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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS NUMBER 2 Nutrient Requirements of Swine Eighth revised edition, 1979 Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1979
NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS SERIES Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, 1968 0-309-01676-2 Nutrient Requirements of Trout, Salmon, and Catfish, 1973 0-309-02141-3 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, 1974 0-309-02315-7 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 1975 0-309-02212-6 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 1976 0-309-02419-6 Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 1977 0-309-02607-5 Nutrient Requirements of Warmwater Fishes, 1977 0-309-02616-4 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 1977 0-309-02725-X Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1978 0-309-02743-8 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 1978 0-309-02760-8 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 1978 0-309-02749-7 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978 0-309-02786-1 Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, 1978 0-309-02767-5 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Ad- ministration of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and by Agriculture Canada. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council. Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements of swine. (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals; no. 2) Bibliography: p. 1. SwineâFeeding and feeds. I. Title. II. Series: National Research Council. Committee on Animal Nutrition. Recommended nu- trient allowances for domestic animals; no. 2 SF95.N32 no. 2, 1979 [SF396.5] 636.08'52'08s [636.4'08'52] 79-10945 International Standard Book Number 0-309-02870-1 Available from: Office of Publications National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
PREFACE Increasing demands upon agricultural production ne- cessitate continued greater efficiency of animal produc- tion. Changes in breeding and management, and the introduction of new feedstuffs and methods of feed pro- cessing influence nutrient metabolism and requirements; hence, there is a continuing need for reevaluation. Be- cause of the variety of factors that influence require- ments, the quantitation of nutrient requirements is a complex area. This report reflects the increased knowl- edge and improved methodology in the establishment of nutrient requirements for swine during various stages of the life cycle. This Eighth Revised Edition of Nutrient Requirements of Swine has been prepared by the Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources of the National Research Council. Changes from the previous edition and some considera- tion in applying the information contained herein in- clude: 1. Modification of recommended requirements reflects new information. 2. Since the outward signs of many nutrient deficien- cies are similar, pictures of animals meant to depict signs of simple nutrient deficiency have been omitted. 3. Tables of nutrient requirements have been ex- panded to include trace elements and requirements for a live weight range of 1 to 5 kg. 4. The availability of nutrients in ingredients used in swine diets is known to vary. Many of the requirements listed are based upon the feeding of corn-soybean meal diets and should not be considered as absolute values. In formulating diets, the relative availability of nutrients must be considered, especially when the main ingredi- ents are not cor n and soybean meal. No margin of safety for such variation has been included. 5. Nutrient requirements and feed composition data are expressed on an air-dry basis (90 percent dry matter). 6. A table of common mineral sources for swine has been included. 7. All data are presented in the metric system with tables of equivalents and conversion factors shown. 8. Feed ingredients are identified by International Feed Numbers adopted by the Committee on Animal Nutrition (United States) and the National Committee on Animal Nutrition (Canada). 9. For more detailed information on nutrients and re- search related to requirements, pertinent literature cita- tions are listed in the Bibliography. Grateful appreciation is expressed to members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition (United States), the Na- tional Committee on Animal Nutrition (Canada), and others who provided information and suggestions. The subcommittee is also indebted to Philip Ross, Executive Secretary, and Selma P. Baron, Staff Associate, of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, for their assistance in the production of this report, and to A. I. Aydin, Joseph H. Conrad, Tony J. Cunha, George K. Davis and Ernest R. Peo, Jr., for their comprehensive reviews and constructive comments on the report. Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition HOWARD S. TEAGUE, Chairman, Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture FRANCIS X. AHERNE, University of Alberta DAVID H. BAKER, University of Illinois ROBERT H. GRUMMER, University of Wisconsin ELWYN R MILLER, Michigan State University VAUGHN C. SPEER, Iowa State University
COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION ROBERT T. OLTJEN, Chairman, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Vice Chairman, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University CLARENCE B. AMMERMAN, University of Florida CARL E. COPPOCK, Texas A&M University PAUL W. MOE, Science and Education Administration, USDA QUINTON R. ROGERS, University of California, Davis GARY L. RUMSEY, Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition VAUGHN C. SPEER, Iowa State University JOHN D. SUMMERS, University of Guelph
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES CHESTER O. MCCORKLE, JR., Chairman, University of California, Davis ELLIS B. COWLING, Vice Chairman, North Carolina State University MARTIN E. ABEL, Schnittker Associates JOHN D. AXTELL, Purdue University THADIS w. BOX, Utah State University ROBERT E. BUCKMAN, USDA Forest Service NEVILLE P. CLARKE, Texas A&M University GEORGE K. DAVIS, University of Florida SALLY K. FAIRFAX, University of California, Berkeley JOHN E. HALVER, University of Washington HELEN M. INGRAM, Resources for the Future RALPH J. MCCRACKEN, USDA Science and Education Administration CHARLES F. NIVEN, JR., Del Monte Corporation Vii
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS Energy, 2 Carbohydrates, 3 Lipids, 3 Protein-Amino Acids, 3 Protein,3 Amino Acids, 4 Minerals, 4 Calcium and Phosphorus, 5 Sodium and Chlorine, 5 Potassium, 5 Magnesium, 6 Iron, 6 Zinc, 6 Manganese, 7 Copper, 7 Iodine, 7 Selenium. 7 Cobalt, 8 Vitamins, 8 Fat-Soluble Vitamins, 8 Vitamin A, 8 Vitamin D, 8 Vitamin E, 9 Vitamin K, 9 VIII