Aging, all at the University of California, Berkeley. His current research focuses on intergenerational transfers and population aging, and he co-directs (with Andrew Mason) the National Transfer Accounts project, which includes 46 collaborating countries. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and a corresponding member of the British Academy. He has served on both the National Advisory Committee on Aging and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Council. He holds an M.A. in demography from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

Peter R. Orszag (Cochair) is vice chairman of Global Banking at Citigroup. His research interests include health care reform, social security, public policy, global economics, and foreign relations. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine. Prior to his current position at Citigroup, he served as the 37th director of the Office of Management and Budget under President Barack Obama. He also served as director of the Congressional Budget Office from January 2007 until November 2008. He holds a B.A. from Princeton University and an M.S. and Ph.D. from the London School of Economics.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×

Alan J. Auerbach is Robert D. Burch professor of economics and law at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Burch Center for Tax Policy and Public Finance. He was an assistant professor and associate professor of economics at Harvard University and a professor of law and economics at the University of Pennsylvania. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1999. He has authored numerous articles, books, and reviews and is the past or present associate editor of six journals, including the Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Review, National Tax Journal, and International Tax and Public Finance. He holds a B.A. from Yale University and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

Kerwin K. Charles is the Edwin and Betty L. Bergman distinguished service professor in the Harris School at the University of Chicago and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. His research has examined such questions as how mandated minimum marriage ages affect young people’s marriage and migration behavior; the effect of racial composition of neighborhoods on the social connections people make; the causes for the dramatic convergence in completed schooling between recent generations of American men and women; differences in visible consumption across racial and ethnic groups; the effect of retirement on subjective well-being; the propagation of wealth across generations within a family; and many dimensions of the effect of health shocks, including effects on family stability and labor supply. He holds a B.S. from the University of Miami and an M.S. and Ph.D. in economics from Cornell University.

Courtney C. Coile is the class of 1966 associate professor of economics at Wellesley College. She is also a research associate of National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and a member of the National Academy of Social Insurance. She is an editor of The Journal of Pension Economics and Finance and NBER’s Bulletin on Aging and Health and has served as a consultant to the National Institute on Aging and the Social Security Administration. Her research centers on issues in the economics of aging, particularly the economic determinants of the retirement decision. She is the coauthor of Reconsidering Retirement: How Losses and Layoffs Affect Older Workers (2010), which examines how fluctuations in stock, housing, and labor markets affect workers’ retirement decisions and well-being in retirement. Some of her earlier work explored how financial incentives from Social Security and private pensions affect retirement decisions and how couples make retirement decisions. She holds a B.A. from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×

William Gale is the Arjay and Frances Miller chair in federal economic policy in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. His research focuses on tax policy, fiscal policy, pensions, and saving behavior. He is codirector of the Tax Policy Center, a joint venture of the Brookings Institution and the Urban Institute. He is the coeditor of several books, including Automatic: Changing the Way America Saves (Brookings, 2009); Aging Gracefully: Ideas to Improve Retirement Security in America (Century Foundation, 2006); The Evolving Pension System: Trends, Effects, and Proposals for Reform (Brookings, 2005); Private Pensions and Public Policy (Brookings, 2004); Rethinking Estate and Gift Taxation (Brookings, 2001), and Economic Effects of Fundamental Tax Reform (Brookings, 1996). He has also written extensively in policy-related publications and newspapers, including op-eds for CNN, the Financial Times, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Washington Post. Dr. Gale holds a B.A. from Duke University and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.

Dana P. Goldman is a professor and the Norman Topping chair in Medicine and Public Policy at the University of Southern California. Until fall 2009, he held RAND’s distinguished chair in health economics and directed RAND’s program in economics, finance, and organization. He is also an adjunct professor of health services and radiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and a research associate of National Bureau of Economic Research. His research interests combine applied microeconomics and medical issues, with a special interest in the role that medical technology and health insurance play in determining health-related outcomes. Goldman was the recipient of the National Institute for Health Care Management Research Foundation award for Excellence in Health Policy, and the Alice S. Hersh New Investigator Award, which recognizes the outstanding contributions of a young scholar to the field of health services research. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine. He earned a B.A. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. from Stanford University.

Charles M. Lucas heads his own firm, Osprey Point Consulting. He retired as corporate vice president and director of Market Risk Management at American International Group. Previously, he was the senior vice president and director of risk assessment and control at Republic National Bank of New York, where he headed the Risk Assessment and Control Department, reporting to the Risk Assessment Committee of the Board of Directors. He is a member of the Advisory Group on the Financial Engineering Program at the Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the Corporation, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×

is a director of Algorithmics, Incorporated. He holds a B.A. and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley.

Louise M. Sheiner is a senior fellow in the Economic Studies Program and policy director for the Hutchins Center on Fiscal Monetary Policy at the Brookings Institution. Prior to this position, she served as an economist with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Prior to this position, she was the deputy assistant secretary for economic policy at the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the senior staff economist for the Council of Economic Advisers. Sheiner’s expertise covers a range of disciplines including health, education, fiscal policy, public economics, and welfare. Her recent publications include Should America Save for Its Old Age? Fiscal Policy, Population Aging, and National Saving; Generational Aspects of Medicare; and Demographics and Medical Care Spending: Standard and Non-Standard Effects. She holds a B.A. in biology and a Ph.D. in economics, both from Harvard University.

David N. Weil is a professor of economics at Brown University. Prior to this position, he was a research associate of National Bureau of Economic Research. Weil has written widely on various aspects of economic growth, including the empirical determinants of income differences among countries, the accumulation of physical capital, international technology transfer, and population growth. He has also written on assorted topics in demographic economics including population aging, Social Security, the gender wage gap, retirement, and the relation between demographics and house prices. His current work examines how differences in health contribute to income gaps among countries. He recently published an undergraduate textbook on economic growth. He holds a B.A. from Brown University and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

Justin Wolfers is a professor of public policy and economics at the University of Michigan. His research interests include labor economics, macroeconomics, political economy, economics of the family, social policy, law and economics, public economics, and behavioral economics. Prior to joining the University of Michigan, he was an associate professor of business and public policy at the University of Pennsylvania and a visiting associate professor at Princeton University. He is a research associate with National Bureau of Economic Research, a research affiliate with the Centre for Economic Policy Research in London, and a research fellow at the Kiel Institute for the World Economy in Germany. He holds a B.S. from the University of Sydney and an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×

Rebeca Wong is the P. & S. Kempner distinguished professor of health disparities at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). She joined UTMB in 2008 to serve as director of the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization Collaborating Center on Aging and Health. She is also a professor of sociomedical sciences in the Preventive Medicine and Community Health Unit and senior fellow of the Sealy Center on Aging, also at UTMB. Prior to joining UTMB, she was on the faculty of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and the Georgetown University Department of Demography and served as associate director of the University of Maryland Population Research Center. Wong’s research focuses on the economic consequences of population aging, in particular in Mexico and among immigrant Hispanics in the United States. She serves as principal investigator of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. She holds a B.S. from the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income: Implications for Federal Programs and Policy Responses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19015.
×
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The U.S. population is aging. Social Security projections suggest that between 2013 and 2050, the population aged 65 and over will almost double, from 45 million to 86 million. One key driver of population aging is ongoing increases in life expectancy. Average U.S. life expectancy was 67 years for males and 73 years for females five decades ago; the averages are now 76 and 81, respectively. It has long been the case that better-educated, higher-income people enjoy longer life expectancies than less-educated, lower-income people. The causes include early life conditions, behavioral factors (such as nutrition, exercise, and smoking behaviors), stress, and access to health care services, all of which can vary across education and income.

Our major entitlement programs – Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and Supplemental Security Income – have come to deliver disproportionately larger lifetime benefits to higher-income people because, on average, they are increasingly collecting those benefits over more years than others. This report studies the impact the growing gap in life expectancy has on the present value of lifetime benefits that people with higher or lower earnings will receive from major entitlement programs. The analysis presented in The Growing Gap in Life Expectancy by Income goes beyond an examination of the existing literature by providing the first comprehensive estimates of how lifetime benefits are affected by the changing distribution of life expectancy. The report also explores, from a lifetime benefit perspective, how the growing gap in longevity affects traditional policy analyses of reforms to the nation’s leading entitlement programs. This in-depth analysis of the economic impacts of the longevity gap will inform debate and assist decision makers, economists, and researchers.

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