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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

Index

A

Abandoned lands

degraded pasturelands, 224, 225

incentives for rehabilitation of, 16, 181–183

Acacia spp., 97, 115

Açai (Euterpe oleracea), 330

Achiote (Bixa orellana), 183

Acioa baterii, 96, 98

Africa

agroforestry systems, 82

cattle pastureland, 86–87

deforestation, 35–38, 41, 160

forest cover, 36

humid tropical area, 23

income per capita, 41

shifting cultivation in, 41

soils, 23, 27, 53, 54, 57

see also individual countries

Afzelia bella, 96

Agricultural productivity

biological constraints on, 57–58

climate and, 52–53

deforestation and, 375–376

hydrological cycle changes and, 48

pests and, 57–58, 155–157

soils and, 1–2, 53–57

sources of growth, 364–367

Agriculture

advancement of frontiers, 5–6, 41–42, 44, 45, 77, 163, 223, 645

carbon losses from, 223

and deforestation, 44, 45, 61, 223, 367, 406–408, 510, 645

demand for land, 406–408

and economic development, 241–242

extension programs, 85, 187–188

green revolution, 71–72

and greenhouse gas emissions, 48–49, 223–224

monocultural systems, 8, 59–60, 75, 101–102

nutrient cycling in, 56, 60

permanent, 49, 223–224

pesticide use, 60, 70

and pollution, 60

research needs, 62–64, 600–601

slash-and-burn, see Shifting

cultivation

subsistence farming, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

see also Amazonian agriculture;

Cropping systems;

Intensive cropping systems ;

Shifting cultivation;

Sustainable agriculture

Agrisilviculture, 93, 94, 97

Agrisilvopastoral systems, 94, 95

Agroecology, 63–64, 124, 139

Agroforestry systems, 7, 179

advantages and disadvantages, 9, 11, 13, 98–99, 140–141, 142, 143, 332

arrangement of trees, crops, and livestock, 97–98, 148

boundary planting of trees and hedges, 94

combinations, 328–329

defined, 92

ecological benefits of, 29, 92, 97, 99, 103, 380, 524–525

and greenhouse gases, 250–251, 523

improved, 95–98

inputs, 11, 142, 332

intercropping in, 94, 100–101

labor-intensive, 16, 181

livestock in, 332–333

mixed tree, 106, 329–330

principles, 92

regeneration time for trees, 94

research priorities, 76, 99–100, 333, 523–524

rotational, 94

semiextractive, 330

shifting cultivation with, 80–81, 94

successful use of, 94–95, 330–331

suitability of, 68

sustainability, 95, 100, 330–331

traditional types, 93–95

tree and woody shrub species recommended for, 96–97, 330–331, 524–525

Village Forest Project, 187

see also Alley cropping;

other individual systems

Agropastoral systems

features and benefits, 9, 13, 83–84, 140–141, 143

land suitable for, 68

livestock and crops used in, 82–83

research needs, 83, 84–85, 91–92

Alchornea cordifolia, 96, 97, 98

Alley cropping

arrangement of trees and crops, 94, 97, 380

ecological/environmental benefits of, 380–382, 525

economics of, 99, 381–382

livestock in, 381

and soil fertility, 99, 100, 158, 575–576

sustainability in, 575–576

tree species used for, 98, 524–525

see also Contour hedgerow systems

Amazon Basin

agroforestry, 95, 328–333

deforestation rates, 164, 280–286

extractive reserves, 135, 136

fires, 121, 123, 285

forest regeneration on grasslands, 120, 123

Grande Carajas project, 191

logging in, 283

macroecological units, 269–270

market potential for products from, 183

natural forest management, 130

soils, 54, 55

timber production, 283

see also individual countries

Amazonian agriculture

basis for sustainability analysis of, 265–266

cattle raising, 44, 85, 88, 316–326

chronology of, 268, 271, 272–273

continuous cropping, 70

domestication of nontimber forest extraction products, 292

economics of, 271–280

environmental bottlenecks to, 290–291

expansion potential of present land use systems, 339–342

extraction of nontimber forest products, 279–280, 296–297, 306–308

on floodplains, 271–272, 277–278, 293, 314–316, 322–324

future scenario, 336–339

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

knowledge base for, 291–292, 295

land use systems and their sustainabilities, 296–333

main areas of development, 277

in official colonization areas, 279

pastureland degradation, 90

perennial crop, 293–294, 326–328

physical and economic aspects of development, 271–276

shifting cultivation, 12, 246, 271, 273–274, 276, 283, 311–314

timber extraction, 308–311

Animal production, 294;

see also Cattle raising;

Livestock production

Annona spp., 103, 330, 331

Anogeissus leiocarpa, 353

Anthonotha macrophylla, 96, 98

Apiculture, 94

Aquaculture, 94, 294

Asia

agropastoral systems, 82, 83

cattle pastureland, 86

deforestation, 35–38

forest cover, 36

humid tropical area, 23

income per capita, 41

soils, 23, 27, 53, 54, 55

see also individual countries

Asian Development Bank, 161, 582, 583

Australia, 23, 130

Avocado (Persea spp.), 104, 330

B

Bamboo cultivation, 106

Banana (Musa spp.), 101, 110–111, 330, 331

Bangladesh, 86, 177

Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra), 330, 333

Barbasco (Lonchocarpus spp.), 104

Beans, 82, 83, 151

Bété (Mansonia altissima), 352

Bioclimes

classifications, 152, 293

forested, in tropical zone, 28

Biogeographical diversity, 399–400

Biological diversity

agricultural practices and, 57, 60, 72

comparison of land use systems, 140

conservation of, 105, 106, 110, 155, 170–171, 470–471

conversion of forests and, 46, 47–48

deforestation and, 48, 375

enrichment planting and, 136

on extractive reserves, 135

in fallows, 81

genetic, 30–31, 57, 72, 171

in home gardens, 107

losses, 46, 47–48, 60, 72, 113

in managed areas, 126, 526

in mixed tree systems, 105–106, 110

in protected areas and buffer zones, 71, 75, 135, 525–526

research priorities, 30

in secondary forests, 81

species, 30, 136

sustainable management, 525–526

in tree crop plantations, 113, 450–451, 470–471

of tropical moist forests, 29, 30–31, 450–451

Biomass

burning, carbon from, 220, 232–233

climate and, 153

greenhouse gas emissions from, 234, 237

losses from forests, 37, 127, 136, 230, 231

maintenance of, 152–153, 155

net primary production by tree species, 97

nutrient availability in, 56, 155, 157

in regenerating forests, 120–121, 123, 140–141

in tree plantations, 115, 116, 153, 157, 229

Biophysical factors

comparison in land use systems, 139–140, 142

and deforestation, 242

documentation needs, 13, 150–152

land use spatial patterns and, 147, 242

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

Biosphere reserves, 133, 135, 511

Black pepper production, 272, 274, 330, 331, 333

Brachiaria spp., 89, 333

Brazil, 71

agricultural development, 70, 268–280

agroindustrial technology, 294–295

aquaculture, 294

basis for sustainability analysis of Amazonian agriculture, 265–266

biotic pressure, 287

cattle raising, 44, 85, 88, 162, 164, 250, 272, 274, 278, 294, 316–326

climate, 286–287

colonization areas, 44, 189, 274, 279

deforestation, 37, 38, 44, 160, 162, 164, 280–286

environment, 267–268

extractive reserves, 134, 135, 136, 149, 271

food and fiber crops, annual, 293

forest exploration, 293

forest product extraction areas, 279–280

frontier expansion areas, 278–279

greenhouse gas emissions, 232

humid tropics, 266–268

indigenous people, 162

infrastructure building, 44

institutional capacity for research, 336

land use intensity, research, and technology, 333–336

land use systems and their sustainabilities, 296–333

macroecologic units, 268–270

macrolimitations for sustainable agricultural development, 286–290

managed forest system, 108, 149

natural resources, 293

Pará, 276

pastures, 90, 294

perennial crops, 293–294

policies encouraging unsustainable land use, 162–163

political conditions, 289–290

sociocultural issues, 288–289

soils, 27, 54, 55, 287–288

tax incentive policies, 274

technology diffusion and utilization, 295–296

várzea floodplains, 271–272, 277–278, 314–316, 322–324

see also Amazonian agriculture

Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), 136, 183, 274, 330, 331, 332

Breadfruit tree (Artocarpus spp.), 104

Breadnut tree (Brosimum spp.), 104

Buffer zones, 525–526

Bush fallow systems, 382

Byrsonima spp., 103

C

Cacao (Theobroma spp.), 104, 151, 274

in agroforestry systems, 330, 331

plantations, 100–101, 113, 114

Calliandra calothyrsus, 96, 97, 98

Cameroon, 38, 130

Carbon

accounting models, 238–241

agriculture-related losses, 223–226

from biomass burning, 232–233

cycle, 30, 48, 49, 102–103, 115, 126–127, 153

flux from land use changes, 216–217, 221–222, 239, 242–249

logging-related losses, 230, 231

models of flux, 242–249

sinks, tropical systems as, 30, 140, 142, 227, 233–234, 251–252

in soils, 220, 221

taxes, 172

in vegetation, 220, 221

Carbon dioxide emissions

deforestation and, 245, 284

forest role in balance of, 523

and global warming, 48, 102, 219

sources, 48, 49, 190, 216–217, 224, 230, 232–234

sustainable land use and, 102–103, 190, 224

Carbon monoxide, flux from land use changes, 234, 237–238

Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), 116

Carica spp., 103

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

Cashew, 332

Cassava (Manihot esculenta), 82, 95, 134, 151, 157, 330

Cassia spp., 96, 98, 576

Cattle raising, 85

African pastureland, 86–87

agropastoral systems, 82–83

Asian pastureland, 86

attributes of, 140–141, 143–144

in contour hedgerow systems, 578–579

and deforestation, 68, 86, 369, 506–507

development policies and, 88

ecological damage from, 9, 88

on forestland converted to pastureland, 68, 88, 162, 164, 224, 316–320

greenhouse gas emissions from, 48, 237

and land degradation, 89, 224

Latin American pastureland, 87–88

low-intensity grazing, 54

on native grasslands, 320–326

research, 88, 320

socioeconomic importance, 87–88

sustainability of, 9, 68, 91–92, 316–320

tax policies and, 88

see also Livestock production

Cattle ranching, see Cattle raising

Celtis spp., 352

Central America

cattle raising, 88

soils, 27, 55

see also individual countries

Centro Agronómico de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), 185, 524

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), 71

Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT), 76

Cereal crops, 75, 98, 576

Chicle, 135

Chiles (Capsicum spp.), 108

Chlorofluorocarbons, 219

Cinnamon, 104

Climate

and agricultural productivity, 52–53

interactions of forests and atmosphere, 30, 48–49

and land use systems, 151

and sustainable agriculture, 286–287

see also Global warming

Cnestis ferruginea, 98

Coca (Erythroxylum coca), 104

Coconut (Cocos nucifera), 104, 106, 113, 330, 331, 332

Coffee, 80, 104, 105, 156, 330

Colombia, 38, 88, 107–108, 129, 162–163, 232

Colonization and resettlement projects, 6, 88, 169, 176, 189, 507–508;

see also Transmigration

Commodities

markets for, 183–184

price supports, 165

research needs on, 158

Compound farms, 94

Conservation tillage, 382

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) , 76, 88

Contour hedgerow systems

bunding, 574–575

cash crop production in, 578

cattle production in, 578–579

grass strips, 576

intercropping with noncompetitive species, 576–577

Leucaena, 76, 99, 572–573

natural vegetative strips, 577–578

other species, 573

and soil conservation, 99, 381

see also Alley cropping

Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE), 187

Coppicing, 81, 96

Costa Rica, 37, 104, 169, 184, 185, 225

Côte d'Ivoire, 352–354

agriculture, 44, 360–367, 372–373, 375–385, 388–389

agroforestry, 380–382

biodiversity, 375

cattle grazing, 369

climate and microclimate, 352, 353–354, 374–375

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

conservation tillage, 382

credit access, 384–385

deforestation, 37, 38, 44, 45, 164, 367–377, 387–389

economy, domestic, 359–360

export crops, 360–362

fiscal policies, 384

food crops, 362–364

forest resources, 38, 44, 355–359

fuelwood, 368

government policies affecting land use, 164, 372–373, 382–385, 388–389

greenhouse gas emissions, 232

land tenure regimes, 370–372, 383–384

logging, 45, 164, 368

markets, 384–385

mulches and cover crops, 379–380

natural forest management, 130

organic matter for soils, 379

population, 45, 354–355

price policies, 384–385

shifting cultivation, 45, 370

sources of agricultural growth, 364–367

technological interventions, 377–382, 388

timber production, 352–353, 376–377

vegetation, 352–353

Cotton (Gossypium spp.), 108

Credit

access for small-scale farmers, 16, 165, 175, 177, 384–385

and land tenure, 175

subsidized, 165

Cropland

biomass losses from burning, 233

carbon flux from changes in area of, 218

degradation of, 225

Cropping systems

continuous cropping, 70

intercropping with noncompetitive species, 83, 94, 100–101, 114, 151, 229, 576–577

labor-intensive mixed systems, 68

low-input, 81–82, 148, 228

mixed, 13, 143, 151, 158

relay systems, 83

rotations, 83, 158

upland, 68

see also Alley cropping;

Intensive cropping systems ;

Perennial crop agriculture

Crops

genetic diversity of, 30–31, 57, 171

grain, 56

losses to pests, 155–156

short rotation, 110–111

see also individual crops

Cuba, monocultural agriculture, 60

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), 330, 331, 333

D

Dams, 169, 237

Debt-for-nature swaps, 172

Deforestation

and agricultural productivity, 375–376

agriculture and, 44, 45, 61, 223, 241–242, 280–286, 367, 406–408, 510, 645

Amazonian, 280–286

and biodiversity, 48, 375

carbon releases from, 219–220, 232, 239, 284

cattle grazing and, 68, 86, 369, 506–507

causes, 40–41, 68, 138, 221, 223, 367–373, 506–511

and climate and microclimate, 238, 374–375

colonization projects and, 507–508

debt burden of developing countries and, 50

definition of, 5, 33, 35, 499–502

development assistance policies and, 51

economic development and, 241–242

environmental impacts, 284–286, 374–377

estimates of, 36, 502–506, 562–563

extent, 23, 37, 154, 280–281, 451–456

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

and extractive reserves, 137

from fires, 236, 415, 508–509

food consumption and, 244

fuelwood extraction and, 6, 44, 368, 645–646

and greenhouse gases, 48–49, 232, 235, 237, 238, 245

historical patterns, 45

land tenure regimes, 42, 370–372, 509

logging and, 5–6, 44, 68, 368, 408–410, 457–458, 646–647

of mangrove swamps, 45

models, 242–249

national security and, 509

political corruption and, 167

population pressure and, 45, 406–408, 647–649

process, 68, 565–568

projections, 239–240, 473–475

public policies and, 163, 164–167, 181, 284, 388–389

rates, 5, 35–39, 161, 164, 220, 243, 281–284, 405–406, 523, 563–565

reduction strategies, 61, 76

reversal of, 37

road building and other engineering works and, 511

scenarios, 242–249, 387–389, 609–612

shifting cultivation and, 226, 173–174, 370, 409–411

and soil degradation, 38–39, 56–57

of steep slopes, 45

sustainable agriculture and, 160

technology options, 388

timber exploitation and, 510, 568–569

and timber production potential, 376–377

transmigration and, 160, 411–413

tree crop development and, 68, 413–415

tree ownership and, 509

underlying causes, 369–373, 569

Deforested lands, reclamation of degraded pasture on, 90

Degraded lands

area of, 225

carbon loss from, 225, 231

credit access and rehabilitation of, 177

cropland, 225

incentives for improvement of, 16, 180–181

rehabilitation projects, 179–180

restoration potential, 3

tree crop plantations on, 110–111, 115

Desmodium sp., 95

Developing countries

compensation for conservation, 15, 172

debt burden, 41, 43, 50, 164

harvest losses to pests, 155–156

property rights in, 166–167

see also individual countries

Development assistance policies

and cattle raising, 88

conservation linked to, 172

coordination of donor imperatives, 14–15, 165–166, 607–609

energy sources, 190–191

and forest conversion, 14, 42, 51, 88, 161

impact assessments of infrastructure projects, 169

incentives for land improvement and rehabilitation, 180–183

land tenure provisions, 176

local participation in planning, 178–180

negative impacts of, 164

and sustainable agriculture, 51

Dialium guineense, 98

Digitaria decumbens, 89

Drought

livestock resistance to, 87

rainfall distribution and, 52

Durian (Durio zibethinus), 104, 105, 106

Dutch Development Corporation, 161

E

Economic development

agricultural practices and, 241–242, 249–250

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

and deforestation, 241

diversification by farmers and, 3–4

gross national product, per capita, 24–26

and land use changes, 241–242

tree crop plantations and, 111–113, 329–330

see also Socioeconomic factors

Economics

of alley cropping, 99, 381–382

of Amazonian agriculture, 248, 271–276

attributes of land use systems, 141, 142–143, 248

benefits of tropical forests, 523

of biodiversity conservation, 171

of forest conversion, 7, 50–51, 164–166

of forestry, 402–405

of home gardens, 105

of livestock production, 84, 86

of logging, 77

of mixed tree systems, 105, 109, 140–141, 329–330

of timber production, 45, 402–403

of tree crop plantations, 141, 142–143, 461–463

of wood-based industries, 402–403

Ecuador, 88, 95

Education and training programs, 17, 85, 186–187, 188

Energy

alternative sources, and land use, 190–191

greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, 216–217

Erythrina spp., 96, 97, 98

Eucalyptus spp., 115, 191, 333

Extractive reserves, 134–137, 149, 171, 176, 279–280

F

Fertilizer use, 55–56, 380

greenhouse gas emissions from, 48, 237

in intensive cropping systems, 70, 75

manure, 84, 381

negative environmental effects of, 75

on tree crop plantations, 113

Ficus spp., 103

Finnish International Development Agency, 161

Fires

carbon monoxide emissions from, 237–238

deforestation from, 236, 237, 415, 508–509

ecology and management, 591

environmental impacts of, 285–286

forest conversion and risk of, 48, 285

and forest regeneration, 121, 123

greenhouse gas emissions from, 236–237, 285

logging and, 126

and nitrogen in soils, 237

Flemingia spp., 96, 98

Floodplain agriculture, 151

Amazonian, 277–278, 314–316, 322–324

agroforestry, 330

intensive cropping systems, 70

research needs, 316

sustainability of, 45, 315–316

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

agroforestry program, 179

Forest Resources Assessment 1990 Project, 23, 35

forest policy review, 161

soil classification, 152

Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 165–166

Food production, sustainable, 522–523

Forest conversion

agricultural expansion and, 41–42

and biodiversity losses, 46, 47–48

carbon losses from, 22, 224

causes of, 5–6, 39–44, 138

climatic effects, 48–49

defined, 5, 33

development assistance policies and, 14, 42, 51, 88, 161

displacement of indigenous people, 7, 50

economics of, 7, 50–51, 164–166

environmental consequences, 7, 46–49, 50

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

extent of, 39, 42

and fire risk, 48

government policies contributing to, 162–168

to grasslands, 86, 121

and greenhouse gas concentrations, 48–49, 102–103, 218, 224

historical patterns of, 44–45

hydrological effects of, 46, 48

infrastructure development and, 42

number of farmers engaged in, 42

to pastureland, 6, 68, 85, 88, 162, 164, 224, 316–320

to plantations, 113, 128

policies contributing to, 42–43, 164

rates, 35, 44, 45

research needs on, 46

social consequences, 7, 49–51

and soil degradation, 46, 50

sustainable agriculture and, 160

transformation processes, 68

see also Deforestation

Forest degradation

defined, 5, 35

causes, 40–41, 168–169

and greenhouse gases, 23, 231

rates, 37

Forest gardens, 107;

see also Home gardens ;

Mixed tree systems

Forest products, nontimber

examples of, 31–32

domestication of, 292

extraction of, 135, 296–297, 306–308

markets for, 135, 183–184

research needs, 308

see also Commodities

Forest regeneration

acceleration techniques, 10, 121–125

attributes of, 140–141

biomass and nutrient recovery, 120–121, 123, 140–141

constraints on, 131

ecological benefits of, 10, 29, 30, 140–141

extent of, 39

fires and, 121, 123

in grass-dominated fields, 120, 121, 123

improvement thinning and, 130

natural forest management and, 127, 128, 129, 130

pioneer species, 121

processes, 126

purposes, 118

rates, 118–119, 127–128, 130

seedling and sprout establishment, 119–120

shifting cultivation and, 81, 120–121

species appropriate for, 123

Forest reserves, 133–137, 288, 354–355, 371, 417, 419, 420, 431, 436, 450, 456–457, 497, 505, 514, 528, 534, 637, 638;

see also Buffer zones;

Extractive reserves;

Protected areas

Forestlands, designated, 397–398, 418–419

Forestry/forest management, 637–639

community-based, 593–595, 607–608

economic importance of, 402–405

enrichment planting, 596

indigenous communities' role and rights, 592–593

labor-based timber extraction, 595–596

mixed tree systems, past and present, 102–106

patches/groves, 103

plantation, 10, 115–118, 140–141, 143–144, 229

policy review, 161–168

research and development, 109–110, 602

shifting cultivation and, 424–425

small-scale, 46

social forestry programs, 179–180, 251

sustainable, 69

sustained-yield, 595

see also Agroforestry;

Natural forest management

Forests of humid tropics

appraisals of resources, 35

bioclimes in tropical zone, 5, 28

biological diversity, 29, 30–31, 450–451

boundary stabilization, intensive cropping systems and, 77

climatic interactions, 30, 48–49

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

closed, 37–38

commercial areas, 635–637

conservation, 108–110, 419–420

defined, 23

ecological benefits, 29–33, 523

economic benefits, 523

exploration, 293

extents, 23, 34, 35, 36, 244

fires, 48, 415, 508–509

formations, 5, 28–29, 448, 450

managed, 29, 80–81, 103, 125, 127

modified, 11, 13, 132–133, 140–141, 143, 230, 484–485, 516

nutrient cycling, 32

patches, 103, 108

permanent, 456–457

production, 398–399

product extraction areas, 279–280;

see also Extractive reserves;

Forest products, nontimber ;

Timber and timber products

protected areas, 11, 108, 133–134, 140–141, 144, 511, 637

soils, 32, 56–57

stabilization of hydrological systems, 32–33

transformation, 35

types, 23, 560–562, 626

valuation of, 163

water availability and quality, 33

see also Forest regeneration;

Forest reserves ;

Secondary forests

Fruit tree species, 104

Fuelwood, 368

decay rates, 231

demand and harvesting, and deforestation, 6, 44, 191, 368, 645–646

greenhouse gas emissions from, 237

from leguminous trees, 95

plantations, 191

research needs, 191

G

Gabon, 38, 130

Gardens

multistory, 82

see also Forest gardens;

Home gardens

Ghana, 130

Gliricidia sepium, 87, 96, 98, 576

Global Environmental Monitoring System, 154

Global warming

biomass and, 153

deforestation and, 235, 238, 374–375

effects of, 48, 216

forest-atmosphere interactions and, 30

and land use, 48–49, 102–103, 216–219, 252

temperature increase rates, 48

see also Climate;

Greenhouse gases

Grameen Bank, 177

Grasses

in agroforestry systems, 333

effects on forest regeneration, 120, 121, 123

Grasslands

area of, 233

biomass losses from burning, 233

cattle raising on, 320–326

converted forestlands, 86, 121

fallow improvement systems, 587–589

fires, 121

floodplains, 322–324

greenhouse gas emissions from, 237

home gardens on degraded hillsides, 107

knowledge base on, 294

land tenure, 586–587

low-forage-value, 86

poorly drained, 324–326

reforestation efforts, 589–591

savannah, 86, 324–326, 321–322

well-drained, 321–322

Graviola (Annona muricata), 330, 331

Greenhouse gas emissions

from agriculture, 48–49, 223–224

agroforestry and, 250–251

atmospheric concentrations, 48

conversion of forests and, 48–49, 102–103

from deforestation, 48–49, 232, 235, 237, 238

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

estimated flux from land use changes, 216, 231–238

future impacts, 48–49, 238–249

global emissions from, 235

land use changes responsible for, 219–231

from pasturelands, 225

radiative effect of, 49, 238

reduction through sustainable land use policies and, 189–190

sources, 216

see also individual gases

Gross national product, per capita, 24–26

Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), 183, 274

Guatemala, 135, 169

Guava (Psidium spp.), 104, 106

H

Harungana madagascariensis, 98

Hedgerow systems

species appropriate for, 98

see also Contour hedgerow systems

Home gardens, 7, 94

Bari system, 107–108

biodiversity in, 107

components of, 101, 106

conservation of species in, 106

on degraded hillsides, 107

economic advantages of, 105

fruit production, 104

pekarangan, 106, 107

pest management in, 101

production and nutrition value of, 107

Honduras, 169

Humid tropics

climate, 5, 22–23, 28, 52–53

conditions and characteristics, 5, 21–22

land ownership, 45

population, 23, 40–41, 45

vegetation, 5, 23, 28–29

see also Forests of the humid tropics ;

Soils of the humid tropics

Hydrological systems

and agricultural productivity, 48

forest conversion effects on, 46, 48

stabilization by forests, 32–33

Hyparrhenia rufa, 89, 120

I

Imperata cylindrica, 86, 120, 121, 123, 182

India, 38, 86, 130

Indigenous people

Amuesha-Campa communities, 169

Bora Indians, 104, 108

Cabecar Indians, 104

collaborative research with, 14–15

displacement by infrastructure development, 169

effects of forest conversion on, 7, 50

food crops of, 58

forest management role and rights, 592–593

Guaymi Indians, 104

involvement in land use planning, 150

knowledge of land use systems, 13–14, 144–145

land tenure for, 166, 174–175, 599–600

Maya, 132, 516–519

mixed tree systems, 101–102

modification of forests, 132–133

property rights of, 166–167

resource management by, 129, 134, 162–163, 515–519

secondary forest use, 123

Surui people, 162

Yanomani, 176

Indonesia

agriculture, 45, 157, 395–396, 406–408, 425–426, 429–431

alley cropping in, 576

assessment of forest loss, 433–438

biogeographical diversity, 399–400

cattle raising in, 86

commodity price supports, 165

conservation of forest ecosystems, 419–420

deforestation history and causes, 38, 45, 164, 165, 167, 405–415, 431–433

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

ecological characteristics and issues, 399–400

economic activity, 400–401

economic importance of forestry, 402–405

forest fires, 415

forest resources, 397–399, 431–433

forestry programs, 179, 424–425

greenhouse gas emissions, 232

home gardens, 104–105, 106, 107

integrated pest management, 157

legislation and policies on forest resource management, 416–418

logging in natural forests, 39, 130, 164, 408–410, 420–422

permanent forests, 418–419

population, 45, 394–395, 406–408

reforestation and regreening programs, 422–424

shifting cultivation, 410–411, 424–428

Social Welfare Development for Isolated Societies program, 427

sustainable land use development programs, 415–431

timber production and wood-based industries, 402–403

transmigration program, 75, 189, 411–413, 426–427

tree crop development, 413–415

wet paddy rice agriculture, 429–431

Infrastructure building

and forest clearance, 77, 127, 168

impact assessments, 168–169

and intensive agriculture, 71

investments, 16, 172, 177–178

and land tenure, 176

policy reforms, 164, 168–169, 177–178

Inga spp., 95, 96, 98

Integrated pest management, 157

Intensive cropping systems, 510

in agroforestry systems, 330–331

attributes of, 13, 140–141, 143

challenges in, 73, 75

characteristics of, 8–9

contour hedgerow systems, 76

crop diversity losses, 72

development of, 71–75

drained-field systems, 71

farming system methodologies, 72–73

and forest boundary stabilization, 77

inputs, 70, 72, 75

in lowlands, 70–71, 73, 75

mound systems, 71

potential productivity gains, 139

programs and research activities, 71–72, 75–77

and resource degradation, 9

socioeconomic considerations, 73, 76

soil conservation in, 76, 99

soils appropriate for, 54, 55, 57, 70

sustainable, 9, 72–73, 76

terrace systems, 71, 74

uplands/steeply sloping areas, 72, 76

Inter-American Development Bank, 161

International agricultural research centers, 71–72, 76

International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), 76, 185, 187, 524

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), 71

International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA), 76, 381

International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), 71, 76

International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), 161

Isoberlinia doka, 353

L

Land

abandoned, rehabilitation of, 16, 181–183

improvement, incentives to encourage investments in, 180–181

subsidies and rents, 165

transformation, examples, 67

see also Degraded lands

Land tenure

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

on abandoned lands, 16, 182

ancestral rights of indigenous occupants, 166, 167, 599–600

collective ownership, 175, 371–372

and deforestation, 42, 166, 370–372, 509

on extractive reserves, 135

and population growth rates, 597–598

private individual ownership, 372

property rights issues, 383–384

reforms, 16, 135, 150, 174–177, 598–599

regimes, 175, 370–372, 383–384

reinforcement of local stewardship through, 598–599

and resource degradation, 175

state ownership, 371

titling, 16, 169, 174–177

for small-scale farmers, 175

and sustainable resource management, 59–60, 132, 176–177

Land use

abstract spatial consideration of patterns of, 248–249

alternative energy sources and, 190–191

approach to sustainability in, 64–65

attributes of systems compared, 139–144

and biomass maintenance, 152–153

biophysical attributes of, 139–140, 142

and carbon sinks, 251–252

in catchment areas, 158

classification systems, 150–152, 154

climate change and, 48–49, 102–103, 216–219

constraints on sustainability, 249

demographics and, 148

design and management considerations, 145–154

ecological guidelines for systems management, 154–155

economic attributes of systems, 141, 142–143

expansion potential of present systems, 339–342

factors affecting changes, 241–242

global equity considerations, 15, 172, 190

and global warming, 48–49, 102–103, 216–219, 252

and greenhouse gas emissions, 189–190, 219–238

impact assessments of infrastructure projects, 168–169

incentives for improvement of, 180–183

indigenous knowledge and production systems, 144–145

integrated approach to, 8, 62–64, 146–150, 164

knowledge about options, 139–145

monitoring systems and methodologies, 153–154

national-to-global model of impacts, 242–246

negative impacts of policies, 164–167

nonsustainable uses, 67

parameters for analyzing sustainability of, 304–305

and pest management, 155–157

policy review, 161–168

political and social stability and, 188–189

population growth and, 189

rates of change in, 1

research needs, 158

scale considerations, 148–149

social attributes of systems, 141, 142

spatial arrangements of, 146–147, 246–248

sustainable, 3, 66–69, 138, 146–150, 218, 249–252, 415–431

technical needs common to all options, 155–158

temporal arrangements of, 147–148

transitional, 148

and water management, 158

zoning for, 149–150

Latin America

agropastoral systems, 82–83

cattle pastureland, 87–89

deforestation, 35–38

forest cover, 36

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

humid tropical area, 23

income per capita, 41

reclamation of degraded pastureland, 73

see also individual countries

Legumes

bushy, 87

ground cover, 114

trees, 79

Lemon (Citrus limon), 106

Leucaena leucocephala, 87, 96, 97, 98

in contour hedgerow systems, 76, 99, 572–573

Livestock production

in agropastoral systems, 82

in alley cropping, 381

buffalo, 82, 86

economic importance, 84, 86

forest conversion to, 6

fowl, 82

genetic resistance to disease, 86–87

greenhouse gas emissions from, 225, 234

integration into farming systems, 157–158, 601–602

in mixed tree systems, 101

nutrient recycling by, 84, 157–158

sheep and goats, 87, 95

swine, 82, 83

trypanosomiasis in, 86–87

see also Cattle raising

Local communities

decision-making role of, 178–180

education and training for, 186–187

see also Indigenous people

Logging, 45

access roads, 127, 129

ban, 163, 607

biomass losses from, 230, 231

and carbon cycling, 230–231

concessions, 165–166

controls on, 420–422

and deforestation, 5–6, 44, 68, 164, 230, 368, 408–410, 457–458, 646–647

dipterocarp trees, 126, 130–131

domestic, 640–641

economic benefits, 77

environmental damage from, 126, 230, 284

extraction rates, 230–231

fees, 163

financial incentives for, 163, 164, 165–166

and greenhouse gases, 49, 230–231

high-grading, 130–131

illegal, 167, 231

labor-based timber extraction, 595–596

land area under, 125

selective extraction, 126, 283–284

soil damage from, 126

unregulated commercial, 68, 646–647

see also Natural forest management

Lowlands

agropastoral systems, 82, 83

intensive cropping systems in, 70–71, 75

preservation programs, 75

rice production, 73, 75, 82, 83, 559

M

Macambo (Theobroma bicolor), 104

Madagascar, 38, 179

Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), 116

Maize, 82, 83, 101, 151

Makoré (Tieghemella heckelii), 352

Malaysia

agriculture, 6, 147, 445–447

biodiversity, 450–451, 470–471

deforestation, 6, 38, 68, 164, 167, 451–456, 473–475

economy (domestic), 445–447

forests, 38, 448–458

land use, 448

logging, 68, 126, 164, 457–458

manufacturing, 447

mixed tree systems, 105

natural forest management in, 127–128, 130

population, 443–445

research needs, 476–477

soil conservation, 467–468

topography, climate, and soils, 441–443

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

tree crop plantations, 6, 68, 113, 114, 458–471, 471–473

water systems protection, 468–470

Managed fallows and forests, 29, 80–81, 101, 103, 108, 125, 127, 132

Mango, 330, 332

Mangroves, 45

Manilkara spp., 103

Manioc, 104, 108

Merck and Company, 184

Methane

flux from land-use changes, 234, 236–237

and global warming, 48, 219, 234, 236

sources, 48, 49, 224, 225, 234

Mexico

agriculture, 151, 510, 522–523

agroforestry, 523–525

biodiversity management, 525–526

cattle ranching/livestock production, 68, 88, 506–507, 525

chinampa technology, 7, 520

colonization projects, 189, 507–508

deforestation, 38, 68, 88, 499–511, 523

development and conservation programs, 519–521

food and commodity production, 522–523

forest fires, 508–509

forest resources, 38, 496–498

greenhouse gas emissions, 232

history of land use, 484–485

home gardens, 104, 106–107

Huastec Maya, 518–519

improvement of resource management, 526–537

Lacandon Maya, 518

land use, 490–496

lowland Maya, 516–518

managed fallows and forests in, 80–81, 130

national security concerns, 509

Plan Puebla, 519–520

population, 484–485

protected areas, 511

road building and other engineering works, 511

reforestation, 523

secondary forests of Veracruz, 520–521

socioeconomic trends, 485–490

sustainable resource management, 511–526

timber exploitation, 510

traditional approaches to resource management, 515–519

tree ownership and land tenure problems, 509

Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 521–522

Milpas, 81

Mining, 43, 176

Mixed tree systems

cultivation and management practices, 100–101, 151

ecological advantages of, 13, 105–106, 140–141, 143

economics of, 105, 109, 140–141, 329–330

kebun campuran, 107

managed fallows, 108

parak, 104

past and present forest management, 102–106

research on, 102, 109–110

role in tropical forest conservation, 10, 108–110

with shifting cultivation, 103

species cultivated in, 10, 104

sustainable, 110

talun-kebun, 107

types, 101

worldwide, 106–108

see also Forest gardens;

Home gardens

Models/modeling

abstract spatial consideration of land use patterns, 248–249

carbon accounting, 238–241

national-to-global, 242–246

socioeconomic and ecological aspects of land use changes, 241–249

spatially explicit, 246–248

Modified forests, see Forests of humid tropics, modified

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

Monocultural systems, 8, 59–60, 75, 101–102, 330–331, 333

Mound systems, 7, 71

Mulches and cover crops, 87, 114, 158, 379–380, 381

Multipurpose woodlots, 94

Myanmar, 38, 130, 232

N

National Council of Rubber Tappers, 135

National policies

enabling environment for sustainable agriculture, 15–16, 174–180

encouraging unsustainable land use, 162–163

infrastructure development, 164

land tenure, 166, 174–177

and livestock production, 88

mission of resource management agencies, 169–170

negative effects of, 163, 242

reforms, 163, 166–167

review needs and process, 163–166

tax incentives and credits, 88

National resource management agencies, 169–170

National security, and deforestation, 509

Natural forest management, 149

benefits and costs of, 11, 126–127, 140–141

and carbon cycling, 126–127, 140

Celos Management System, 130

constraints on, 125–126, 131–132

and forest regeneration, 127, 128, 129, 130

Malayan Uniform System, 127–128

Modified Selection System, 130

purpose of, 125

research and development, 130

selection systems, 129–131

Selective Logging System, 130

Selective Management System, 130

strip shelterwood systems, 128–129

sustainability of, 127, 131–132

Tropical Shelterwood System, 128

uniform shelterwood systems, 127–128

Necromass, 233–234

Nepal, 71, 75, 86

New York Zoological Society, 187

Niangon (Tarrietia utilis), 352

Nigeria, 37, 130

Nitrous oxide

contribution to greenhouse effect, 219, 234

flux from land use changes, 237

sources, 48, 49, 234

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), education and training role , 17, 186–187

No-till systems, 185, 382

Nuclea latifolia, 98

Nutmeg, 105

Nutrient cycling

in agropastoral systems, 83–84

in alley cropping, 381

comparison of land use systems, 140, 142

in forests, 32

integrated management of, 157–158

land use and, 157–158

in monocultural systems, 60

and productivity, 154, 157–158

in regenerating forests, 120–121, 123, 140–141

research on, 88

in shifting agriculture, 77–78

in soils, 55–56

in tree plantations; 116, 140, 142

O

Oil palm production, 11, 113, 114, 128, 274, 330, 332

Orange (Citrus aurantium), 106

Orchards, 101, 108

P

Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM), 114

Panama, 104

Panicum maximum, 89

Papaya (Carica papaya), 106, 330

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP), 94

Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum), 333

Paspalum spp., 120

Passion fruit, 330, 331

Pastureland

African, 86–87

area of, 233

Asian, 86

biomass losses from burning, 233

cattle, 86–88

degradation, 89, 90, 224, 225

forest conversion to, 6, 68, 85, 88, 162, 164, 224, 316–320

grass-legume mixture, 88

and greenhouse gases, 224–225, 237

knowledge about, 294

Latin American, 87–90, 294

nutrient cycling on, 88, 225

productivity, 225

reclamation of degraded pasture on deforested lands, 73, 90

technology for sustainability, 91–92

weed invasion, 89

Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), 104, 183, 330

Perennial crop agriculture

land tenure and, 582

progress in, 293–294

research needs, 328

sustainability of, 68, 326–328

Perennial tree crop plantations, 110–115, 582

Peru

alley cropping in, 576

cattle raising, 88

deforestation, 38, 61, 88

indigenous people, 104, 108, 129

intensive cropping systems, 70

mixed tree systems, 104, 108

natural forest management in, 129

overexploitation of forest products, 136

Pichis-Palcazu Project, 169

soil management practices, 61

Pest management

and agricultural productivity, 57–58, 155–157, 287

comparison of land use systems, 140

with cropping systems, 83

in home gardens, 101

integrated, 157

intensive cropping and, 70, 75

land use and, 155–157

Pesticide use, 60, 70, 156

Philippines, 71

agriculture, 44, 556–557, 559–560, 570–584, 600–601

agroforestry systems, 94–95

community-based resource management, 179–180, 591–595, 598–599, 607–608

contour hedgerow systems, 571–579

dam projects, 169

deforestation, 38, 44, 164, 167, 560–569, 609–612

diversification into mixed farming systems, 583–584

fallow improvement systems, 587–589

fire ecology and management, 591

foreign aid to, 608–609

forest management, 130, 179–180, 592–596, 602, 607–608

forest types, 560–562

fuelwood use, 44

grasslands and brushlands, 584–592

indigenous communities' role and rights, 176, 592–593, 599–600

institutional changes, 606

land tenure, 166, 176, 586–587, 597–600

land use, 552–554

livestock production, 601–602

logging, 44, 607

migration to uplands, 557–558

nutrients for soils, 580–582

perennial crops, 582

permanently farmed sloping lands, 570–584

phosphorus sources for soils, 581–582

physical environment, 551–552

political corruption in, 167

population growth and pressures, 86, 554–555, 597–598

reduced-tillage systems, 579–580

reforestation efforts, 589–591

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

research needs, 602–606

resettlement policies and programs, 189

rice production in lowlands, 559

shifting agriculture, 86

Sloping Agricultural Land Technology Program, 76

sustainable land use approaches in uplands, 569–612

technology development and dissemination, 600–606

timber concessions, 568–569

timber pricing reform, 607

tree crops, 582–583

upland ecosystem, state of, 551–560

Pineapple (Ananas spp.), 107, 110, 330, 331

Pinus spp., 115, 116, 332

Plantains (Musa spp.), 82, 101, 107

Plantation agriculture

components of, 110–111

crop characteristics, 10, 112

and economic development, 111–113

public management of, 112

sustainable management methods, 114

see also Tree crop plantations

Plantation forestry, 10, 115–118, 140–141, 143–144, 229

Policies, see Development assistance policies; National policies

Political and social stability, and land use, 167, 188–189

Population

and agriculture, 59

in countries with tropical moist forests, 24–26, 40

and deforestation, 45, 406–408, 647–649

growth rates, 41

issues in tropics, 40–41

and land tenure, 597–598

and land use policies, 103, 189, 241

and shifting cultivation, 78–79, 103, 148

Poverty

alleviation programs, 76, 145

debt burden of developing countries, 41

plantation agriculture and, 111

and sustainable land use, 40

Private voluntary organizations, 186

Property rights, 166–167

Protected areas

attributes, 144

biodiversity management in, 170–171, 525–526

extractive reserves, 134–137, 171

forest patches, 103, 108

forestry projects, 187

Kibale Forest Reserve, 187

land area, 133, 511

mechanisms for protection, 11, 133, 511

size and configuration of, 133, 150

social and ecological pressures on, 133–134

Puerto Rico, 225

Q

Quercus spp., 103

R

Rainfall, and soil loss, 32–33

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), 106

Rattan, 136

Recommendations

biodiversity conservation, 170–171

biomass maintenance, 152–153

design and selection of land uses, 146–150

enabling environment for sustainable agriculture, 15–16, 174–180

equitable distribution of conservation costs, 15, 172, 190

goals of, 159–160

incentives for land improvement, 16, 180–183

infrastructure development, 16, 168–169, 177–178

land titling and land tenure reforms, 174–177

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

local participation in development planning, 178–180

mission of national resource management agencies, 169–170

NGO role, 17, 186–187

policy reviews, 14–15, 161–167

see also Research needs and approaches

Reforestation

and carbon flux, 103, 240

contract programs, 589–591

extent of, 39

on grasslands, 589–591

projects, 422–424

Regenerating forests, see Forest regeneration

Regreening programs, 422–424

Research needs and programs

agriculture, 62–64, 291–292, 600–601

agroforestry, 99–100, 333, 523–524

agropastoral systems, 84–85, 91–92

biodiversity, 171

climate change related to land use changes, 102, 252

commodity-specific, 62–63, 158

documentation of land use system, 13, 150–152

extension programs, 85, 187–188

extractive reserves, 135–136, 137

floodplain agriculture, 316

forest conversion, 46

forest reserves, 133, 135–136, 171

forestry, 109–110, 602

institutional capacity for fulfilling, 84–85, 336

integrated approach, 62–64

intensive cropping systems, 71–72, 75–77

international partnerships, 16–17, 185, 605–606

land attributes, 150

livestock production, 87, 320, 601–602

methodology development, 184–185, 602–605

mixed tree systems, 102, 109–110

monitoring systems and methodologies, 14, 153–154

natural forest management, 130

NGO role, 17, 186–187

nontimber resource extraction, 308

perennial crop agriculture, 114–115, 293

preservation of indigenous knowledge, 13–14, 144–145

progress in, 295

shifting agriculture, 312

social science, 76

soil-plant-animal grazing trial, 88

soils, 100

taxonomy of forest species, 30

timber extraction, 311

traditional land use systems, 63, 99, 144–145

tree crop plantations, 114–115, 118

Rice plant hopper, 157

Rice production, 86, 107

agropastoral systems, 82, 83

greenhouse gas emissions from, 48, 224, 234, 237

intensive cultivation, 73, 75

knowledge base on, 293

and land ownership, 59

lowland, 73, 75, 82, 83, 559

monoculture, 75

in shifting agriculture, 82

soils used for, 57

sustainability of, 223–224

terraces, 74

wet paddy agriculture, 7, 70–71, 223–224, 429–431

Rubber, 11, 111, 113, 114, 128, 135, 136, 274, 280, 330, 331, 332

Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 114

Rwanda, agroforestry systems, 94, 95

S

Sahel, soils, 54

Samanea saman, 98

Samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon), 352

Sapodilla tree (Achras zapota), 135

Secondary forests

area of, 39, 123

benefits, 10, 30, 118, 119, 140–141, 144

biological diversity in, 81

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

carbon cycling, 30, 49, 103, 228, 231

characteristics, 29, 124

clearance for low-input cropping, 82

defined, 122

fires, 121

growth rates, 182

in situ experimental research, 520–521

and shifting cultivation, 123

sustainable use of, 10, 61, 123–125, 330, 331

tree species in, 123

Sedimentation, 46–47, 169

Shifting cultivation, 45

agricultural programs affecting, 425–426

agroforestry and, 94, 100, 101, 103

agropastoral systems, 83, 88

attributes of, 140–141

and biomass maintenance, 153

carbon losses from, 225–226, 246, 247

categories of, 41–42, 77

defined, 77

and deforestation, 41, 173–174, 226, 370, 409–411

encroaching cultivation, 228–229

fallow period, 9, 78–80

and forest regeneration, 81, 120–121

forestry programs affecting, 424–425

and greenhouse gases, 225–229

land ownership and, 175

low-input cropping, 81–82

managed fallows and forests, 80–81, 101

multiple cropping arrangements, 79–80

and nutrient cycling, 77–78, 79

population pressures and, 78–79, 103, 148

rationalization of, 424–428

research needs, 314

short-rotation, 8, 9, 86, 173–174, 226–228

slash-and-mulch, 77–78

social welfare program for isolated societies, 427

soil management practices, 79

soils used for, 54, 55, 81, 86

stabilization guidelines, 9, 79–80

sustainability of, 78, 225–226, 227–228, 313–314

traditional, long-rotation, 7–8, 9, 41, 59, 68, 78, 94, 140–141, 143, 225–226

transmigration and, 9, 41–42, 59, 426–428

Shorea spp., 127

Silviculture, 125, 127, 131

Silvopastoral systems, 68, 93–94, 229, 332–333

Social forestry programs, 179–180, 251

Sociocultural conditions, and sustainable agriculture, 288–289

Socioeconomic factors

comparison of systems, 141–143

conversion of forests, 49–51

documentation needs, 13, 152

in infrastructure building, 169

in land use changes, 241–242

models, 242–249

monitoring, 153–154

spatial patterns of land use and, 147

and sustainability of land use, 249

Soil conservation

in agrisilvopastoral systems, 95

agroforestry and, 380, 381

comparison of land use systems, 140, 143

in contour hedgerow systems, 99, 381

intensive cultivation and, 76

methods, 113

organic matter management, 79, 114

and productivity, 154–155

tree crop plantations and, 114, 467–468

Soil degradation

agricultural inputs and, 75

alley cropping and, 99

conversion of forests and, 46, 50

deforestation and, 38–39, 56–57

logging and, 126

monitoring, 14, 153

pastureland, 89

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

reversal of, 3

shifting cultivation and, 79

from tree crop plantations, 113

Soils of the humid tropics and agricultural productivity, 1–2, 53–57, 575–576

Alfisols, 99, 100

aluminum toxicity, 55, 57, 575–576

calcium content, 56, 57, 99

carbon content, 220, 221, 224, 226, 233–234

characteristics, 23, 27–28

classifications, 152, 293

data availability on, 14, 153

deforestation effects on, 56–57

Entisols, 27, 57

forest, 32, 56–57

geographic distribution, by order, suborder, or type, 23, 27, 53–55

greenhouse gas emissions from, 234, 237

Inceptisols, 27, 57

for intensive cropping, 54, 55, 57, 70

iron compounds, 57

laterite formation, 54–55

magnesium content, 56, 99

misconceptions about, 54–56

Mollisols, 55

nitrogen content, 56, 89, 99, 237, 576

nutrient cycling, 23

55–56, organic matter content, 23, 55, 99, 116, 225, 379, 576

Oxisols, 23, 27, 54, 55–56, 70, 249

pH, 99

phosphorus content, 56, 57, 89, 99, 576

potassium content, 57, 99

research needs, 100

and sustainable agriculture, 53–57, 287–288

Ultisols, 23, 27, 55–57, 70, 249, 576

South America

soils, 23, 53, 54

see also Latin America;

individual countries

Southeast Asia

forest harvest intervals, 166

forest regeneration on grasslands, 120, 121, 123

range of land use systems, 152

social forestry programs, 179–180

see also individual countries

Spondias spp., 103

Sri Lanka, 107, 112

Star apple (Pouteria caimito), 104

Steeply sloping areas, see Uplands/ steeply sloping areas

Subsidies, and adoption of technology, 90

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), 107, 110

Suriname, 125, 130

Sustainable agriculture

agroforestry and, 380–382

in agropastoral systems, 84–85

basis for, 64–65

benefits of, 61–62, 160

biological constraints on, 57–58

biotic pressure and, 287

and carbon releases, 247

characteristics of, 22

climate and, 286–287

conservation tillage, 382

constraints on agricultural productivity, 52–58

credit access for small-scale farmers, 177

defined, 66

design and management considerations, 145–146

development assistance policies and, 51

diversification and, 3–4

enabling environment for, 174–180

environmental bottlenecks to, 290–291

external factors in, 250

fertilizer use in, 380

and greenhouse gas emissions, 189–190

incentives and opportunities for, 180–188

infrastructure investments and, 177–178

institutional and policy changes, 84–85

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

intensification in, 72–73

interventions, 377–385

labor-intensive mixed cropping systems, 68

land tenure reforms and, 59, 174–177

local decision making and, 178–180, 591–592

markets for products, 183–184

mixed farming systems, 583–584

mulches and cover crops, 379–380

nutrient sources, 560–562

organic matter for soils, 379

pathways to, 58–62, 69

perennial crops, 68, 582

phosphorus sources, 581–582

political considerations, 289–290

practices associated with, 60–61

reduced-tillage systems, 579–580

research, development, and knowledge transfer, 184–188

sociocultural conditions and, 288–289

soils and, 53–57, 287–288

supporting, 173–188

technological interventions and, 377–382

traditional methods, 58–59

transition to, 61

see also Agricultural productivity;

Contour hedgerow systems

Sustainable resource management

barriers to, 1–2

characteristics of, 2

chinampa technology, 520

definition of, 511–513

demonstration projects, 533–534

determinants of, 138

education in, 532–533

employment opportunities and, 50

global requirement for, 4–5

by Huastec Maya, 518–519

implementation of, 534–536

by Lacandon Maya, 518

by lowland Maya, 516–518

Plan Puebla, 519–520

policy issues, 527–529

practices in Mexican humid tropics, 513–515

research needs, 529–532

secondary forests, 520–521

secondary problems, 536–537

traditional approaches, 515–519

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), 107

Swietenia spp., 115, 116

T

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis), 333

Tax incentives and credits, 88, 164, 172

Tea plantations, 112

Technology

agroindustrial, 294–295

and deforestation, 388

diffusion and utilization, 90, 295–296, 600–606

interventions, 377–382, 388

local decision making on, 178–180

for reclamation of pastureland, 90, 91–92

and resource degradation, 9, 75

success factors, 148

and sustainable agriculture, 143, 377–382

Tectona spp., 115

Terrace systems, 7, 71, 74, 114, 147, 148

Thailand, 71, 86, 108, 232

Tillage practices, 158

Timber and timber products

concessions, 167

economic importance of, 45, 402–403

exploitation of, and deforestation, 164, 376–377, 510, 568–569

extraction of, 39, 129, 308–311, 595–596;

see also Logging;

Natural forest management

harvest intervals, 166

industrial roundwood production, 639

labor-based timber extraction, 595–596

potential, 376–377

pricing reform, 165, 167, 607

species important for, 352

research needs, 311

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

sustainability of extraction, 310–311

Trade reforms, 172

Transmigration

and deforestation, 160, 411–413

and intensive cropping, 9, 75

and shifting cultivation, 9, 41–42, 59, 426–428

sustainable agriculture and, 160

Tree crop plantations, 136

age factors, 116

and biodiversity, 113, 450–451, 470–471

biomass production in, 115, 116, 153, 229

common characteristics, 115, 140–141, 142–143

and deforestation, 68, 413–415

ecologic benefits of, 29, 115–116, 140, 142, 143–144

and economic development, 11, 113, 329–330

economic feasibility of, 141, 142–143, 461–463

environmental effects, 103, 113–114, 466–471

farm forestry, 582–583

and greenhouse gases, 229

inputs, 114

intercropping on, 229

investments for sustainability, 114–115

land area, 115

management, 117–118

mixed, 107

monocultures, 101–102, 229

nutrient cycling in, 116, 140, 142, 157, 229

perennial, 6, 10, 11, 107, 110–115, 140–141, 142–144, 157, 582

policies affecting expansion of, 463–466

productivity, 115–116

prospects for, 471–473

research and development, 114–115, 118

with secondary crops, 75

small-scale production, 101–102

and soil conservation, 467–468

species used in, 115, 117–118

sustainability of land use for, 10, 68, 110, 229, 459–461

uses, 115, 116, 117, 191

and water systems protection, 468–470

Trees

agroforestry species, 96–98, 330–331

alley cropping species, 524–525

biomass production, by species, 97

coppicing, 81, 96

for forest regeneration, 123

fruit, in humid tropics, 104

leguminous/nitrogen fixing, 95, 79, 96, 98

marketable species, 125–126, 333, 352

with negative effects on soils, 98–99

plantation species, 115, 116–117

from stem cuttings, 98

Trinidad, 130

Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 165–166, 521–522

Tropical moist deciduous forests, extent of, 35

Tropical rain forests, extent of, 35

Tropical zone, forested bioclimesin, 28

Trypanosomiasis, 86–87

Tsetse fly control, 86, 87

U

Uapaca togoensis, 353

Uganda, 130, 187

United Nations

Development Program, 166

Environment Program, 154

Uplands/steeply sloping areas

deforestation of, 45

intensive cropping systems on, 72–73, 76

land use patterns on, 151, 249

livestock integration into farming in, 381, 601–602

no-tillage agriculture on, 185

soil conservation on, 76

terracing on, 148

Urban population, 24–26

Urucu, 330, 332

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

U.S. Agency for International Development, 187

Uvillia (Pourouma cecropifolia), 104

V

Vanilla, 104

Venezuela, 38, 120–121, 160, 225

W

Water

availability and quality, forest conditions and, 33

conservation, 140

control systems for intensive agriculture, 71

management, land use and, 158

pollution, 75

systems, protection of, 468–470

Waterborne diseases, 33, 75

Watersheds, protective role of forests, 32–33

Weather, storm mitigation by forests, 33

Weed suppression, 287, 380

West Africa

soils, 54

tree crop plantations, 114

Wetlands, cultivation of, 75, 237

Women, land tenure, 176

Wood-based industries

economic importance of, 402–403

primary, 402

secondary, 402–403

World Bank, 161, 166, 169, 172

World Resources Institute, 166

X

Xate (Chamaedorea spp.), 135

Y

Yam (Dioscorea trifida), 82, 107

Z

Zaire

advancement of agricultural frontiers, 645

agriculture, 156, 652–653

climate, 627

deforestation, 38, 641–649

extension service, 653

extractive reserves, 149

forest management, 130, 149, 637–639, 652–653, 656

forest resource distribution, 635–637

forest types, 626

fuelwood demand and harvesting, 191, 645–646

funding for sustainable management, 656

human resources development, 653–655

industrial roundwood production, 639

institutional arrangements and possible reforms, 649–652

land tenure, 627, 634, 656

logging, 640–641, 646–647

macroeconomic setting, 634–635

natural resources, 625

population, 627, 634, 647–649

research agenda, 652–653

society and culture, 627, 634

sustainable management suggestions, 652–656

tax policies and investment procedures, 639–641

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON AGRICULTURE

Policy and Resources

Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992), 296 pp., ISBN 0-309-04682-3.

Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992), 320 pp., ISBN 0-309-04528-2.

Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991), 244 pp., ISBN 0-309-04034-5.

Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 198 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5.

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991), 448 pp., ISBN 0-309-04578-9.

Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991), 164 pp., ISBN 0-309-04540-1.

Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9.

Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03987-8; ISBN 0-309-03985-1 (pbk).

Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3.

Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk).

Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X.

Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8.

Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5.

Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3.

Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9; Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5.

New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2.

Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5.

Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles

Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included.

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4.

Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X.

Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X.

Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8.

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5.

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1.

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7.

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8.

More information, other titles (before 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418 USA, 202/334-3313 (information only); 800/624-6242 (orders only); 202/334-2451 (fax).

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×

RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Energy

Alcohol Fuels: Options for Developing Countries (1983), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-04160-0.

Producer Gas: Another Fuel for Motor Transport (1983), 112 pp., ISBN 0-309-04161-9.

The Diffusion of Biomass Energy Technologies in Developing Countries (1984), 120 pp., ISBN 0-309-04253-4.

Technology Options

Priorities in Biotechnology Research for International Development: Proceedings of a Workshop (1982), 261 pp., ISBN 0-309-04256-9.

Fisheries Technologies for Developing Countries (1987), 167 pp., ISBN 0-309-04260-7.

Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992), 199 pp., ISBN 0-309-04685-8.

Plants

Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop (1983), 81 pp., ISBN 0-309-04171-6.

Jojoba: New Crop for Arid Lands (1985), 102 pp., ISBN 0-309-04251-8.

Quality-Protein Maize (1988), 130 pp., ISBN 0-309-04262-3.

Triticale: A Promising Addition to the World's Cereal Grains (1988), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-04263-1.

Lost Crops of the Incas (1989), 415 pp., ISBN 0-309-04264-X.

Saline Agriculture: Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries (1989), 150 pp., ISBN 0-309-04266-6.

Innovations in Tropical Forestry

Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias for the Humid Tropics (1983), 63 pp., ISBN 0-309-04165-1.

Calliandra: A Versatile Small Tree for the Humid Tropics (1983), 56 pp., ISBN 0-309-04166-X.

Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites (1983), 118 pp., ISBN 0-309-04167-8.

Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics (1984), 2d ed., 100 pp., ISBN 0-309-04250-X.

Neem: A Tree that Could Help the World (1992), 149 pp., ISBN 0-309-04686-6.

Managing Tropical Animal Resources

Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea (1983), 36 pp., ISBN 0-309-04168-6.

Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics (1983), 60 pp., ISBN 0-309-04169-4.

Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future (1983), 133 pp., ISBN 0-309-04170-8.

Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future (1990), 449 pp., ISBN 0-309-04265-8.

Resource Management

Environmental Change in the West African Sahel (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-04173-2.

Agroforestry in the West African Sahel (1984), 86 pp., ISBN 0-309-04174-0.

Conserving Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for Development Agencies (1992), 127 pp., ISBN 0-309-04683-1.

Additional titles and ordering information are available from the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Publications and Information Services (FO-2060), Office of International Affairs, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418 USA, 202/334-2688.

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1985.
×
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics Get This Book
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Rain forests are rapidly being cleared in the humid tropics to keep pace with food demands, economic needs, and population growth. Without proper management, these forests and other natural resources will be seriously depleted within the next 50 years.

Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics provides critically needed direction for developing strategies that both mitigate land degradation, deforestation, and biological resource losses and help the economic status of tropical countries through promotion of sustainable agricultural practices. The book includes

  • A practical discussion of 12 major land use options for boosting food production and enhancing local economies while protecting the natural resource base.
  • Recommendations for developing technologies needed for sustainable agriculture.
  • A strategy for changing policies that discourage conserving and managing natural resources and biodiversity.
  • Detailed reports on agriculture and deforestation in seven tropical countries.
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