Transforming the Workforce
Committee on the Science of Children Birth to Age 8:
Deepening and Broadening the Foundation for Success
Board on Children, Youth, and Families
LaRue Allen and Bridget B. Kelly, Editors
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1088695); the David and Lucile Packard Foundation (2013-38717); the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Administration for Children and Families and Health Resources and Services Administration) (HHSH25034019T); the Robert R. McCormick Foundation (unnumbered); and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (460007972). The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Science of Children Birth to Age 8: Deepening and Broadening the Foundation for Success, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, author.
Transforming the workforce for children birth through age 8 : a unifying foundation / Committee on the Science of Children Birth to Age 8: Deepening and Broadening the Foundation for Success, Board on Children, Youth, and Families ; LaRue Allen and Bridget B. Kelly, editors ; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council of the National Academies.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-0-309-32485-4 (pbk.) — ISBN 978-0-309-32486-1 (pdf)
I. Allen, LaRue, 1950- , editor. II. Kelly, Bridget Burke, 1973- , editor. III. Title.
[DNLM: 1. Child Development. 2. Occupations. 3. Child Care. 4. Child Welfare. 5. Child. 6. Education.
7. Infant. 8. Learning. WS 105]
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Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.
Suggested citation: Institute of Medicine (IOM) and National Research Council (NRC). 2015. Transforming the workforce for children birth through age 8: A unifying foundation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENCE OF CHILDREN
BIRTH TO AGE 8: DEEPENING AND BROADENING
THE FOUNDATION FOR SUCCESS
LARUE ALLEN (Chair), Raymond and Rosalee Weiss Professor of Applied Psychology, The Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University, New York
W. THOMAS BOYCE, Professor of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco
JOSHUA L. BROWN, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Fordham University, Bronx, New York
DOUGLAS H. CLEMENTS, Kennedy Endowed Chair and Professor of Educational Research, Practice and Policy, Morgridge College of Education, University of Denver, Colorado
FABIENNE DOUCET, Associate Professor of Education, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University, New York
JOHN C. DUBY, Professor of Pediatrics, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Akron Children’s Hospital, Ohio
DAVID N. FIGLIO, Orrington Lunt Professor of Education and Social Policy and Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois
JANA FLEMING, Director, Herr Research Center for Children and Social Policy, Erikson Institute, Chicago, Illinois (through January 2015), Director, Center of Excellence in Early Childhood Development, Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (from February 2015)
LISA GUERNSEY, Director, Early Education Initiative and Director, Learning Technologies Project, New America, Washington, DC
RON HASKINS, Senior Fellow, Economic Studies, Co-Director, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC
JACQUELINE JONES, President and CEO, Foundation for Child Development, New York, New York
MARJORIE KOSTELNIK, Dean, College of Education and Human Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
NONIE K. LESAUX, Juliana W. and William Foss Thompson Professor of Education and Society, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
ELLEN M. MARKMAN, Lewis M. Terman Professor, Department of Psychology, Senior Associate Dean for the Social Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California
ROLLANDA E. O’CONNOR, Professor, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Riverside
CHERYL POLK, President, HighScope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, Michigan
P. FRED STORTI, Executive Director (Retired), Minnesota Elementary School Principals’ Association, St. Paul
ROSS A. THOMPSON, Distinguished Professor, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis
ALBERT WAT, Senior Policy Analyst, Education Division, National Governors Association, Washington, DC
BRIDGET B. KELLY, Study Director
SHEILA A. MOATS, Program Officer
WENDY E. KEENAN, Program Associate
SARAH M. TRACEY, Research Associate
ALLISON L. BERGER, Senior Program Assistant
FAYE HILLMAN, Financial Associate
CRISTINA NOVOA, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (January to June 2014)
PAMELLA ATAYI, Administrative Assistant, Board on Children, Youth, and Families
KIMBER BOGARD, Director, Board on Children, Youth, and Families
RONA BRIERE, Consultant Editor
SRIK GOPAL, FSG, Inc.
DAVID PHILLIPS, FSG, Inc.
HALLIE PRESKILL, FSG, Inc.
LAUREN SMITH, FSG, Inc.
LAUREN TOBIAS, Maven Messaging & Communications
ANNA ARLOTTA-GUERRERO, Clinical Assistant Professor, School of Education, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
FAITH ARNOLD, Owner and Director, Sun Children’s, Inc., Bellwood, Illinois
CELIA C. AYALA, Chief Executive Officer, Los Angeles Universal Preschool, Los Angeles, California
REBECCA LYNNE DOW, Founder and Director, Appletree Education, Truth or Consequences, New Mexico
SAUNDRA HARRINGTON, Program Supervisor, Infant & Toddler Connection of Norfolk, Virginia
ELIZABETH HEIDEMANN, Kindergarten Teacher, Cushing Community School, Rockland, Maine
MICHELLE N. HUTSON, Center Designee/Lead Teacher, Gulf Coast Community Action Agency Head Start, D’Iberville, Mississippi
BETTE M. HYDE, Director, Washington State Department of Early Learning, Olympia, Washington
MELINDA LANDAU, Manager, Health/Family Support Programs, San Jose Unified School District, San Jose, California
DINA LIESER, Co-Director, Docs For Tots, Melville, New York
CARRIE A. NEPSTAD, Associate Professor of Child Development, Harold Washington College, City Colleges of Chicago, Illinois
VALERIE A. PRESTON, School Social Worker, New York City Department of Education, New York
MALIK J. STEWART, Manager, Federal and Regulated Programs, Red Clay Consolidated School District, Wilmington, Delaware
HEIDI SULLIVAN, Supervisor and Family Support Worker, Life Point Solutions-Every Child Succeeds, Cincinnati, Ohio
MAURICE TOME, Second Grade Teacher, School Within School, District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC
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This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Ashaunta Tumblin Anderson, University of California, Riverside
Sally Atkins-Burnett, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Susan Bredekamp, Early Childhood Education Consultant
Esther R. Buch, Early Childhood Education Consultant
Theresa Canada, Western Connecticut State University
Linda M. Espinosa, University of Missouri–Columbia
Rochel Gelman, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
James J. Lesko, AEM Corporation
David Osher, American Institutes for Research
Marti T. Rosa, Wheelock College
Allan N. Schore, University of California, Los Angeles
Ruby Takanishi, New America
Steve Tozer, University of Illinois at Chicago
Claudia Walker, Murphey Traditional Academy
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Bernard Guyer, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, and Greg J. Duncan, University of California, Irvine. Appointed by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
The committee and project staff are deeply appreciative of the diverse and valuable contributions made by so many who assisted with this study.
First, we are grateful for the support of the number of sponsors who funded this study, listed in full at the front of this report.
Throughout this process, we benefited from the insights of many individuals with a range of experiences related to the work of the committee. Their willingness to take the time to share their perspectives were essential to the committee’s work. We offer our profound thanks to the Practitioner Advisors, named at the front of this report, for their ongoing generosity with their time and insights. It was a privilege and an inspiration to benefit from their experiences and perspectives. We also thank the many stakeholders who offered input and shared information and documentation with the committee over the course of the study. We very much appreciate and value the contributions of the individuals who participated in public information-gathering sessions (see Appendix B) and interviews (see Appendix C). In addition, we appreciate the generous hospitality of the institutions and organizations that hosted us and provided space to us on our site visits and regional public information-gathering sessions. In particular, we are immensely grateful for the planning assistance and logistical support for site visits provided to us by Betsy Coleman, Diane Horm, Sharon Phillips, Elizabeth Sullins, Lori Kelly, Kristie Kauerz, and Jasmiine Bacu.
We thank Cristina Novoa, who ably assisted the committee as a Mirzayan Fellow and graciously continued to provide valuable support beyond the initial period of her fellowship. We are also grateful to Lauren
Tobias of Maven Messaging & Communications and to Srik Gopal, David Phillips, Lauren Smith, and Halle Preskill of FSG, Inc., for their valuable and thoughtful work as consultants for this study. We thank Mardel Asbury Crandall, Jennifer Henk, and Zina Conley at the University of Arkansas for their commissioned work. We also appreciate the contributions of the following individuals who assisted with research support for this study: Carrie Germeroth, University of Denver; Julie Russ Harris, Harvard University; Christina Rucinski, Fordham University; Julia Sarama, University of Denver; and Brittany A. Sovran, Denver University.
We thank Rona Briere and Alisa Decatur at Briere Associates, Inc., for diligently editing this report. We also appreciate the creativity and effort of Jay Christian and LeAnn Locher for their design work.
For help with scheduling and communication for committee members, we thank Shirley Archer-Fields, Ben Barrett, Anne Blevins, Betsy Coleman, Jessica Craig, Aldine Harmon, Melanie Kellogg, Cynthia Kendall, Rina Plotkin, Allegra Pocinki, Juliana Shadlen, Jacqueline Wellington, and Marge Yahrmatter. We are also grateful to the staff at Kentlands Travel for their assistance with the travel needs of this project.
Finally, we convey our deep gratitude and appreciation for the hard work of the many staff in various offices of the National Academies who provided their support to the project.