ROBERT F. SPROULL, Chair, is an adjunct professor of computer science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Dr. Sproull retired in 2011 as vice president and director of Oracle Labs, an applied research group that originated at Sun Microsystems (acquired by Oracle in 2010). Before joining Sun in 1990, he was a principal with Sutherland, Sproull, and Associates; an associate professor at Carnegie Mellon University; and a member of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. He has served as chair of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) since 2009. He is also on the Computing Community Consortium (CCC) Council. In June, Dr. Sproull completed a 6-year term on the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Council. He is a member of the NAE and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Sproull received his M.S. and Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University and an A.B. in physics from Harvard College.
FREDERICK R. CHANG is the director of the Darwin Deason Institute for Cyber Security, the Bobby B. Lyle Endowed Centennial Distinguished Chair in Cyber Security, and a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in Southern Methodist University’s (SMU’s) Lyle School of Engineering. Dr. Chang is also a senior fellow in the John Goodwin Tower Center for Political Studies in SMU’s Dedman College. He has been professor and AT&T Distinguished Chair in Infrastructure
Assurance and Security at the University of Texas, San Antonio, and he was at the University of Texas, Austin, as an associate dean in the College of Natural Sciences and director of the Center for Information Assurance and Security. Dr. Chang is the former director of research at the National Security Agency (NSA). In the private sector, he was most recently the president and chief operating officer of 21CT, Inc., an advanced intelligence analytics solutions company. Earlier, he was with SBC Communications where he held a variety of executive positions, including President, Technology Strategy, SBC Communications; president and CEO, SBC Technology Resources, Inc.; and vice president, network engineering and planning, SBC Advanced Solutions, Inc. Dr. Chang began his professional career at Bell Laboratories. He has been awarded the NSA Director’s Distinguished Service Medal. He has served as a member of the Commission on Cyber Security for the 44th Presidency and as a member of the NRC’s CSTB. Dr. Chang is also a member of the Texas Cybersecurity, Education, and Economic Development Council. He received his B.A. from the University of California, San Diego, and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Oregon. He has also completed the Program for Senior Executives at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Chang is the lead inventor on two U.S. patents (U.S. patent numbers 7272645 and 7633951). He has served as an expert witness for congressional hearings on cybersecurity research and development and the security of healthcare.gov.
WILLIAM DuMOUCHEL is a chief statistical scientist for Oracle Health Sciences, at Oracle Data Sciences. His current research focuses on statistical computing and Bayesian hierarchical models, including applications to meta-analysis and data mining. He is the inventor of the empirical Bayesian data mining algorithm known as Gamma-Poisson Shrinker (GPS) and its successor MGPS, which have been applied to the detection of safety signals in databases of spontaneous adverse drug event reports. These methods are now used within the Food and Drug Administration and industry. From 1996 through 2004, he was a senior member of the data mining research group at AT&T Labs. Prior to 1996, he was chief statistical scientist at BBN Software Products, where he was lead statistical designer of software advisory systems for experimental design and data analysis called RS/Discover and RS/Explore. He has been on the faculties of the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Michigan, MIT, and, most recently, was professor of bio-statistics and medical informatics at Columbia University (1994-1996). He has authored approximately 50 papers in peer-reviewed journals and has also been an associate editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association, Statistics in Medicine, Statistics and Computing, and the Journal
of Computational and Graphical Statistics. Dr. DuMouchel received a Ph.D. in statistics from Yale University.
MICHAEL KEARNS is a professor in the Computer and Information Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the National Center Chair. Dr. Kearns’s research interests include topics in machine learning, algorithmic game theory, social networks, and computational finance. He is the faculty founder and co-director of Penn’s Warren Center for Network and Data Sciences and the faculty founder of Penn’s Network and Social Systems Engineering program. Dr. Kearns has secondary appointments in the statistics and operations and information management departments of the Wharton School. Until July 2006, he was co-director of Penn’s interdisciplinary Institute for Research in Cognitive Science. He has consulted widely for many companies (finance, Internet technologies, etc.) and occasionally serves as an expert witness/consultant on technology-related legal and regulatory cases. During the 1990s, Dr. Kearns worked in basic artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning research at Bell Labs and AT&T Labs, where he was head of the AI department. He has served on the editorial boards of well-known journals of computer science, machine learning, and game theory. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from Harvard University.
BUTLER LAMPSON is a technical fellow at Microsoft Corporation and an adjunct professor at MIT. He has worked on computer architecture, local area networks, raster printers, page description languages, operating systems, remote procedure call, programming languages and their semantics, programming in the large, fault-tolerant computing, transaction processing, computer security, WYSIWYG editors, and tablet computers. He was one of the designers of the SDS 940 time-sharing system, the Alto personal distributed computing system, the Xerox 9700 laser printer, two-phase commit protocols, the Autonet LAN, the SPKI system for network security, the Microsoft Tablet PC software, the Microsoft Palladium high-assurance stack, and several programming languages. He received the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Software Systems Award in 1984 for his work on the Alto, the IEEE Computer Pioneer award in 1996, the von Neumann Medal in 2001, the Turing Award in 1992, and the NAE’s Draper Prize in 2004. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the NAE and a fellow of the ACM and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
SUSAN LANDAU is professor of cybersecurity policy in the Department of Social Science and Policy Studies at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Landau has been a senior staff privacy analyst at Google, a distin-
guished engineer at Sun Microsystems, a faculty member at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and at Wesleyan University. She has held visiting positions at Harvard University, Cornell University, and Yale University, and the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute. Dr. Landau is the author of Surveillance or Security? The Risks Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies (2011) and co-author, with Whitfield Diffie, of Privacy on the Line: The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption (1998, rev. ed. 2007). She has written numerous computer science and public policy papers and op-eds on cybersecurity and encryption policy and testified in Congress on the security risks of wiretapping and on cybersecurity activities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Information Technology Laboratory. Dr. Landau currently serves on the NRC’s CSTB. A 2012 Guggenheim fellow, she was a 2010-2011 fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, the recipient of the 2008 Women of Vision Social Impact Award, and also a fellow of AAAS and ACM. She received her B.A. from Princeton University, her M.S. from Cornell University, and her Ph.D. from MIT.
MICHAEL E. LEITER is executive vice president for business development, strategy, and mergers and acquisitions at Leidos. Prior to taking on his current role at Leidos, Mr. Leiter was a senior counselor at Palantir Technologies. Before that, he was the director of the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC). He was sworn in as the Director of NCTC on June 12, 2008, upon his confirmation by the U.S. Senate and after serving as the acting director since November 2007. Before joining NCTC, Mr. Leiter served as the deputy chief of staff for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). In this role, he assisted in the establishment of the ODNI and coordinated all internal and external operations for the ODNI, to include relationships with the White House, the Departments of Defense, State, Justice, and Homeland Security, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Congress. He was also involved in the development of national intelligence centers, including NCTC and the National Counter-proliferation Center, and their integration into the larger Intelligence Community. In addition, Mr. Leiter served as an intelligence and policy advisor to the Director and the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence. Prior to his service with the ODNI, Mr. Leiter served as the deputy general counsel and assistant director of the President’s Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (the “Robb-Silberman Commission”). While with the Robb-Silberman Commission, Mr. Leiter focused on reforms of the U.S. Intelligence Community, in particular the development of what is now the National Security Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. From 2002 until 2005, he served with the Department of Justice as an Assistant
United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. At the Justice Department, Mr. Leiter prosecuted a variety of federal crimes, including narcotics offenses, organized crime and racketeering, capital murder, and money laundering. Immediately prior to his Justice Department service, he served as a law clerk to Associate Justice Stephen G. Breyer of the Supreme Court of the United States and to Chief Judge Michael Boudin of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. From 1991 until 1997, he served as a Naval Flight Officer flying EA-6B Prowlers in the U.S. Navy, participating in U.S., NATO, and United Nations operations in the former Yugoslavia and Iraq. Mr. Leiter received his J.D. from Harvard Law School, where he graduated magna cum laude and was president of the Harvard Law Review, and his B.A. from Columbia University.
ELIZABETH RINDSKOPF PARKER is dean emerita at the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. A noted expert on national security law and terrorism, Ms. Parker served 11 years in key federal government positions, most notably as general counsel for NSA; principal deputy legal adviser, Department of State; and general counsel for the Central Intelligence Agency. In private practice, she has advised clients on public policy and international trade issues, particularly in the areas of encryption and advanced technology. Ms. Parker began her career as a Reginald Heber Smith Fellow at Emory University School of Law and later served as the director, New Haven Legal Assistance Association, Inc. Early in her career, she was active in litigating civil rights and civil liberties matters, with two successful arguments before the U.S. Supreme Court while a cooperating attorney for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. Immediately before her arrival at McGeorge, Ms. Parker served as general counsel for the 26-campus University of Wisconsin System. She is a member of the Security Advisory Group of the DNI, the board of directors of the MITRE Corporation, the American Bar Foundation, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and she is a frequent speaker and lecturer. Her academic background includes teaching at Pacific McGeorge, Case Western Reserve Law School, and Cleveland-Marshall State School of Law. From 2006 to 2013, she held a presidential appointment to the Public Interest Declassification Board. Ms. Parker received her B.A. and J.D. from the University of Michigan.
PETER J. WEINBERGER has been a software engineer at Google, Inc., since 2003. After teaching mathematics at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, he moved to Bell Laboratories. At Bell Labs, he worked on Unix and did research on topics including operating systems, compilers, network file systems, and security. He then moved into research management, ending up as Information Sciences Research vice president, respon-
sible for computer science research, math and statistics, and speech. His organization included productive new initiatives, one using all call detail to detect fraud and another doing applied software engineering research to support building software for the main electronic switching systems for central offices. After Lucent and AT&T split, he moved to Renaissance Technologies, a technical trading hedge fund, as head of technology, responsible for computing and security. He is a former member of the NRC’s CSTB, current co-chair of an NRC committee on cybersecurity research, and served on several other NRC studies. He serves in a variety of other advisory roles related to science, technology, and national security. He has a Ph.D. in mathematics (number theory) from the University of California, Berkeley.
M. ANTHONY FAINBERG became a research staff member at the Institute for Defense Analyses, where he focuses on risk assessment methodologies, countering nuclear terrorism, and nuclear non-prolieration issues, upon retiring from federal service after 20 years. At retirement, Dr. Fainberg was director of the Office of Transformational Research and Development of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office of the Department of Homeland Security. Previously, he had been division chief at the Advanced Systems and Concepts Office, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Department of Defense; before that, he directed the Office of Policy and Planning for Aviation Security in the Federal Aviation Administration. He also is a senior scientific advisor to the Pacific Basin Development Council, an organization comprising the governors of the U.S. Pacific island territories and Hawaii. He holds a Ph.D. in physics.
ALLAN FRIEDMAN is a research scientist at the Cyber Security Policy Research Institute (CSPRI) in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at George Washington University, where he works on cybersecurity policy. Wearing the hats of both a technologist and a policy scholar, his work spans computer science, public policy, and the social sciences, and has addressed a wide range of policy issues, from privacy to telecommunications. Dr. Friedman has over a decade of experience in cybersecurity research, with a particular focus on economic, market, and trade issues. He is the coauthor of Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know (2014). Prior to joining CSPRI, Dr. Friedman was a fellow at the Brookings Institution and the research director for the Center for Technology Innovation. Before moving to Washington, D.C., he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard University Computer Science Department, where he worked on cybersecurity policy, privacy-enhancing technologies, and
the economics of information security. Dr. Friedman was also a fellow at the Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, where he worked on the Minerva Project for Cyber International Relations. He has also received fellowships from the Berkman Center for Internet and Society and the Harvard Program on Networked Governance. He has a degree in computer science from Swarthmore College and a Ph.D. in public policy from Harvard University.
ALEX GLIKSMAN is principal of AGI Consulting, LLC, a firm specializing in intelligence and other national security program development, congressional relations, acquisition, and management strategies. Mr. Gliksman has played a central role in the development and evaluation of analytic tools, and mission planning and operational support systems used by the Armed Services and U.S. intelligence for counterproliferation, counterterrorism, special operations, and arms control. He also has extensive experience in South and Southwest Asia and Pacific Rim regional security matters and has advised Fortune 500 companies on business opportunities in these regions. He served on the senior staffs of the House Intelligence Committee and Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Mr. Gliksman’s clients have included the U.S. Congress, the Department of Defense, the Department of State, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Idaho National Laboratory, Northrop Grumman, the Analytic Sciences Corp., Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Science Applications International Corporation, the Boeing Company, and Computer Sciences Corporation. Mr. Gliksman has taught on the graduate faculty of the University of Southern California and at the University of Maryland. He studied at New York University and the University of Vienna and pursued doctoral studies in international relations at University College London.
ALAN H. SHAW, Study Director, has been at the NRC as deputy director of the Air Force Studies Board since January 2014 and has had several previous assignments at the NRC. Educated as a physicist (Yale, 1974), he has worked in various capacities for all three branches of the federal government, including as the director for international security and space at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. He has also worked for the Congressional Budget Office, the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Institute for Defense Analyses, the Center for Naval Analyses, SRA International, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and (as a consultant) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the federal judiciary.
JON EISENBERG is the director of NRC’s CSTB where he oversees and directs studies and other activities related to computing, communications, and public policy. In 1995-1997 he was an AAAS Science, Engineering, and Diplomacy Fellow at the U.S. Agency for International Development, where he worked on technology transfer and information and telecommunications policy issues. He received his Ph.D. in experimental high-energy physics from the University of Washington and a B.S. in physics with honors from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
HERBERT S. LIN was chief scientist at NRC’s CSTB until December 2014 where he had served as study director of major projects on public policy and information technology. These studies included a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society), a 1991 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future), a 1999 study of Defense Department systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges), a 2000 study on workforce issues in high-technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy), a 2002 study on protecting kids from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet), a 2004 study on aspects of the FBI’s information technology modernization program (A Review of the FBI’s Trilogy IT Modernization Program), a 2005 study on electronic voting (Asking the Right Questions About Electronic Voting), a 2005 study on computational biology (Catalyzing Inquiry at the Interface of Computing and Biology), a 2007 study on privacy and information technology (Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age), a 2007 study on cybersecurity research (Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace), and a 2008 study on health care information technology (Computational Technology for Effective Health Care). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT. Apart from his CSTB work, he is published in cognitive science, science education, biophysics, and arms control and defense policy. He also consults on K-12 math and science education.
ERIC WHITAKER is a senior program assistant at NRC’s CSTB. Prior to joining the CSTB, he was a realtor with Long and Foster Real Estate, Inc., in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. Before that, he spent several years with the Public Broadcasting Service in Alexandria, Virginia, as an associate in the Corporate Support Department. He has a B.A. in communication from Hampton University.