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Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979 (1979)

Chapter: TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS

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Suggested Citation:"TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Page 21
Suggested Citation:"TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
×
Page 22
Suggested Citation:"TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
×
Page 23
Suggested Citation:"TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
×
Page 24
Suggested Citation:"TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
×
Page 25
Suggested Citation:"TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
×
Page 26

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TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS It is impossible to list dietary requirements that are appli- cable to all conditions and types of diets. The nutrient values set forth in Tables 5-8 are valid for some of the more common feeding conditions found in the United States and Canada. Requirements reflect the level of each nutrient needed for optimal performance when swine are fed a fortified grain-soybean meal diet supplying the recommended levels of energy and protein. Moreover, in Tables 5 and 6 liveweight range and expected level of performance are taken into consideration. Something less than 100 percent utilization of the nutrients from natural ingredients can be assumed. Therefore, the values listed are not absolute requirements. Furthermore, suggested requirements tend to be averages and do not represent a minimum as much as that quantity required for optimum performance. Where experimental data were lacking, es- timates were made of the levels that, in practice, permit normal performance. When swine are fed ad libitum, requirements ex- pressed in terms of dietary concentration are generally most useful (Tables 5 and 7). Thus, while individual pigs within a pen possess characteristic variation in liveweight and growth potential, and hence have different absolute requirements, the amount of each nutrient needed, ex- pressed as a percent of the diet, may be very similar. It can be assumed that the larger animal simply meets its requirements by consuming more feed. For gestation, where sows are generally fed restricted quantities of feed, daily requirements are most useful (Table 8). A similar situation may exist for boars and for lactating sows. A recent trend, for example, has been to specify require- ments for lactation based upon the size of the litter being nursed. Criteria of response can influence requirements mark- edly. For example, maximal carcass leanness may re- quire greater concentrations of certain nutrients than maximal rate of gain. Lean pigs deposit more protein in their gain, which increases their requirements for protein and individual amino acids. Leanness is associated posi- tively with feed efficiency; thus requirements for maxi- mal feed efficiency are generally greater than those for maximal weight gain. Maximal blood hemoglobin con- centration may necessitate higher levels of iron than those needed for maximal rate or efficiency of gain, and maximal bone ash generally requires higher levels of calcium and phosphorus than those needed for maximal weight gain. Ultimately, each swine manager must select a set of standards that will permit the greatest economic return in the particular environment. Optimum standards will relate to the genetic potential of the herd and to the price and availability of feed ingredients in the region. 21

22 Nutrient Requirements of Swine TABLE 5 Nutrient Requirements of Growing-Finishing Swine Fed Ad Libitum: Percent or Amount per Kilogram of Diet" Liveweight (kg) Expected Daily Gain (g) Expected Efficiency (g gain/kg feed) Expected Efficiency (feed/gain) 1-5° 5-10 300 600 1.67 10-20 500 500 2.00 20-35 600 400 2.50 35-60 700 350 2.86 60-100 800 270 3.75 200 800 1.25 Digestible energy* kcal 3,700 3,500 3,370 3,380 3,390 3,395 Metabolizable energy' kcal 3,600 3,400 3,160 3,175 3,190 3,195 Crude protein' % 27 20 18 16 14 13 Indispensable amino acids Lysine % 1.28 0.95 0.79 0.70 0.61 0.57 Arginine % 0.33 0.25 0.23 0.20 0.18 0.16 Histidine % 0.31 0.23 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.15 Isoleucine % 0.85 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.44 0.41 Leucine % 1.01 0.75 0.68 0.60 0.52 0.48 Methionine + cystine1* % 0.76 0.56 0.51 0.45 0.40 0.30 Phenylalanine + tyrosine' % 1.18 0.88 0.79 0.70 0.61 0.57 Threonine % 0.76 0.56 0.51 0.45 0.39 0.37 Tryptophan' % 0.20 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.10 Valine % 0.85 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.44 0.41 Mineral elements Calcium % 0.90 0.80 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 Phosphorus* % 0.70 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 Sodium % 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 Chlorine % 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 Potassium % 0.30 0.26 0.26 0.23 0.20 0.17 Magnesium % 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 Iron mg 150 140 80 60 50 40 Zinc mg 100 100 80 60 50 50 Manganese mg 40 4.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Copper mg 6.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Iodine mg 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 Selenium mg 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.10 Vitamins Vitamin A 1U 2,200 2,200 1,750 1,300 1,300 1,300 or /3-carotene mg as 8.8 7.0 5.2 5.2 5.2 Vitamin D IU 220 220 200 200 150 125 Vitamin E IU 11 11 11 11 11 11 Vitamin K (menadione) mg 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Riboflavin mg 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.6 2.2 2. 2 Niacin* mg 22 22 18 14 12 10 Pantothenic acid mg 13 13 11 11 11 11 Vitamin B,- 08 22 22 15 11 11 11 Choline' mg 1,100 1,100 900 700 550 400 Thiamin mg 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 Vitamin H,, mg 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.1 Biotin ' mg 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 FolacinJ mg 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 " Requirements reflect the estimated levels of each nutrient needed for optimal performance when a fortified grain-soybean meal diet is fed, except that a substantial level of milk products should be included in the diet of the 1-5-kg pig. Concentrations are based upon amounts per unit of air-dry diet (i.e., 90 percent dry matter). * These are not absolute requirements but are suggested energy levels derived from diets containing cor n and soybean meal (44 percent crude protein). When low«;r energy grains are fed, these energy levels will not be met; consequently, feed efficiency would be lowered. ' Approximate protein levels required to meet the need for indispensable amino acids when a fortified grain-soybean meal diet is fed to pigs weighing more than 5 kg. ' Methionine can fulfill the total requirement; cystine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. ' Phenylalanine can fulfill the total requirement; tyrosine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. 'It is assumed that usable tryptophan content of com does not exceed 0.05 percent. "At least 30 percent of the phosphorus requirement should be provided by inorganic and/or animal product sources. * It is assumed that most of the niacin present in cereal grains and their by-products is in bound form and thus unavailable to swine. The niacin contributed by these sources is not included in the requirement listed. In excess of its requirement for protein synthesis, tryptophan can be converted to niacin (50 mg tryptophan yields 1 mg niacin). , In excess of its requirement for protein synthesis, methionine can spare dietary choline (4.3 mg methionine is equal in methylating capacity to 1 mg choline). ' These levels are suggested. No requirements have been established.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine 23 TABLE 6 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Growing-Finishing Swine Fed Ad Libitum" Liveweight (kg) Air-Dry Feed Intake (g) 1-5° 250 5-10 500 10-20 1,000 20-35 1,500 35-60 2,000 60-100 3,000 Digestible energy' kcal 925 1,750 3,370 5,055 6,740 10,110 Metabolizable energy" kcal 900 1,700 3,160 4,740 6,320 9,480 Crude protein ' g 67.5 100 180 240 280 390 Indispensable amino acids Lysine g a2 48 7.9 10.5 12.2 17.1 Arginine g as 1.3 2.3 ao 3.6 4.8 Histidine g as L2 2.0 2.7 a2 45 Isoleucine g 2.1 33 5.6 7.5 8.8 12.3 Leucine g 2.5 as as ao 10.4 14.4 Methionine + cystine' g 1.9 2.8 5.1 6.8 8.0 9.0 Phenylalanine + tyrosine' g 3.0 4.4 7.9 10.5 12.2 17.1 Threonine g 1.9 2.8 5.1 6.8 7.8 11.1 Tryptophan' g as as 1.3 1.8 23 3.0 Valine g 2.1 a2 5.6 7.5 8.8 12.3 Mineral elements Calcium 2.3 40 6.5 9.0 11.0 15.0 Phosphorus" 1.8 ao 5.5 7.5 ao 12.0 Sodium 0.25 as 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 Chlorine 0.33 a7 1.3 2.0 2.6 a9 Potassium 0.75 L3 2.6 3.5 4.0 5.1 Magnesium 0.10 02 0.4 0.6 as 1.2 Iron mg 38 70 80 90 100 120 Zinc mg 25 50 80 9<> 100 150 Manganese mg 1.0 2 3 3 4 6 Copper mg L5 3 5 6 6 9 Iodine mg 0.04 0.07 0.14 0.21 0.28 0.42 Selenium mg 0.04 0.08 0.15 0.22 0.30 0.30 Vitamins Vitamin A IU 550 1,100 1,750 1,950 2,600 3,900 or /3-carotene mg 2.2 4.4 7.0 7.8 10.4 15.6 Vitamin D IU 55 110 200 300 300 375 Vitamin E IU 2.8 5.5 11 17 22 33 Vitamin K (menadione) mg 0.50 LI 2.2 3.3 4.4 6 Riboflavin mg 0.75 1.5 ao 3.9 4.4 7 Niacin* mg 5.5 11 18 21 24 30 Pantothenic acid mg 33 6.5 11 17 22 33 Vitamin B,2 W, 5.5 11 15 17 22 33 Choline' mg 275 550 900 1,050 1,100 1,200 Thiamin mg 0.33 0.65 1.1 1.7 2.2 3.3 Vitamin H,, mg 0.38 0.75 L5 1.7 2.2 3.3 Biotin' mg 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.30 Folacirr* mg 0.15 0.30 0.60 0.90 1.2 1.8 " Requirements reflect the estimated levels of each nutrient needed for optimal performance when a fortified grain-soybean meal diet is fed, except that a substantial level of milk products should be included in the diet of the 1-5-kg pig. Concentrations are based upon amounts per unit of air-dry diet (i.e., 90 percent dry matter). ' These are not absolute requirements, but are suggested energy levels derived from diets containing corn and soybean meal (44 percent crude protein). When lower energy grains are fed, these energy levels will not be met; consequently, feed efficiency would be lowered. ' Approximate protein levels required to meet the need for indispensable amino acids when a fortified grain-soybean meal diet is fed to pigs weighing more than 5 kg. 'Methionine can fulfill the total requirement; cystine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. 'Phenylalanine can fulfill the total requirement; tryosine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. 'It is assumed that usable tryptophan content of corn does not exceed 0.05 percent. •At least 30 percent of the phosphorus requirement should be provided by inorganic and/or animal product sources. A It is assumed that most of the niacin present in cereal grains and their by-products is in bound form and thus unavailable to swine. The niacin contributed by these sources is not included in the requirement listed. In excess of its requirement for protein synthesis, tryptophan can be converted to niacin (50 mg tryptophan yields 1 mg niacin). 'In excess of its requirement for protein synthesis, methionine can spare dietary choline (4.3 mg methionine is equal in methylating capacity to 1 mg choline). ' These levels are suggested. No requirements have been established.

24 Nutrient Requirements of Swine TABLE 7 Nutrient Requirements of Breeding Swine: Percent or Amount per Kilogram of Diet" Bred Gilts and Sows; Young and Adult Boars' Lactating Gilts and Sows Digestible energy kcal 3,400 3,395 Metabolizable energy kcal 3,200 3,195 Crude protein0 % 12 13 Indispensable amino acids Arginine % 0 0.40 Histidine % 0.15 0.25 Isoleucine % 0.37 0.39 Leucine % 0.42 0.70 Lysine % 0.43 0.58 Methionine + cystine'' % 0.23 0.36 Phenylalanine + tyrosine* % 0.52 0.85 Threonine % 0.34 0.43 Tryptophan' % 0.09 0.12 Valine % 0.46 0.55 Mineral elements Calcium % 0.75 0.75 Phosphorus" % 0.60 0.50 Sodium % 0.15 0.20 Chlorine % 0.25 0.30 Potassium % 0.20 0.20 Magnesium % 0.04 0.04 Iron mg 80 80 Zinc mg SO 50 Manganese mg 10 10 Copper mg 5 5 Iodine mg 0.14 0.14 Selenium mg 0.15 0.15 Vitamins Vitamin A IU 4,000 2,000 or ^-carotene mg 16 8 Vitamin D IU 200 200 Vitamin E IU 10 10 Vitamin K (menadione) mg 2 2 Riboflavin mg 3 3 Niacin* mg 10 10 Pantothenic acid mg 12 12 Vitamin B,2 M8 15 15 Choline mg 1,250 1,250 Thiamin mg 1 1 Vitamin B« mg 1 1 Biotin' mg 0.1 0.1 Folacin' mg 0.6 0.6 "Requirements reflect the estimated levels of each nutrient needed for optimal performance when a fortified grain- soybean meal diet is fed. Concentrations are based upon amounts per unit of air-dry diet (i.e., 90 percent dry matter). '' Requirements for boars of breeding age have not been established. It is suggested that the requirements will not differ significantly from that of bred gilts and sows. r Approximate protein levels required to meet the need for indispensable amino acids when a fortified grain- soybean meal diet is fed. The true digestibilities of the amino acids were assumed to be 90 percent. 'Methionine can fulfill the total requirement; cystine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. ' Phenylalanine can fulfill the total requirement; tyrosine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. 'It is assumed that usable tryptophan content of cor n does not exceed 0.05 percent. ' At least 30 percent of the phosphorus requirement should be provided by inorganic and/or animal product sources. * It is assumed that most of the niacin present in cereal grains and their by-products is in bound form and thus unavailable to swine. The niacin contributed by these sources is not included in the requirement listed. In excess of its requirement for protein synthesis, tryptophan can be converted to niacin (50 mg tryptophan yields 1 mg niacin). , These levels are suggested. No requirements have been established.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine 25 TABLE 8 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Breeding Swine" Air-Dry Feed Intake (g) Bred Gilts And Sows; Young and Adult Boars 1,8006 Lactating Gilts and Sows 4,000 4,750 5,500 Digestible energy kcal 6,120r 13,580 16,130 18,670 Metabolizable energy kcal 5.7601 12,780 15,180 17,570 Crude protein g 216 520 618 715 Indispensable amino acids Arginine g 0 16.0 19.0 22.0 Histidine g 2.7 10.0 11.9 13.8 Isoleucine K 6.7 15.6 18.5 21.4 Leucine g 7.6 28.0 33.2 38.5 Lysine g 7.7 23.2 27.6 31.9 Methionine + cystine11 g 41 14.4 17.1 19.8 Phenylalanine + tyrosine' g 9.4 34.0 40.4 46.8 Threonine g 6.1 17.2 20.4 23.6 Tryptophan' g 1.6 4.8 5.7 6.6 Valine g a3 22.0 26.1 30.2 Mineral elements Calcium S 13.5 30.0 35.6 41.2 Phosphorus" g 10.8 20.0 23.8 27.5 Sodium g 2.7 ao 9.5 11.0 Chlorine g 4,5 12.0 14.2 16.5 Potassium g ae ao 9.5 11.0 Magnesium g 0.7 1.6 1.9 2.2 Iron mg 144 320 380 440 Zinc mg 90 200 238 275 Manganese mg 18 40 48 55 Copper mg 9 20 24 28 Iodine mg 0.25 0.56 0.66 0.77 Selenium mg 0.27 0.40 0.48 0.55 Vitamins Vitamin A IU 7,200 8,000 9,500 11,000 or /3-carotene mg 28.8 32.0 38.0 44.0 Vitamin D IU 360 800 950 1,100 Vitamin E IU 18.0 40.0 47.5 55.0 Vitamin K mg 3.6 8.0 9.5 11.0 Ribo flavin mg 5.4 12.0 14.2 16.5 Niacin* mg 18.0 40.0 47.5 55.0 Pantothenic acid mg 21.6 4ao 57.0 66.0 Vitamin B l. M8 27.0 60.0 71.2 82.5 Choline mg 2,250.0 5,000.0 5,940.0 6,875.0 Thiamin mg 1.8 4.0 4.8 5.5 Vitamin B6 mg 1.8 4.0 4.8 5.5 Biotin' mg 0.18 0.4 0.48 0.55 Folacin' mg 1.08 2.4 2.8 3.3 0 Requirements reflect the estimated levels of each nutrient needed tor optimal performance when a fortified grain-soybean meal diet is fed. Con- centrations are based upon amounts per unit of air-dry diet (i.e., 90 percent dry matter). *An additional 25 percent should be fed to working boars. 'Individual feeding and moderate climatic conditions are assumed. An energy reduction of about 10 percent is possible when gilts and sows are tethered or individually penned in a stall in environmentally controlled housing. An energy increase of about 25 percent is suggested for cold climatic (winter) conditions. ' Methionine can fulfill the total requirement; cystine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. 'Phenylalanine can fulfill the total requirement; tyrosine can meet at least 50 percent of the total requirement. 'It is assumed that usable tryptophan content of corn does not exceed 0.05 percent. 'At least 30 percent of the phosphorus requirement should be provided by inorganic and/or animal product sources. * It is assumed that most of the niacin present in cereal grains and their by-products is in bound form and thus unavailable to swine. The niacin con- tributed by these sources is not included in the requirement listed. In excess of its requirement for protein synthesis, tryptophan can be converted to niacin (50 mg tryptophan yields 1 mg niacin). ' These levels are suggested. No requirements have been established.

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