Biographical Sketches of Panel Members
EUGENE B. SHULTZ, JR., Chairman, is professor of engineering and applied science at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and director of the Bioresources Development Group at Washington University. He earned his B.S. degree in chemistry at Principia College and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology. For 10 years, he was involved in research and development on solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels at the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, conducting laboratory and engineering-economic studies. He spent 15 years at Principia College, serving as chairman of the department of chemistry and as Kent H. Smith Professor of Chemistry. Since joining Washington University in 1979, his principal interests have included global environmental problems, Third World issues, and unconventional bioresources, mainly the development of renewable energy and appropriate technology, and the management of technological innovation in the Third World. In 1987, as a Fulbright researcher, he studied unconventional crops for food oils, high protein, fuel alcohol, and nontoxic botanic insect-control extracts at the University of Costa Rica. He has written numerous papers on dried roots for solid fuel and for fermentation to fuel alcohol and on unconventional seeds as new sources of edible and industrial oils. Currently, he serves as associate editor of Economic Botany for processing and utilization of economic plants. In 1991, he was elected both president-elect of the Association of Arid Lands Studies and program chair for its 1992 annual meeting. He also served on the program committee for the 1991 annual meeting of the Africa Studies Association.
DEEPAK BHATNAGAR is a geneticist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service at the Southern Regional Research Center in New Orleans, Louisiana. He received his B.Sc. from the University of Udaipur in India in 1972 and his M.Sc. and
Ph.D. from the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, in 1974 and 1977, respectively. From 1974 to 1977 he was a senior research fellow at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, followed by work with the Department of Biophysics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, and the Department of Biology at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. From 1981 to 1985 he was a senior research associate with the Department of Biochemistry at Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans. From 1985 on he has worked on the USDA's project on bioregulatory control of aflatoxin biosynthesis. His major interests include the control of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed through an understanding of the molecular regulation of the biosynthesis of the toxin. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Society of Plant Physiologists, and the American Society for Microbiology. He is a member of the editorial boards of Applied and Environmental Microbiology and Mycopathologia, and has edited several publications on mycotoxins and on improving food quality and safety.
MARTIN JACOBSON received his degree in chemistry from the City University of New York. From 1964 to 1972, Mr. Jacobson was an investigations leader with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Entomological Research Division at Beltsville, Maryland; chief of the Biologically Active Natural Products Laboratory from 1973 to 1985; and research leader (plant investigations) with the Insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory until his retirement from federal service in 1986. He is currently an agricultural consultant in private practice in Silver Spring, Maryland. His awards include the Hillebrand Prize of the Chemical Society of Washington in 1971; USDA Certificates of Merit and cash awards for research in 1965, 1967, and 1968; the McGregory Lecture Award in Chemistry at Colgate University (Syracuse, New York); two bronze medals for excellence in research at the 3rd International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Helsinki, Finland, in 1974; USDA Director's Award on Natural Products Research in 1981; and an Inventor's Incentive Award for commercialization of a boll weevil deterrent in 1983. Mr. Jacobson is the author or coauthor of more than 300 scientific reports in numerous journals, the author of five books (Insect Sex Attractants, Wiley, 1965; Insect Sex Pheromones, Academic Press, 1972; Insecticides from Plants: A Review of the Literature, 1941-1953, USDA Handbook No. 154, 1958; Insecticides from Plants: A Review of the Literature, 1954-1971, USDA Handbook No. 461, 1975; Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, 1990); and editor of
the books Naturally Occurring Insecticides, Marcel Dekker, 1971; and Focus on Phytochemical Pesticides, Volume I (The Neem Tree),CRC Press, 1989. He also holds six U.S. patents on naturally occurring insecticides.
ROBERT L. METCALF, Professor Emeritus of Biology and Entomology and Research Professor of Environmental Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, is recognized internationally for his research on insect control, the chemistry and action of pesticides, and toxic substances in the environment. Among his achievements are the development of laboratory model ecosystem technology to screen pesticides for environmental acceptability and the discovery of carbamate insecticides and biodegradable substitutes for DDT. His work with the World Health Organization led to the development of insecticides for more effective control of vector-borne diseases. Professor Metcalf's recent research includes analyzing the effects of various industrial chemicals and pesticides on human health and environmental quality and investigating the coevolutionary and behavioral relationships between insect pests and cultivars, seeking new approaches to insect pest management. He was president of the Entomological Society of America in 1958 and has received numerous awards, including the Charles F. Spencer Award and the International Award in Pesticide Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, the Founders' Award of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, the Kenneth P. Dubois Award of the Society of Toxicology, the Memorial Lecture Award of the Entomological Society of America, and the Order of Cherubini from the University of Pisa. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
RAMESH C. SAXENA, senior principal scientist, is the head of the Integrated Pest Management Section at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. He received his M.S. in tropical entomology from the University of Hawaii in 1966 and his Ph.D. in host plant resistance to insect pests from Delhi University in 1973. In 1975, he joined the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) as a post-doctoral fellow in entomology. In 1977, he joined the ICIPE-IRRI project on major rice pests as an entomologist. From 1987 to July 1991, he served as entomologist in IRRI's Genetic Evaluation and Utilization Program. His major contributions include development of methodologies for efficient insect-rearing and screening of rice germplasm, including wild rices, biochemical plant-insect interactions, role of rice plant biotypes, and biointensive pest management. He conceptualized the relevance of botanical pest control for resource-limited farmers and demonstrated the potential
of neem (Azadirachta indica) and other nonedible oil trees for ecologically sound pest management. He pioneered the introduction and large-scale planting of neem in the Philippines and Latin American countries. He also developed a simple process for extracting "neem seed bitters" for pest control. He has been an invited speaker at more than 40 international conferences and symposia and has published more than 200 scientific and professional articles. He was president of the Philippine Association of Entomologists in 1987-1988 and won several awards in the Philippines. His research work has been featured in international press releases and TV documentaries: "Coast-to-Coast" (Philippines), "Beyond 2000" (Australia), "State of the Earth'' and "Discovery" (USA), and "Krishi Darshan" (India).
DAVID W. UNANDER, a plant breeder, has worked for the past five years at the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on plants with activity against hepatitis B and other viruses. He also serves as an adjunct professor at Eastern College, St. Davids, Pennsylvania, where he teaches a course in appropriate technology through an M.B.A. program in international economic development. Previously he bred improved vegetables for the tropics as an assistant professor at the University of Puerto Rico. He received his B.S. and his M.S. in plant and soil science from Southern Illinois University in 1977 and 1979, and his Ph.D. in plant breeding from the University of Minnesota in 1983. He is a member and treasurer of the board of the Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO), a nonprofit agency providing free extension information and experimental quantities of seeds on new crops and varieties to parties involved in international development. He has published extensively on the ethnobotany, cultivation, and biological activity of Phyllanthus species (Euphorbiaceae), as well as various articles relating to variety selection in pumpkins and squashes, vegetable peppers, soybeans, and dry beans.
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, staff officer and technical writer for this study, is a senior program officer of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science and technology that are important for the future of developing countries.
The BOSTID Innovation Program
Since its inception in 1970, BOSTID has had a small project to evaluate innovations that could help the Third World. Formerly known as the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation (ACTI), this program has been identifying unconventional developments in science and technology that might help solve specific developing country problems. In a sense, it acts as an "innovation scout"-providing information on options that should be tested or incorporated into activities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
So far, the BOSTID innovation program has published about 40 reports, covering, among other things, underexploited crops, trees, and animal resources, as well as energy production and use. Each book is produced by a committee of scientists and technologists (including both skeptics and proponents), with scores (often hundreds) of researchers contributing their knowledge and recommendations through correspondence and meetings.
These reports are aimed at providing reliable and balanced information, much of it not readily available elsewhere and some of it never before recorded. In its two decades of existence, this program has distributed approximately 350,000 copies of its reports. Among other things, it has introduced to the world grossly neglected plant species such as jojoba, guayule, leucaena, mangium, amaranth, and the winged bean.
BOSTID's innovation books, although often quite detailed, are designed to be easy to read and understand. They are produced in an attractive, eye-catching format, their text and language carefully crafted to reach a readership that is uninitiated in the given field. In addition, most are illustrated in a way that helps readers deduce their message from the pictures and captions, and most have brief, carefully selected bibliographies, as well as lists of research contacts that lead readers to further information.
By and large, these books aim to catalyze actions within the Third World, but they usually also have utility in the United States, Europe, Japan, and other industrialized nations.
So far, the BOSTID innovation project on underexploited ThirdWorld resources (Noel Vietmeyer, Director and Scientific Editor) has produced the following reports.
Ferrocement: Applications in Developing Countries (1973). 89 pp.
Mosquito Control: Perspectives for Developing Countries (1973). 62 pp.
Some Prospects for Aquatic Weed Management in Guyana (1974). 33 pp.
Roofing in Developing Countries: Research for New Technologies (1974). 70 pp.
An International Centre for Manatee Research (1974). 34 pp.
More Water for Arid Lands (1974). 149 pp.
Products from Jojoba (1975). 30 pp.
Underexploited Tropical Plants (1975). 184 pp.
The Winged Bean (1975). 39 pp.
Natural Products for Sri Lanka's Future (1975). 53 pp.
Making Aquatic Weeds Useful (1976). 169 pp.
Guayule: An Alternative Source of Natural Rubber (1976). 77 pp.
Aquatic Weed Management: Some Prospects for the Sudan (1976). 57 pp.
Ferrocement: A Versatile Construction Material (1976). 106 pp.
More Water for Arid Lands (French edition, 1977). 148 pp.
Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics (1977). 110 pp.
Natural Products for Trinidad and the Caribbean (1979). 50 pp.
Tropical Legumes (1979). 326 pp.
Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production (1980). 236 pp.
Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal (1981). 111 pp.
Sowing Forests from the Air (1981). 56 pp.
Producer Gas: Another Fuel for Motor Transport (1983). 95 pp.
Producer Gas Bibliography (1983). 50 pp.
The Winged Bean: A High-Protein Crop for the Humid Tropics (1981). 41 pp.
Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias (1983). 56 pp.
Calliandra: A Versatile Tree for the Humid Tropics (1983). 45 pp.
Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea (1983). 33 pp.
Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics (1983). 52 pp.
Little-Known Asian Animals With Promising Economic Future (1983). 125 pp.
Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites (1983). 112 pp.
Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop (1983). 74 pp.
Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop (Second edition, 1984). 93 pp.
Jojoba: A New Crop for Arid Lands (1985). 100 pp.
Quality-Protein Maize (1988). 100 pp.
Triticale: A Promising Addition to the World's Cereal Grains (1989). 103 pp.
Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation (1989). 415 pp.
Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future (1991). 450 pp.
Neem: A Tree For Solving Global Problems (1992).
Vetiver Grass (1993). 141 pp.
Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 1—Grains (1994).
Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 2—Cultivated Fruits
Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 3—Wild Fruits
Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 4—Vegetables
Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 5—Legumes
Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 6—Roots and Tubers
Underexploited Tropical Fruits
Board on Science and Technology for International Development
ALEXANDER SHAKOW, Director, External Affairs, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., Chairman
PATRICIA BARNES-MCCONNELL, Director, Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
JORDAN J. BARUCH, President, Jordan Baruch Associates, Washington, D.C.
BARRY BLOOM, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
JANE BORTNICK, Assistant Chief, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
GEORGE T. CURLIN, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
DIRK FRANKENBERG, Director, Marine Science Program, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
RALPH HARDY, President, Boyce-Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc., Ithaca, New York
FREDERICK HORNE, Dean, College of Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
ELLEN MESSER, Allan Shaw Feinstein World Hunger Program, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island
CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Executive Vice President, MCI Pharma, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota
JAMES QUINN, Amos Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire
VERNON RUTTAN, Regents Professor, Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota
ANTHONY SAN PIETRO, Professor of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
ERNEST SMERDON, College of Engineering and Mines, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
GERALD P. DINEEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C., ex officio
JAMES WYNGAARDEN, Chairman, Office of International Affairs, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., ex officio
Board on Science and Technology for International Development
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How to Order BOSTID Reports
BOSTID manages programs with developing countries on behalf of the U.S. National Research Council. Reports published by BOSTID are sponsored in most instances by the U.S. Agency for International Development. They are intended for distribution to readers in developing countries who are affiliated with governmental, educational, or research institutions, and who have professional interest in the subject areas treated by the reports.
BOSTID books are available from selected international distributors. For more efficient and expedient service, please place your order with your local distributor. Requestors from areas not yet represented by a distributor should send their orders directly to BOSTID at the above address.
33. Alcohol Fuels: Options for Developing Countries. 1983, 128 pp. Examines the potential for the production and utilization of alcohol fuels in developing countries. Includes information on various tropical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional and novel processes. ISBN 0-309-04160-0.
36. Producer Gas: Another Fuel for Motor Transport. 1983, 112 pp. During World War II Europe and Asia used wood, charcoal, and coal to fuel over a million gasoline and diesel vehicles. However, the technology has since been virtually forgotten. This report reviews producer gas and its modern potential. ISBN 0-309-04161-9.
56. The Diffusion of Biomass Energy Technologies in Developing Countries. 1984, 120 pp. Examines economic, cultural, and political factors that affect the introduction of biomass-based energy technologies in developing countries. It includes information on the opportunities for these technologies as well as conclusions and recommendations for their application. ISBN 0-309-04253-4.
14. More Water for Arid Lands: Promising Technologies and Research Opportunities. 1974, 153 pp. Outlines little-known but promising technologies to supply and conserve water in arid areas. ISBN 0-309-04151-1.
21. Making Aquatic Weeds Useful: Some Perspectives for Developing Countries. 1976, 175 pp. Describes ways to exploit aquatic weeds for grazing and by harvesting and processing for use as compost, animal feed, pulp, paper, and fuel. Also describes utilization for sewage and industrial wastewater. ISBN 0-309-04153-X.
34. Priorities in Biotechnology Research for International Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. 1982, 261 pp. Report of a workshop organized to examine opportunities for biotechnology research in six areas: 1) vaccines, 2) animal production, 3) monoclonal antibodies, 4) energy, 5) biological nitrogen fixation, and 6) plant cell and tissue culture. ISBN 0-309-04256-9.
61. Fisheries Technologies for Developing Countries. 1987, 167 pp. Identifies newer technologies in boat building, fishing gear and methods, coastal mariculture, artificial reefs and fish aggregating devices, and processing and preservation of the catch. The emphasis is on practices suitable for artisanal fisheries. ISBN 0-309-04260-7.
73. Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods. 1992, 207 pp. Microbial fermentations have been used to produce or preserve foods and beverages for thousands of years. New techniques in biotechnology allow better understanding of these tranformations so that safer, more nutritious products can be obtained. This report examines new developments in traditional fermented foods. ISBN 0-309-04685-8.
47. Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop. 1983, 81 pp. Before the time of Cortez, grain amaranths were staple foods of the Aztec and Inca. Today this nutritious food has a bright future. The report discusses vegetable amaranths also. ISBN 0-309-04171-6.
53. Jojoba: New Crop for Arid Lands. 1985, 102 pp. In the last 10 years, the domestication of jojoba, a little-known North American desert shrub, has been all but completed. This report describes the plant and its promise to provide a unique vegetable oil and many likely industrial uses. ISBN 0-309-04251-8.
63. Quality-Protein Maize. 1988, 130 pp. Identifies the promise of a nutritious new form of the planet's third largest food crop. Includes information on the importance of maize, malnutrition and protein quality, experiences with quality-protein maize (QPM), QPM's potential uses in feed and food, nutritional qualities, genetics, research needs, and limitations. ISBN 0-309-04262-3.
64. Triticale: A Promising Addition to the World's Cereal Grains. 1988, 105 pp. Outlines the recent transformation of triticale, a hybrid between wheat and rye, into a food crop with much potential for many marginal lands. The report discusses triticale's history, nutritional quality, breeding, agronomy, food and feed uses, research needs, and limitations. ISBN 0-309-04263-1.
67. Lost Crops of the Incas. 1989. 415 pp. The Andes is one of the seven major centers of plant domestication but the world is largely unfamiliar with its native food crops. When the Conquistadores brought the potato to Europe, they ignored the other domesticated Andean crops-fruits, legumes, tubers, and grains that had been cultivated for centuries by the Incas. This book focuses on 30 of the "forgotten" Incan crops that show promise not only for the Andes but for warm temperate, subtropical, and upland tropical regions in many parts of the world. ISBN 0-309-04264-X.
70. Saline Agriculture: Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries. 1989, 150 pp. The purpose of this report is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant plants and the special needs they may fill in developing countries. Examples of the production of food, fodder, fuel, and other products are included. Salt-tolerant plants can use land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can harness saline resources that are generally neglected or considered as impediments to, rather than opportunities for, development. ISBN 0-309-04266-6.
Innovations in Tropical Forestry
35. Sowing Forests from the Air. 1981, 64 pp. Describes experiences with establishing forests by sowing tree seed from aircraft. Suggests testing and development of the techniques for possible use where forest destruction now outpaces reforestation. ISBN 0-309-04257-7.
41. Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias for the Humid Tropics. 1983, 63 pp. Highlights 10 acacia species that are native to the tropical rain forest of Australasia. That they could become valuable forestry resources elsewhere is suggested by the exceptional performance of Acacia mangium in Malaysia. ISBN 0-309-04165-1.
42. Calliandra: A Versatile Small Tree for the Humid Tropics. 1983, 56 pp. This Latin American shrub is being widely planted by villagers and government agencies in Indonesia to provide firewood, prevent erosion, provide honey, and feed livestock. ISBN 0-309-04166-X.
43. Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites. 1983, 118 pp. These robust, nitrogen-fixing, Australasian trees could become valuable resources for planting on harsh eroding land to provide fuel and other products. Eighteen species for tropical lowlands and highlands, temperate zones, and semiarid regions are highlighted. ISBN 0-30904167-8.
52. Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics. 1984 (2nd edition), 100 pp. Describes a multipurpose tree crop of potential value for much of the humid lowland tropics. Leucaena is one of the fastest growing and most useful trees for the tropics. ISBN 0-30904250-X.
71. Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems. 1992, 148 pp. The neem tree offers great potential for agricultural, industrial, and commercial exploitation, and is potentially one of the most valuable of all arid-zone trees. It shows promise for pest control, reforestation, and improving human health. Safe and effective pesticides can be produced from seeds at the village level with simple technology. Neem can grow in arid and nutrient-deficient soils and is a fast-growing source of fuelwood. ISBN 0-309-04686-6.
Managing Tropical Animal Resources
32. The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal. 1981, 188 pp. The water buffalo is performing notably well in recent trials in such unexpected places as the United States, Australia, and Brazil. Report discusses the animal's promise, particularly emphasizing its potential for use outside Asia. ISBN 0-309-04159-7.
44. Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea. 1983, 36 pp. Indigenous butterflies are being reared in Papua New Guinea villages in a formal government program that both provides a cash income in remote rural areas and contributes to the conservation of wildlife and tropical forests. ISBN 0-309-04168-6.
45. Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics. 1983, 60 pp. In most parts of the tropics, crocodilian populations are being decimated, but programs in Papua New Guinea and a few other countries demonstrate that, with care, the animals can be raised for profit while protecting the wild populations. ISBN 0-309-04169-4.
46. Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. 1983, 133 pp. Describes banteng, madura, mithan, yak, kouprey, babirusa, javan warty pig, and other obscure but possibly globally useful wild and domesticated animals that are indigenous to Asia. ISBN 0-309-04170-8.
68. Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future. 1990, 449 pp. Discusses the promise of small breeds and species of livestock for Third World villages. Identifies more than 40 species, including miniature breeds of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs; eight types of poultry; rabbits; guinea pigs and other rodents; dwarf deer and antelope; iguanas; and bees. ISBN 0-309-04265-8.
49. Opportunities for the Control of Dracunculiasis. 1983, 65 pp. Dracunculiasis is a parasitic disease that temporarily disables many people in remote, rural areas in Africa, India, and the Middle East. Contains the findings and recommendations of distinguished scientists who were brought together to discuss dracunculiasis as an international health problem. ISBN 0-309-04172-4.
55. Manpower Needs and Career Opportunities in the Field Aspects of Vector Biology. 1983, 53 pp. Recommends ways to develop and train the manpower necessary to ensure that experts will be available in the future to understand the complex ecological relationships of vectors with human hosts and pathogens that cause such diseases as malaria, dengue fever, filariasis, and schistosomiasis. ISBN 0-309-04252-6.
60. U.S. Capacity to Address Tropical Infectious Diseases. 1987, 225 pp. Addresses U.S. manpower and institutional capabilities in both the public and private sectors to address tropical infectious disease problems. ISBN 0-309-04259-3.
50. Environmental Change in the West African Sahel. 1984, 96 pp. Identifies measures to help restore critical ecological processes and thereby increase sustainable production in dryland farming, irrigated agriculture, forestry and fuelwood, and animal husbandry. Provides baseline information for the formulation of environmentally sound projects. ISBN 0-309-04173-2.
51. Agroforestry in the West African Sahel. 1984, 86 pp. Provides development planners with information regarding traditional agroforestry systems—their relevance to the modern Sahel, their design, social and institutional considerations, problems encountered in the practice of agroforestry, and criteria for the selection of appropriate plant species to be used. ISBN 0-309-04174-0.
72. Conserving Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for Development Agencies. 1992, 127 pp. Reviews the threat of loss of biodiversity and its context within the development process and suggests an agenda for development agencies. ISBN 0-309-04683-1.
74. Vetiver Grass: A Thin Green Line Against Erosion. 1993, 182 pp. Vetiver is a little-known grass that seems to offer a practical solution for controlling soil loss. Hedges of this deeply rooted species catch and hold back sediments. The stiff foliage acts as a filter that also slows runoff and keeps moisture on site, allowing crops to thrive when neighboring ones are desiccated. In numerous tropical locations, vetiver hedges have restrained erodible soils for decades and the grass—which is pantropical—has shown little evidence of weediness. ISBN 0-309-04269-0.
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