National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"FORMULATING DIETS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
Page 19
Suggested Citation:"FORMULATING DIETS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
Page 20

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FORMULATING DIETS Formulation of swine diets requires some understanding of nutrient requirements and of the feed ingredients available that can supply these nutrients. Tables 9-10 show the average composition of various ingredients and serve as guides in arriving at their relative values as nutrient sources. A summary of recommended require- ments for energy and nutrients is given in Tables 5-8. These guides can be used to formulate nutritionally adequate and economically practical diets that, when fed at the recommended level, will allow optimum produc- tion. From a nutritional standpoint, there is no one "best" formula in terms of ingredients that are used. Ingredients should therefore be selected on the basis of availability, price, and quality of the nutrients they contain. Corn, sorghum, barley, and wheat are the primary energy- supplying ingredients in the diet of swine of 5 kg liveweight or heavier. These grains are deficient in cer- tain indispensible amino acids, inorganic elements, and vitamins. Soybean meal, some other oilseed meal, or animal protein meal are commonly used as sources of supplemental amino acids to the grain-based diets. Since lysine is the first limiting amino acid in corn- soybean meal diets, one can manipulate the proportions of corn and soybean meal to meet the required concentra- tion of this amino acid and be confident that the require- ments for all of the other indispensable amino acids will be met and that the level of dispensable amino acid nitrogen will also be adequate. For example, to formulate a corn-soybean meal diet for 25-kg liveweight pigs, one may use equation (2). A xS + B(97-S) =L x 100 (2) A = % lysine in solvent extracted, 44% crude pro- tein, soybean meal (5-04-604) = 2.93 (Table 10). % lysine in yellow dent corn grain (4-02-935) = 0.24 (Table 10). lysine requirement of the diet of the 25- kg liveweight pig = 0.70 (Table 5). solvent extracted, 44% crude protein, soy- bean meal (5-04-604) in the diet. 97 - S = % yellow dent cor n grain (4-02-935) in the diet. B = L = S = FORMULATING CORN-SOYBEAN MEAL DIETS ON THE BASIS OF LYSINE, PHOSPHORUS, AND CALCIUM CONTENT In formulating swine diets utilizing cor n and soybean meal, these two ingredients make up about 97 percent of the diet, with the remaining 3 percent comprised of carriers combined with one or more inorganic elements, vitamins, or antimicrobial compounds. Both corn and soybean meal are high and quite similar in metabolizable energy content. Thus, any combination of these two in- gredients, comprising 97 percent of the diet, will result in a high-energy diet. The first step in formulation is pre- sented in equation (1), in which C is the percent of corn in the diet and S is the percent of soybean meal. C + S = 97 C = 97 - S Equation (2) can now be written with only one un- known (S), and the percentages of corn and soybean meal in the diet easily solved. 2.93S +0.24(97-5) =0.70 x 100 % soybean meal in diet = S = 17.4 % corn in diet = 97 - S = 79.6 (2') (1) The next step is to provide an ingredient that will supply inorganic phosphorus to complete the require- ment for this element. If defluorinated phosphate (Table 11), which contains 18 percent phosphorus, is selected, equation (3) will solve for the percent of defluorinated phosphate (P) to incorporate into the diet. 19

20 Nutrient Requirements of Swine 18P = 0.50* x 100 - [79.6 x %P in cornt + 17.4 x %P in Soybean mealt] 18P = 0.50 x 100- [79.6 x 0.28 + 17.4 x 0.65] P = 0.9 = % defluorinated phosphate in diet. (3) The next step is to provide an ingredient that will supply calcium to complete the requirement for this ele- ment. If ground limestone (Table 11), which contains 38 percent calcium, is selected, equation (4) will solve for the following: 0.25% sodium chloride; a vitamin premix that will supply the vitamins that are likely limiting in a corn-soybean meal diet, including vitamins A, D, E, and perhaps K as well as riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, choline, and vitamin B,2; a trace element premix includ- ing iron, zinc, iodine, manganese, copper, and selenium; and, if desired, a premix that contains one or more an- timicrobial compounds. The complete diet then is: percent of ground limestone (C) to include in the diet. Corn, dent yellow, grain 4-02-935 79.6% Soybean meal, solvent 5-04-604 17.4% 38C = 0.60* x 100 - (79.6 x %Ca in cornt + 17.4 x %Ca in Defluorinated phosphate 0.9% soybean mealt + 0.9 x %Ca in defl. phos.J] Limestone, ground (38% Ca) 0.65% 38C = 0.60 x 100 - [79.6 x 0.02 + 17.4 x 0.29 + 0.9 x Sodium chloride 0.25% 32] Vitamin premix 0.25% C = 0.65 = % ground limestone in diet. (4) Trace element premix 0.25% Completing diet: Final fortification of the corn- Antimicrobial premix 0.25% soybean meal diet may be completed by supplying the TOTAL 99.55% * Table 5 t Table 9 This can be made to 100 percent by changing the amount {Table 11 of corn to 80.05 percent. TABLE 3 Weight Equivalents TABLE 4 Weight-Unit Conversion Factors 1 Ib = 453.6 g = 0.4536 kg = 16 oz For 1 oz = 28.35 g Conversion 1 kg = 1,000 g = 2.2046 lh Units Units Multiply 1 g = 1,000 mg Given Wanted by 1 mg = 1,000 fig = 0.001 g 1 Mg = 0.001 mg = 0.000001 g Ib g 453.6 1 UK per g or 1 mg per kg is the same as 1 ppm Ib kg 0.4536 0.3 /ig vitamin A alcohol = 0.344 mg vitamin A acetate = oz g 28.35 1.0 IU vitamin A kg Ib 2.2046 0.025 Mg crystalline vitamin D3 = 1.0 IU vitamin D3 kg mg 1,000,000 1 mg d/-a-tocopheryl acetate = 1.0 IU vitamin E kg g 1,000 1 mgd/-a-tocopherol = 1.1 IU vitamin E g mg 1,000 1 mg d-o-tocopherol = 1.49 IU vitamin E g MU 1,000,000 mg fig 1,000 mg/g mg/lb 453.6 mg/kg mg/lb 0.4536 Mg/kg Mg/lb 0.4536 joule kcal 0.239 kcal joule 4.18 Meal kcal 1,000 kcal/kg kcal/lb 0.4536 kcal/lb kcal/kg 2.2046 ppm Mg/g 1 Ppm mg/kg 1 ppm mg/lb 0.4536 mg/kg % 0.0001 ppm % 0.0001 mg/g % 0.1 g/kg % 0,1

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