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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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Suggested Citation:"BIBLIOGRAPHY." National Research Council. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eighth revised edition, 1979. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19882.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY ENERGY Adam, J. L., and I. H. Shearer. 1975. Effects of sow and litter performance on energy intake in lactation and feeding patterns after weaning. N.Z. J. Exp. Agric. 3:55-62. Anderson, R. H., and R. C. Wahlstrom. 1970. Effects of energy intake and dichlorvos during gestation on reproductive per- formance of gilts and some chemical characteristics of the offspring. J. Anim. Sci. 31:907-916. Bayley, H. S., and D. Lewis. 1965. The use of fats in pigs feeding. 1. Pig fecal fat not of immediate dietary origin. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 64:367-372. Bowland, J. P. 1967. Energetic efficiency of the sow. J. Anim. Sci. 26:533-539. Buitrago, J. A., J. H. Maner, J. T. Gallo, and W. G. Pond. 1974. Effect of dietary energy in gestation on reproductive perfor- mance of gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 39:47-52. Buitrago, J. A., E. F. Walker, Jr., W. I. Snyder, and W. G. Pond. 1974. Blood and tissue traits in pigs at birth and at 3 weeks from gilts fed low or high energy diets during gestation. J. Anim. Sci. 38: 766-771. Burlacu, G., G. Baia, D. lonila, D. Moisa, V. Tascenco, I. Visan, and I. Stoica. 1973. Efficiency of the utilization of the energy of food in piglets, after weaning. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 81:295- 302. Campbell, R. G., M. R. Taverner, and P. D. Mullaney. 1975. The effect of dietary concentrations of digestible energy on the performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned pigs. Anim. Prod. 21:285-294. Cheeke, P. R., and W. H. Kennick. 1970. Effect of alteration between high and low energy diets on the performance of growing swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 50:611-616. Close, W. H. 1971. Energy retention in the pig at several en- vironmental temperatures and levels of feeding. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 30:33A. Close, W. H. 1973. The energy cost of maintenance and growth in the pig. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 32:71A. Cole, D. J. A. 1973. The use of digestible energy in the evalua- tion of pig diets. Proc. 7th Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf, Univ. Nottingham, p. 81. Cole, D. J. A., J. E. Duckworth, and W. Holmes. 1967. Factors affecting voluntary feed intake in pigs. 1. The effect of digest- ible energy content of the diet on the intake of castrated male pigs housed in holding pens and in metabolism crates. Anim. Prod. 9:141-148. Cole, D. J. A., J. E. Duckworth, and W. Holmes. 1967. Factors affecting voluntary feed intake in pigs. 2. Effect of two levels of crude fiber in the diet on the intake and performance of fattening pigs. Anim. Prod. 9:149-154. Davey, R. J., D. P. Morgan, and C. M. Kincaid. 1969. Responses of swine selected for high and low fatness to a difference in dietary energy intake. J. Anim. Sci. 28:197-203. Davies, J. L., and I. A. M. Lucas. 1972. Responses to variations in dietary energy intakes by growing pigs. 1. Estimates of digest- ible and metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance. Anim. Prod. 15:111-116. Davies, J. L., and I. A. M. Lucas. 1972. Responses to variations in dietary energy intakes by growing pigs. 2. The effects on feed conversion efficiency of changes in level of intake above maintenance. Anim. Prod. 15:117-125. Davies, J. L., and I. A. M. Lucas. 1972. Responses to variations in dietary energy intakes by growing pigs. 3. Effect of level of intake of diets of differing protein and fat content on the performance of growing pigs. Anim. Prod. 15:127-137. DeGoey, L. W., and R. C. Ewan. 1975. Effect of level of intake and diet dilution on energy metabolism in the young pig. J. Anim. Sci. 40:1045-1051. Diggs, B. G., D. E. Becker, A. H. Jensen, and H. W. Norton. 1965. Energy value of various feeds for the young pig. J. Anim. Sci. 24:555-558. Elsley, F. W. H., R. M. MacPherson, and I. McDonald. 1968. The influence of intake of dietary energy in pregnancy and lacta- tion upon sow productivity. J. Agric. Sci. 71:215-222. Ewan, R. C. 1976. Utilization of energy of feed ingredients by young pigs. Proc. 31st Distill. Feed Conf. 31:16-21. Fowler, V. R., and R. M. Livingstone. 1971. Some effects of alternating high and low levels of feed intake on the perfor- mance and composition of the growing pig. Anim. Prod. 13:59- 69. Frobish, L. T. 1970. Effect of energy intake on reproductive performance and estrous synchronization of gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 31:486-490. Frobish, L. T., N. C. Steele, and R. J. Davey. 1973. Long term effect of energy intake on reproductive performance of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 36:293-297. Hale, O. M., J. C. Johnson, Jr., and E. P. Warren. 1968. Influence of season, sex and dietary energy concentration on perfor- mance and carcass characteristics of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1577-1582. 33

34 Nutrient Requirements of Swine Hill, F. W., and D. L. Anderson. 1958. Comparison of metaboliz- able energy and productive energy determinations with chicks. J. Nutr. 64:587-603. Jordan, J. W. 1971. Investigations into the energy metabolism of bacon pigs and piglets. Agric. Progr. 46:9-25. Kielanowski, J. 1966. Conversion of energy and the chemical composition of gain in bacon pigs. Anim. Prod. 8:121-128. Libal, G. W., and R. C. Wahlstrom. 1977. Effect of gestation metabolizable energy levels on sow productivity. J. Anim. Sci. 45:286-292. May, R. W., and J. M. Bell. 1971. Digestible and metabolizable energy values of some feeds for the growing pig. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 51:271-278. Morgan, D. J., D. J. A. Cole, and D. Lewis. 1975. Energy values in pig nutrition. 1. The relationship between digestible en- ergy, metabolizable energy and total digestible nutrient values of a range of feedstuffs. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 84:7-17. Morgan, D. J., D. J. A. Cole, and D. Lewis. 1975. Energy values in pig nutrition. 2. The prediction of energy values from dietary chemical analysis. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 84:19-27. National Research Council. 1966. Biological energy interrela- tionships and glossary of energy terms. Publication 1411. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. O'Grady, J. F., and J. P. Bowland. 1972. Response of early weaned pigs to diets of different digestible energy concentra- tions and the effects of cereal source and added molasses on performance. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 52:87-97. O'Grady, J. F., F. W. H. Elsley, R. M. MacPherson, and I. McDonald. 1973. The response of lactating sows and their litters to different energy allowances. 1. Milk yield and compo- sition, reproductive performance of sows and growth rate of litters. Anim. Prod. 17:64-74. O'Grady, J. F., F. W. H. Elsley, R. M. MacPherson, and I. McDonald. 1975. The response of lactating sows and their litters to different energy allowances. 2. Weight changes and carcass composition of sows. Anim. Prod. 20:257-265. Owen, J. B., and W. J. Ridgman. 1967. Effect of dietary energy content on the voluntary intake of pigs. Anim. Prod. 9:107- 113. Owen, J. B., and W. J. Ridgman. 1968. Further studies on the effect of dietary energy content on the voluntary intake of pigs. Anim. Prod. 10:85-91. Partridge, I. G. 1972. Influence of dietary energy upon the uterus of the prepuberal gilt. 1. Growth measurements. Growth 36: 99-112. Partridge, I. G. 1972. Influence of dietary energy upon the uterus of the prepuberal gilt. 2. Connective tissue studies. Growth 36:113-122. Ruiz, M. E., R. C. Ewan, and V. C. Speer. 1971. Serum metabo- lites of pregnant and hysterectomized gilts fed two levels of energy. J. Anim. Sci. 32:1153-1159. Seerley, R. W., T. A. Pace, C. W. Foley, and R. D. Scarth. 1974. Effect of energy intake prior to parturition on milk lipids and survival rate, thermostability and carcass composition of pig- lets. J. Anim. Sci. 38:64-70. Sharma, V. D., L. G. Young, and G. C. Smith. 1971. Energy utilization by the Lacombe and Yorkshire breeds of pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 51:761-770. Sharma, V. D., L. G. Young, G. C. Smith, and R. Saison. 1972. Effects of crossbreeding and sex on energy requirements and utilization by young pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 52:751-759. Sharma, V. D., L. G. Young, R. G. Brown, and G. C. Buchanan- Smith. 1973. Effects of frequency of feeding on energy metabolism and body composition of young pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 53:157-164. Skitsko, P. J., and J. P. Bowland. 1970. Energy and nitrogen digestibility and retention by pigs as influenced by diet, sex, breeding group and replicate. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 50:685-691. Skitsko, P. J., and J. P. Bowland. 1970. Performance of gilts and barrows from three breeding groups marketed at three live- weights when offered diets containing two levels of digestible energy for a limited period per day. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 50:161- 170. Vermedahl, L. D., R. J. Meade, H. E. Hanke, and J. W. Rust. 1969. Effects of energy intake of the dam on reproductive performance, development of offspring and carcass charac- teristics. J. Anim. Sci. 28:465-472. Verstegen, M. W. A., A. J. H. Van Es, and J. H. Nijkamp. 1971. Some aspects of energy metabolism of the sow during preg- nancy. Anim. Prod. 13:677-683. Young, L. G., and V. D. Sharma. 1973. Influence of energy intake by the neonatal pig on subsequent growth and development. J. Anim. Sci. 36:183-187. ENERGY AND PROTEIN Atinmo, T., W. G. Pond, and R. H. Barnes. 1974. Effect of dietary energy vs. protein restriction on blood constituents and repro- ductive performance in swine. J. Nutr. 104:1033-1040. Atinmo, T., W. G. Pond, and R. H. Barnes. 1974. Effect of maternal energy vs. protein restriction on growth and de- velopment of progeny in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 39:703-711. Bowland, J. P. 1964. Influence of source and level of energy and level of protein intake on sow performance during growth, gestation and lactation. 1. Gain, energy requirements and re- productive performance. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 44:142-153. Bowland, J. P. 1964. Influence of source and level of energy and level of protein intake on sow performance during growth, gestation and lactation. 2. Efficiency of energy transfer to litter. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 44:154-162. Bowland, J. P., and R. T. Berg. 1959. Influence of strain and sex on the relationship of protein to energy in the rations of grow- ing and finishing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 39:102-114. Charlet-Lery, G. 1969. Influence of dissociation of energy and protein feeding on energetic efficiency in growing pigs, p. 275. In K. L. Blaxter, G. Thorbek, and J. Kielanowski (eds.), Energy metabolism of farm animals. Proc. E.A.A.P. 4th Conf. on Energy Metabolism, Jablonna, Warsaw, 1967. Oriel Press Ltd., New- castle. Clawson, A. J. 1967. Influence of protein level, amino acid ratio and caloric density of the diet on feed intake and performance of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 26:328-334. Clawson, A. J., T. N. Blumer, W. W. G. Smart, Jr., and E. R. Barrick. 1962. Influence of energy-protein ratio on perfor- mance and carcass characteristics of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 21:62- 68. Cole, D. J. A., B. Hardy, and D. W. Holme. 1971. Effect of dietary digestible energy and crude protein on performance and carcass of growing pigs. Xth Int. Congr. Anim. Prod., Versailles. VII, 7 pp. Cooke, R., G. A. Lodge, and D. Lewis. 1972. Influence of energy and protein concentration in the diet on the performance of growing pigs. 1. Response to protein intake on high-energy diet. Anim. Prod. 14:35-46. Cooke, R., G. A. Lodge, and D. Lewis. 1972. Influence of energy and protein concentration in the diet on the performance of growing pigs. 3. Response to differences in levels of both energy and protein. Anim. Prod. 14:219-228. Frobish, L. T., V. C. Speer, and V. W. Hays. 1966. Effect of

Nutrient Requirements of Swine 35 protein and energy intake on reproductive performance in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 25:729-733. Greeley, M. G., R. J. Meade, and L. E. Hanson. 1964. Energy and protein intake by growing swine. 1. Effects on rate and effi- ciency of gain and on nutrient digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 23:808-815. Greeley, M. G., R. J. Meade, L. E. Hanson, and J. Nordstrom. 1964. Energy and protein intakes by growing swine. 2. Effects on rate and efficiency of gain and on carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 23:816-822. Holmes, C. W. 1974. Further studies on the energy and protein metabolism of pigs growing at high ambient temperature, including measurements with fasting pigs. Anim. Prod. 19:211-220. Liebbrandt, V. D., C. Ewan, V. C. Speer, and D. R. Zimmer- man. 1975. Effect of age and calorie-protein ratio on perfor- mance and body composition of baby pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 40:1070-1076. Likuski, H. J. A., J. P. Bowland, and R. T. Berg. 1961. Energy digestibility and nitrogen retention by pigs and rats fed diets containing non-nutritive dilutents and varying protein level. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 41:89-101. Lodge, G. A. 1972. Influence of energy and protein concentration in the diet on the performance of growing pigs. 4. Effects of sex on response to dietary protein level. Anim. Prod. 14:229-239. Lodge, G. A., M. E. Cundy, R. Cooke, and D. Lewis. 1972. Influence of energy and protein concentration in the diet on the performance of growing pigs. 2. Differing nutrient density at a constant energy:protein ratio. Anim. Prod. 14:47-55. Lowrey, R. S., W. G. Pond, R. H. Barnes, L. Krook, and J. K. Loosli. 1962. Influence of caloric level and protein quality on the manifestation of protein deficiency in the young pig. J. Nutr. 78:245-253. Mitchell, J. R., D. E. Becker, A. H. Jensen, H. W. Norton, and B. G. Harmon. 1965. Caloric density of the diet and the lysine need of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 24:977-980. Noland, P. R., and K. W. Scott. 1960. Effect of varying protein and energy intakes on growth and carcass quality of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 19:67-74. Pol, G., and C. den Hartog. 1966. Dependence on protein quality of the protein to calorie ratio in a freely selected diet and the usefulness of giving protein and calories separately in protein • evaluation experiments. Br. J. Nutr. 20:649-661. Pond, W. G. 1973. Influence of maternal protein and energy nutrition during gestation on progeny performance in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 36:175-182. Robinson, D. W. 1965. The protein and energy nutrition of the pig. 5. The effect of varying the protein and energy levels in the "finishing diets" of heavy pigs. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 65:405-409. Robinson, D. W. 1974. Food intake regulation in pigs. 2. The relationship between dietary protein concentration, body composition, cellular development and the efficiency of pro- tein and energy utilization. Br. Vet. J. 130:424-433. Robinson, D. W., and D. Lewis. 1964. Protein and energy nutri- tion of the bacon pig. 2. Effect of varying the protein and energy levels in the diets of finishing pigs. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 63:185-190. Robinson, D. W., J. H. Prescott, and D. Lewis. 1965. The protein and energy nutrition of the bacon pig. 4. Digestible energy values of cereals in pig diets. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 64:59-65. Seerley, R. W., G. W. Poley, and R. C. Wahlstrom. 1964. Energy and protein relationship studies with growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 23:1016-1021. Sewell, R. F., M. C. Thomas, and D. Price. 1961. Protein-energy relationships in the rations of early weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 20:820-823. Standish, J. E., and J. P. Bowland. 1967. Effects of varying dietary energy, protein and amino acid level on growth, nu- trient digestibility and serum protein levels of early weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 47:77-83. Stickland, N. C., E. M. Widdowson, and G. Goldspink. 1975. Effects of severe energy and protein deficiencies on the fibers and nuclei in skeletal muscle of pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 34:421-428. Wagner, G. R., A. J. Clark, V. W. Hays, and V. C. Speer. 1963. Effects of protein, energy relationships on the performance and carcass quality of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 22:202-208. Waldern, D. E. 1964. Influence of energy and protein level in rations for finishing market pigs on performance and carcass characteristics. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 44:168-173. Whittemore, C. T., and R. H. Fawcett. 1974. Model responses of the growing pig to the dietary intake of energy and protein. Anim. Prod. 19:221-231. Zivkovic, S., and J. P. Bowland. 1963. Nutrient digestibilities and comparison of measures of feed energy for gilts fed rations varying in energy and protein level during growth, gestation and lactation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 43:86-97. CARBOHYDRATES AND FIBER Aherne, F. X., V. W. Hays, R. C. Ewan, and V. C. Speer. 1969. Absorption and utilization of sugars by the baby pig. J. Anim. Sci. 29:444-450. Anderson, D. M., F. W. H. Elsley, I. McDonald, and R. M. MacPherson. 1971. A study of the relationship between glu- cose tolerance of sows and the mean birth weight of their offspring. J. Agric. Sci. 76:179-182. Axelsson, J., and S. Ericksson. 1953. The optimum crude fibre level in rations of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 12:881-891. Baird, D. M., H. C. McCampbell, and J. R. Allison. 1970. Levels of crude fiber with constant energy levels for growing- finishing swine using computerized rations. J. Anim. Sci. 31:518-525. Baird, D. M., H. C. McCampbell, and J. R. Allison. 1975. Effect of levels of crude fiber, protein and bulk in diets for finishing hogs. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1039-1047. Baustad, B., and I. Nafstad. 1969. Gastric ulcers in swine. 4. Effects of dietary particle size and crude fiber contents on ulceration. Pathol. Vet. 6(6):546-556. Becker, D. E., D. E. Ullrey, and S. W. Ten-ill. 1954. A comparison of carbohydrates in a synthetic milk diet for the baby pig. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 48:178-183. Bowland, J. P., H. Bickel, H. O. Pfirter, C. P. Wenk, and A. Schurch. 1970. Respiration calorimetry studies with growing pigs fed diets containing from three to twelve percent crude fiber. J. Anim. Sci. 31:494-501. Brooks, C. C., A. H. Miyahara, D. W. Juck, and S. M. Ishizaki. 1972. Relationship of sugar-induced lesions in the heart of the pig to liveweight, serum cholesterol and diet. J. Anim. Sci. 35:31-37. Cooper, P. H., and C. Tyler. 1959. Some effects of bran and cellulose on the water relationships in the digesta and faeces of pigs. Part 1. The effects of including bran and two forms of cellulose in otherwise normal rations. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 52:332-339. Cooper, P. H., and C. Tyler. 1959. Some effects of bran and cellulose on the water relationship in the digesta and faeces of pigs. Part 2. The effects of adding different levels of fibrous cellulose to a highly digestible purified ration. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 52:340-347.

36 Nutrient Requirements of Swine Cooper, P. H., and C. Tyler. 1959. Some effects of bran and cellulose on the water relationships in the digesta and faeces of pigs. Part 3. The effect of the level of water intake and level of cellulose in the ration on the dry matter content of the faeces. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 52:348-351. Crampton, E. W., G. C. Ashton, and L. E. Lloyd. 1954. Improve- ment of bacon carcass quality by the introduction of fibrous feeds into the hog finishing ration. J. Anim. Sci. 13:327-331. Cunningham, H. M., D.W. Friend, and J. W. G. Nicholson. 1961. The effect of a purified source of cellulose on the growth and body composition of growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 41:120- 125. Cunningham, H. M., D. W. Friend, and J. W. G. Nicholson. 1962. The effect of age, body weight, feed intake and adaptability of pigs on the digestibility and nutritive value of cellulose. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 42:167-175. Drennan, P., and M. F. Maguire. 1970. Prediction of the digest- ible and metabolizable energy content of pig diets from their fibre content. Ir. J. Agric. Res. 9:197-202. Ekstrom, K. E., N. J. Benevenga, and R. H. Grummer. 1975. Effects of various dietary levels of dried whey on the perfor- mance of growing pigs. J. Nutr. 105:846-850. Ekstrom, K. E., N. J. Benevenga, and R. H. Grummer. 1975. The effects of diets containing dried whey on the lactase activity of the small intestinal mucosa and the contents of the small intestine and cecum of the pig. J. Nutr. 105:851-860. Ekstrom, K. E., R. H. Grummer, and N. J. Benevenga. 1976. Effects of a diet containing 40% dried whey on the perfor- mance and lactase activities in the small intestine and cecum of Hampshire and Chester White pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 42:106- 113. Farrell, D. J., and K. A. Johnson. 1970. Utilization of cellulose by pigs and its effects on caecal function. Anim. Prod. 14:209-217. Forbes, R. M., and T. S. Hamilton. 1952. The utilization of certain cellulosic materials by swine. J. Anim. Sci. 11:480-490. Friend, D. W., H. M. Cunningham, and J. W. G. Nicholson. 1962. The production of organic acids in the pig. 1. The effect of diet on the proportions of volatile fatty acids in pig feces. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 42:55-62. Friend, D. W., H. M. Cunningham, and J. W. G. Nicholson. 1962. The production of organic acids in the pig. 2. The effect of diet on levels of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid in sections of the alimentary tract. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 43:156-168. Henry, Y. 1970. Nutritional effects at full growth of the incorpora- tion of purified cellulose in the pig diet. 3. The incidence of the gastro-esophageal ulcers. Ann. Zootech. 19:117-141. Henry, Y., and M. Ettienne. 1969. Nutritional effect of incor- porating purified cellulose in the diet of growing-finishing pigs. Ann. Zootech. 18:337-357. Hochstetler, L. N., J. A. Hoefer, A. M. Pearson, and R. W. Leucke. 1959. 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Nordstrom. 1970. Meat and bone meals as sources of amino acids for growing swine: Use of a reference diet to predict amino acid adequacy by plasma levels. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1142-1155. Wagner, G. R., A. J. Clark, V. W. Hays, and V. C. Speer. 1963. Effect of protein-energy relationships on the performance and carcass quality of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 22:202- 208. Wahlstrom, R. C., and G. W. Libal. 1975. Varying levels of high-protein oats in diets for growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 41:809-812. Williams, K. C., and R. M. Beames. 1974. The effect of protein content of wheat grain on its nutritive value in pig diets. Aust. J. Exp. Anim. Husb. 41:286-291. Wyllie, D., V. C. Speer, R. C. Ewan, and V. W. Hays. 1969. Effects of starter protein level on performance and body composition of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 29:433-438. LYSINE AND SULFUR AMINO ACIDS Abernathy, R. P., R. F. Sewell, and R. L. Tarpley. 1958. Interre- lationships of protein, lysine and energy in diets of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 17:635-639. Allee, G. L., and R. M. Trotter. 1974. Sulfur amino acid re- quirement of the finishing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 39:974. (Abstr.) Baker, D. H., D. E. Becker, H. W. Norton, A. H. Jensen, and B. G. Harmon. 1966. Quantitative evaluation of the tryptophan, methionine, and lysine needs of adult swine for maintenance. J. Nutr. 89:441-447. Baker, D. H., W. W. Clausing, B. G. Harmon, A. H. Jensen, and D. E. Becker. 1969. Replacement value of cystine for methionine for the young pig. J. Anim. Sci. 29:581-584. Baker, D. H., R. S. Katz, and R. A. Easter. 1975. Lysine re- quirement of growing pigs at two levels of dietary protein. J. Anim. Sci. 40:851-856. Becker, D. E., A. H. Jensen, S. W. Terrill, and H. W. Norton. 1955. The methionine-cystine need of the young pig. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1086-1094. Bell, J. M., H. H. Williams, J. K. Loosli, and L. A. Maynard.

40 Nutrient Requirements of Swine 1950. The effect of methionine supplementation of a soybean oil meal-purified ration for growing pigs. J. Nutr. 40:551-561. Boomgaardt, J., D. H. Baker, A. H. Jensen, and B. G. Harmon. 1972. Effect of dietary lysine levels on 21-day lactation per- formance of first-litter sows. J. Anim. Sci. 34:408-410. Braude, R., and M. A. Esnaola. 1973. Methionine and cystine requirements of growing pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 30:437-445. Brown, H. W., B. G. Harmon, and A. H. Jensen. 1973. The lysine requirement of the finishing pig for maximum rate of gain and feed efficiency. J. Anim. Sci. 37:708-712. Brown, H. W., B. G. Harmon, and A. H. Jensen. 1974. Total sulfur-containing amino acids, isoleucine and tryptophan re- quirements of the finishing pig for maximum nitrogen reten- tion. J. Anim. Sci. 38:59-63. Ganguli, M. C., V. C. Speer, R. C. Ewan, and D. R. Zimmerman. 1971. Sulfur amino acid requirement of the lactating sow. J. Anim. Sci. 33:394-400. Germann, A. F. O., II, E. T. Mertz, and W. M. Beeson. 1958. Revaluation of the 1-lysine requirement of weanling pig. J. Anim. Sci. 17:52-56. Holden, P. J., V. C. Speer, and R. C. Ewan. 1971. Sulfur amino acid requirement of the pregnant gilt. J. Anim. Sci. 32:900- 904. Katz, R. S., D. H. Baker, C. E. Sasse, A. H. Jensen, and B. G. Harmon. 1973. Efficacy of supplemental lysine, methionine and rolled oats for weanling pigs fed a low-protein corn- soybean meal diet. J. Anim. Sci. 37:1165-1168. Klein, R. G., W. M. Beeson, T. R. Cline, and E. T. Mertz. 1972. Lysine availability of opaque-2 cor n for rats. J. Anim. Sci. 35:551-555. Kroening, G. H., W. G. Pond, and J. K. Loosli. 1965. Dietary methionine-cystine requirement of the baby pig as affected by threonine and protein levels. J. Anim. Sci. 24:519-525. Lewis, A. J., and V. C. Speer. 1973. Lysine requirement of the lactating sow. J. Anim. Sci. 37:104-110. McWard, G. W., D. E. Becker, H. W. Norton, S. W. Terrill, and A. H. Jensen. 1959. The lysine requirement of weanling swine at two levels of dietary protein. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1059- 1066. Meade, R. J. 1956. The influence of tryptophan, methionine and lysine supplementation of a corn-soybean oil meal diet on nitrogen balance of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 15:288-295. Meade, R. J., W. R. Dukelow, and R. S. Grant. 1966. Lysine and methionine additions to corn-soybean meal diets for growing swine: Effects on rate and efficiency of gain and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 25:78-82. Mitchell, J. R., Jr., D. E. Becker, A. H. Jensen, H. W. Norton, and B. G. Harmon. 1965. Caloric density of the diet and the lysine need of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 24:977-980. Mitchell, J. R., Jr., D. E. Becker, A. H. Jensen, H. W. Norton, and B. G. Harmon. 1965. Lysine need of swine at two stages of development. J. Anim. Sci. 24:409-412. Nielsen, H. E., V. W. Hays, V. C. Speer, and D. V. Catron. 1963. Lysine supplementation of corn- and barley-base diets for growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 22:454-457. Oestemer, G. A., R. J. Meade, W. L. Stockland, and L. E. Hanson. 1970. Methionine supplementation of opaque-2 corn for growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1133-1136. Reimer, D., R. J. Meade, and R. S. Grant. 1964. Barley rations for swine. III. Lysine and methionine supplementation: Effects on rate and efficiency of gain, and on carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 23:404-408. Shelton, D. C., W. M. Beeson, and E. T. Mertz. 1951. The effects of methionine and cystine on the growth of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 10:57-64. Shelton, D. C., W. M. Beeson, and E. T. Mertz. 1951. Quantita- tive L-lysine requirement of the weanling pig. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 30:1-5. Thomas, H. R., and E. T. Kornegay. 1972. Lysine supplementa- tion of high lysine corn and normal corn-peanut meal diets for growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 34:587-591. Trotter, R. M., and G. L. Allee. 1974. Sulfur amino acid re- quirement of the growing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 39:984. (Abstr.) Wahlstrom, R. C., and G. W. Libal. 1974. Gain, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics of swine fed supplemental lysine and methionine in corn-soybean meal diets during the grow- ing and finishing periods. J. Anim. Sci. 38:1261-1266. Woerman, R. L., and V. C. Speer. 1976. Lysine requirement for reproduction in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 42:114-120. OTHER AMINO ACIDS Baker, D. H., and G. L. Allee. 1970. Effect of dietary carbohy- drate on assessment of the leucine need for maintenance of adult swine. J. Nutr. 100:277-280. Baker, D. H., D. E. Becker, H. W. Norton, A. H. Jensen, and B. G. Harmon. 1966. Quantitative evaluation of the threonine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine needs of adult swine for maintenance. J. Nutr. 88:391-396. Baker, D. H., D. E. Becker, H. W. Norton, A. H. Jensen, and B.G. Harmon. 1966. Some qualitative amino acid needs of adult swine for maintenance. J. Nutr. 88:382-390. Baker, D. H., D. E. Becker, A. H. Jensen, and B. G. Harmon. 1970. Reproductive performance and progeny development as influenced by nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. Proc. 111. Pork Ind. Day. Rep. AS-655e. Baker, D. H., N. K. Allen, J. Boomgaardt, G. Graber, and H. W. Norton. 1971. Quantitative aspects of r> and Lrtryptophan utilization by the young pig. J. Anim. Sci. 33:42-46. Becker, D. E., R. A. Notzold, A. H. Jensen, S. W. Terrill, and H. W. Norton. 1955. The tryptophan requirement of the young pig. J. Anim. Sci. 14:664-673. Becker, D. E., A. H. Jensen, S. W. Terrill, I. D. Smith, and H. W. Norton. 1957. The isoleucine requirement of weanling swine fed two protein levels. J. Anim. Sci. 16:26-33. Becker, D. E., I. D. Smith, S. W. Terrill, A. H. Jensen, and H. W. Norton. 1963. Isoleucine need of swine at two stages of development. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1093-1096. Beeson, W. M., H. D. Jackson, and E. T. Mertz. 1953. Quantita- tive threonine requirement of the weanling pig. J. Anim. Sci. 12:870-875. Boomgaardt, J., and D. H. Baker. 1973. Tryptophan requirement of growing pigs at three levels of dietary protein. J. Anim. Sci. 36:303-306. Bravo, F. O., R. J. Meade, W. L. Stockland, and J. W. Nordstrom. 1970. Re-evaluation of the isoleucine requirement of the growing pig—Plasma free isoleucine as a response criterion. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1137-1141. Easter, R. A., R. S. Katz, and D. H. Baker. 1974. Arginine: A dispensable amino acid for postpubertal growth and pregnancy of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1123-1128. Easter, R. A., D. H. Baker, and A. H. Jensen. 1976. Gestation- lactation protein regimens for first-litter gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 43:166. (Abstr.) Easter, R. A., and D. H. Baker. 1977. Nitrogen metabolism, muscle carnosine concentration and blood chemistry of gravid swine fed graded levels of histidine. J. Nutr. 107:120-125. Easter, R. A., and D. H. Baker. 1977. Nitrogen metabolism of gravid gilts fed purified diets deficient in either leucine or tryptophan. J. Anim. Sci. 44:417-421.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine 41 Eggert, R. G., H. H. Williams, B. E. Sheffy, E. G. Sprague, J. K. Loosli, and L. A. Maynard. 1954. The quantitative leucine requirement of the suckling pig. J. Nutr. 53:177-185. Haught, D. G., and V. C. Speer. 1977. Isoleucine requirement of the lactating sow. J. Anim. Sci. 44:595-600. Jackson, H. D., E. T. Mertz, and W. M. Beeson. 1953. Quantita- tive valine requirement of the weanling pig. J. Nutr. 51:109- 116. Lewis, A. J., and V. C. Speer. 1974. Tryptophan requirement of the lactating sow. J. Anim. Sci. 38:778-784. Lewis, A. J., and V. C. Speer. 1975. Threonine requirement of the lactating sow. J. Anim. Sci. 40:892-899. Mertz, E. T., J. N. Henson, and W. M. Beeson. 1954. Quantita- tive phenylalanine requirement of the weanling pig. J. Anim. Sci. 13:927-932. Mertz, E. T., D. C. DeLong, D. M. Thrasher, and W. M. Beeson. 1955. Histidine and leucine requirements of the weanling pig. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1217. (Abstr.) Mitchell, J. R., Jr., D. E. Becker, B. G. Harmon, W. H. Norton, and A. H. Jensen. 1968. Some amino acid needs of the young pig fed a semisynthetic diet. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1322-1326. Mitchell, J. R., Jr., D. E. Becker, A. H. Jensen, B. G. Harmon, and H. W. Norton. 1968. Determination of amino acid needs of the young pig by nitrogen balance and plasma free amino acids. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1327-1331. Recheigl, M., Jr., J. K. Loosli, D. J. Horvath, and H. H. Wil- liams. 1956. Histidine requirement of baby pigs. J. Nutr. 60:619-629. Robbins, K. R., and D. H. Baker. 1977. Phenylalanine require- ment of the weanling pig and its relationship to tyrosine. J. Anim. Sci. 45:113-118. Sewell, R. F., J. K. Loosli, L. A. Maynard, H. H. Williams, and B. E. Sheffy. 1952. The quantitative threonine requirement of the suckling pig. J. Nutr. 49:435-441. Speer, V. C. 1975. Amino acid requirements for the lactating sow. Feedstuff's 47(27):21-22. MINERALS Calcium and Phosphorus Bayley, H. S., and R. G. Thomson. 1969. Phosphorus require- ments of growing pigs and effect of steam pelleting on phos- phorus availability. J. Anim. Sci. 28:484-491. Bayley, H. S., D. Arthur, G. H. Bowman, J. Pos, and R. G. Thomson. 1975. Influence of dietary phosphorus level on growth and bone development in boars and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 40:864-870. Bayley, H. S., J. Pos, and R. G. Thomson. 1975. Influence of steam pelleting and dietary calcium level on the utilization of phosphorus by the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 40:857-863. Blair, R., and D. Benzie. 1964. The effect of level of dietary calcium and phosphorus on skeletal development in the young pig to 25 Ib. liveweight. Br. J. Nutr. 18:91-101. Blair, R., J. R. B. Diack, and R. M. MacPherson. 1963. Bone development in suckled pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 17:19-29. Buescher, R. G., M. C. Bell, and R. K. Berry. 1961. The effect of excessive calcium on selenium-75 in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 20:368-372. Chapman, H. L., Jr., J. Kastelic, G. C. Ashton, and D. V. Catron. 1955. A comparison of phosphorus from different sources for growing and finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1073-1084. Chapman, H. L., Jr., J. Kastelic, G. C. Ashton, P. G. Homeyer, C. Y. Roberts, D. V. Catron, V. W. Hays, and V. C. Speer. 1962. Calcium and phosphorus requirements for growing- finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 21:112-117. Coalson, J. A., C. V. Maxwell, J. C. Hillier, R. D. Washam, and E. C. Nelson. 1972. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of young pigs reared under controlled environmental conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 35:1194-1200. Coalson, J. A., C. V. Maxwell, J. C. Hillier, and E. C. Nelson. 1974. Calcium requirement of the cesarean derived colostrum-free pig from 3 through 9 weeks of age. J. Anim. Sci. 38:772-777. Combs, G. E., and H. D. Wallace. 1962. Growth and digestibil- ity studies with young pigs fed various levels and sources of calcium. J. Anim. Sci. 21:734-737. Combs, G. E., J. M. Vandepopuliere, H. D. Wallace, and M. Koger. 1962. Phosphorus requirement of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 21:3-8. Combs, G. E., T. H. Berry, H. D. Wallace, and R. C. Crum, Jr. 1966. Levels and sources of vitamin D for pigs fed diets containing varying quantities of calcium. J. Anim. Sci. 25:827-830. Cromwell, G. L., V. W. Hays, C. H. Chaney, and J. R. Overfield. 1970. Effects of dietary phosphorus and calcium level on performance, bone mineralization and carcass characteristics of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 30:519-525. Cromwell, G. L., V. W. Hays, C. W. Scherer, and J. R. Overfield. 1972. Efects of dietary calcium and phosphorus on perfor- mance and carcass, metacarpal and turbinate characteristics of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 34:746-751. Fammatre, C. A., D. C. Mahan, A. W. Fetter, A. P. Grifo, Jr., and J. K. Judy. 1977. Effects of dietary protein, calcium and phos- phorus levels for growing and finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 44:65-71. Greaser, M. L., R. G. Cassens, W. G. Hoekstra, E. J. Briskey, G. R. Schmidt, S. D. Carr, and D. E. Galloway. 1969. Calcium accumulating ability and compositional differences between sarcoplasmic reticulum fractions from normal and pale, soft, exudative porcine muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 28: 589-591. Hansard, S. L., W. A. Lyke, and H. M. Crowder. 1961. Absorp- tion, excretion and utilization of calcium by swine. J. Anim. Sci. 20:292-296. Harmon, B. G., C. T. Liu, S. G. Cornelius, J. E. Pettigrew, D. H. Baker, and A. H. Jensen. 1974. Efficacy of different phos- phorus supplements for sows during gestation and lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1117-1122. Harmon, B. G., C. T. Liu, A. H. Jensen, and D. H. Baker. 1975. Phosphorus requirements of sows during gestation and lacta- tion. J. Anim. Sci. 40:660-664. Hays, V. W. 1976. Phosphorus in swine nutrition. National Feed Ingredients Assoc. (Publisher), One Corporate Place, Suite 360, West Des Moines, Iowa 50265. Itoh, H., S. L. Hansard, J. C. Glenn, F. H. Hoskins, and D. M. Thrasher. 1967. Placental transfer of calcium in pregnant sows on normal and limited-calcium rations. J. Anim. Sci. 26:335- 340. Kornegay, E. T., H. R. Thomas, and T. N. Meacham. 1973. Evaluation of dietary calcium and phosphorus for reproducing sows housed in total confinement on concrete or in dirt lots. J. Anim. Sci. 37:493-500. Libal, G. W., E. R. Peo, Jr., R. P. Andrews, and P. E. Vipper- man, Jr. 1969. Levels of calcium and phosphorus for growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 28:331-335. Liptrap, D. O., E. R. Miller, D. E. Ullrey, K. K. Keahey, and J. A. Hoefer. 1970. Calcium level for developing boars and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 31:540-548. Lloyd, L. E., E. W. Crampton, and D. N. Mowat. 1961. Effect of

42 Nutrient Requirements of Swine calcium:phosphorus ratio, oleandomycin and protein level on the performance of early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 20:176- 179. Logomarsino, J. V., W. G. Pond, L. Krook, and D. Kirkland. 1974. Effect of dietary calcium-phosphorus and nasal irrita- tion on turbinate morphology and performance in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 39:544-549. Menahan, L. A., P. A. Knapp, W. G. Pond, and J. R. Jones. 1963. Response of early-weaned pigs to variations in dietary cal- cium level with and without lactose. J. Anim. Sci. 22:501-505. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, B. V. Baltzer, D. A. Schmidt, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1962. Calcium requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 77:7-16. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, B. V. Baltzer, D. A. Schmidt, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1964. Phosphorus requirements of the baby pigs. J. Nutr. 82:34-39. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1964. Mineral balance studies with the baby pig: Effects of dietary phosphorus upon calcium and phosphorus balance. J. Nutr. 82:111-114. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1965. Comparisons of casein and soy proteins upon mineral balance and vitamin D, requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 85:347-353. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1965. Mineral balance studies with the baby pig: Effects of dietary magnesium level upon calcium, phos- phorus, and magnesium balance. J. Nutr. 86:209-212. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, J. A. Hoefer, and R. VV. Luecke. 1965. Mineral balance studies with the baby pig: Effects of dietary vitamin D, level upon calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance. J. Nutr. 85:255-258. Moore, J. H., and C. Tyler. 1955. Studies on the intestinal absorption and excretion of calcium and phosphorus in the pig. 1. A critical study of the Bergeim Technique for inves- tigating the intestinal absorption and excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Br. J. Nutr. 9:63-80. Moore, J. H., and C. Tyler. 1955. Studies on the intestinal absorption and excretion of calcium and phosphorus in the pig. 2. The intestinal absorption and excretion of radioactive calcium and phosphorus. Br. J. Nutr. 9:81-93. Morgan, D. P., E. P. Young, I. P. Earle, R. J. Davey, and J. W. Stevenson. 1969. Effects of dietary calcium and zinc on cal- cium, phosphorus and zinc retention in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 29:900-905. Mudd, A. J., W. C. Smith, and D. G. Armstrong. 1969. The influence of dietary concentration of calcium and phosphorus on their retention in the body of growing pigs. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 73:189-195. Newman, C. W., D. M. Thrasher, S. L. Hansard, A. M. Mullins, and R. F. Boulware. 1967. Effects of tallow in swine rations on utilization of calcium and phosphorus. J. Anim. Sci. 26:479-484. Peo, E. R., Jr. 1976. Calcium in swine nutrition. National Feed Ingredient Assoc. (Publisher), One Corporate Place, Suite 360, West Des Moines, Iowa 50265. Plumlee, M. P., C. E. Jordan, M. H. Kennington, and W. M. Beeson. 1958. Availability of the phosphorus from various phosphate materials for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 17:73-88. Pond, W. G., E. G. Walker, Jr., and D. Kirkland. 1975. Weight gain, feed utilization and bone and liver mineral composition of pigs fed high or normal Ca-P diets from weaning to slaughter weight. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1053-1056. Rutledge, E. A., L. E. Hanson, and R. J. Meade. 1961. A study of the calcium requirements of pigs weaned at three weeks of age. J. Anim. Sci. 20:243-245. Stockland, W. L., and L. G. Blaylock. 1973. Influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the performance and bone characteristics of growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 37: 906-912. Taylor, T. G. 1965. The availability of the calcium and phos- phorus of plant materials for animals. Proc. Nutr. 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48 Nutrient Requirements of Swine Rickes, E. L., N. G. Brink, F. R. Koniuszy, T. R. Wood, and K. Folkers. 1948. Vitamin B,2, cobalt complex. Science 108:134. Robison, W. L. 1950. Cobalt with a soybean oil meal ration for pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 9:665. (Abstr.) VITAMINS Vitamin A Anderson, M. D., V. C. Speer, J. T. McCall, and V. W. Hays. 1966. Hypervitaminosis A in the young pig. J. Anim. Sci. 25:1123- 1127. Bowland, J. P., R. H. Grummer, P. H. Phillips, and G. Bohstedt. 1949. Effect of lactation and ration on the rat and vitamin A level of sow's milk. J. Dairy Sci. 32:22-28. Braude, R., A. S. Foot, K. M. Henry, S. K. Kon, S. Y. Thompson, and T. H. Mead. 1941. Vitamin A studies with rats and pigs. Biochem. J. 35:693-707. Frape, D. L., V. C. Speer, V. W. Hays, and D. V. Catron. 1959. The vitamin A requirement of the young pig. J. Nutr. 68:173- 187. Grummer, R. H., F. J. Giesler, R. E. Hall, B. H. Gunderson, and D. Ankley. 1973. 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S. Hughes, and J. D. Wheat. 1951. Relative value of vitamin A and carotene for supplying the vitamin A requirements of swine during gestation and begin- ning lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 10:551-559. Ullrey, D. E. 1972. Biological availability of fat-soluble vitamins: vitamin A and carotene. J. Anim. Sci. 35:648-657. Wellenreiter, R. H., D. E. Ullrey, E. R. Miller, and W. T. Magee. 1969. Vitamin A activity of cor n carotenes for swine. J. Nutr. 99:129-136. Wolke, R. E., S. W. Nielsen, and J. E. Rousseau. 1968. Bone lesions of hypervitaminosis A in the pig. Am. J. Vet. Res. 29:1009-1024. Vitamin D Bethke, R. M., W. Burroughs, O. H. M. Wilder, B. H. Edgington, and W. L. Robison. 1946. The comparative efficiency of vitamin D from irradiated yeast and cod liver oil for growing pigs, with observations on their vitamin D requirements. Ohio Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 667:1-29. Bowland, J. P., R. H. Grummer, P. H. Phillips, and G. Bohstedt. 1951. Seasonal variation in the fat, vitamin A and vitamin D content of sow's colostrum and milk. J. Anim. Sci. 10:533-537. Combs, G. E., T. H. Berry, H. D. Wallace, and R. C. Crum, Jr. 1966. Influence of supplemental vitamin D on gain, nutrient digestibility and tissue composition of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 25:48-51. Combs, G. E., T. H. Berry, H. D. Wallace, and R. C. Crum, Jr. 1966. Levels and sources of vitamin D for pigs fed diets containing varying quantities of calcium. J. Anim. Sci. 25:827-830. Dunlop, G. 1935. The calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D re- quirement of swine. J. Agric. Sci. 25:22-24. Hendricks, D. G., E. R. Miller, D. E. Ullrey, R. D. Struthers, B. V. Baltzer, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1967. /3-Carotene vs. retinyl acetate for the baby pig and the effect upon ergo- calciferol requirement. J. Nutr. 93:37-43. Hendricks. D. G., E. R. Miller, D. E. Ullrey, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1970. Effect of source and level of protein on mineral utilization by the baby pig. J. Nutr. 100:235-240. Johnson, D. W., and L. S. Palmer. 1939. Individual and breed variations in pigs on rations devoid of vitamin D. J. Agric. Res. 58:929-939. Johnson, D. W., and L. S. Palmer. 1941. Meeting the vitamin D requirement of pigs with alfalfa hay and winter sunshine. J. Agric. Res. 63:639-648. Jurgens, M. H., and E. R. Peo, Jr. 1970. Influence of dietary supplements of cholesterol and vitamin D on certain compo- nents of the blood and body of growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 30:894-903. Jurgens, M. H., E. R. Peo, Jr., P. E. Vipperman, Jr., and R. W. Mandigo. 1970. Influence of dietary supplements of vitamin DS and various fats on cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the blood and body of growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 30:904-910. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, B. V. Baltzer, D. A. Schmidt, B. H. Vincent, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1964. Vitamin D, requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 83:140-148. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1965. Comparisons of casein and soy proteins upon mineral balance and vitamin D: requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 85:347-354. Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1965. Mineral balance studies with the baby pig: Effects of dietary vitamin D2 level upon calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balance. J. Nutr. 85:255-259. Quarterman, J., A. C. Dalgarno, and A. Adams. 1963. The impor- tance of blood as a pool of vitamin D. Biochem. J. 86: IP. Quarterman, J., A. C. Dalgarno, A. Adams, B. F. Fell, and R. Boyne. 1964. The distribution of vitamin D between the blood and the liver in the pig, and observations on the pathology of vitamin D toxicity. Br. J. Nutr. 18:65-77.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine 49 Senior, B. J. 1941. The requirements of the pig for vitamin A and D. Sci. Proc. R. Dublin Soc. 22:229-236. Senior, B. J. 1941. The vitamin D requirements of the growing pig. Sci. Proc. R. Dublin Soc. 22:379-385. Sinclair, R. D. 1929. The influence of ultra-violet rays and vita- min D on the growth of fall-farrowed pigs. Sci. Agric. 9:629- 648. Steenbock, H., E. B. Hart, and J. H. Jones. 1924. Sunlight and its relation to pork production on certain restricted rations. J. Biol. Chem. 61:775-794. Wahlstrom, R. C., and D. E. Stolte. 1958. The effect of supple- mental vitamin D in rations for pigs fed in the absence of direct sunlight. J. Anim. Sci. 17:699-705. Whiting, F., and L. M. Bezeau. 1958. The calcium, phosphorus and zinc balance in pigs as influenced by the weight of the pig and the level of calcium, zinc and vitamin D in the ration. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 38:109-117. Vitamin E Adamstone, P. B., J. D. Krider, M. F. James, and C. A. Blomquist. 1949. 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Observations on tocopherol absorption by pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 14:371^377. Eggert, R. G., E. Patterson, W. T. Akers, and H. L. R. Stokstad. 1957. The role of vitamin E and selenium in the nutrition of the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1037. (Abstr.) Ellis, R. P., and M. W. Vorhies. 1976. Effect of supplemental dietary vitamin E on the serologic response of swine to an Escherichia coll bacterin. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 168:231- 232. Forbes, R. M., and H. H. Draper. 1958. Production and study of vitamin E deficiency in the baby pig. J. Nutr. 65:535-545. Carton, G. A., W. R. H. Duncan, K. A. Madsen, P. L. Shanks, and I. S. Beattie. 1958. Observations on feeding pigs on a low-fat diet with and without supplementary tocopherol. Br. J. Nutr. 12:97-105. Hanson, L. E., and I. L. Hathaway. 1948. The fertility of boars fed a vitamin E deficient ration. J. Anim. Sci. 7:528. (Abstr.) Hill, E. G. 1963. Dietary antioxidants in young swine. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 40:360-364. Homb, J., A. Lyso, and H. Astrup. 1966-67. Various protein- rich feeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E, in the rations for finishing pigs. Z. Tierphysiol. Tierernaehr. Futtermittelkd. 22:203-209. Hove, E. L., and H. R. Siebold. Liver necrosis and altered fat composition in vitamin E-deficient swine. J. Nutr. 56:173-186. Hyldgaard-Jensen, J. F. 1973. Some aspects of the use of plasma enzymes in the diagnosis of vitamin E deficiency in pigs. Acta Agric. Scand. Suppl. 19:128-135. Lannek, N., P. Lindberg, G. Nilsson, G. Nordstrom, and K. Orstadius. 1961. Production of vitamin E deficiency and mus- cular dystrophy in pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 2:67-72. Leat, W. M. F. 1961. Studies on pigs reared on diets low in tocopherol and essential fatty acids. Br. J. Nutr. 15:259-270. Lindberg, P. 1973. Plasma-tocopherol in pigs. Acta Agric. Scand. Supp. 19:39. McDowell, L. R., J. A. Froseth, G. H. Kroening, and W. A. Haller. 1974. Effects of dietary vitamin E and oxidized cottonseed oil on SCOT, erythrocyte hemolysis, testicular fatty acids and tes- ticular selenium in swine fed peas (Pisum sativum). Nutr. Rep. Int. 9:359-369. Nafstad, I. 1965. Studies of hematology and bone marrow mor- phology in vitamin E deficient pigs. Pathol. Vet. 2:277-287. Nafstad, I. 1973. Some aspects of vitamin E-deficiency in pigs. Acta Agric. Scand. Suppl. 19:31-34. Nafstad, I., and P. H. J. Nafstad. 1968. An electron microscopic study of blood and bone marrow in vitamin E-deficient pigs. Pathol. Vet. 5:520-537. Nafstad, I., and S. Tollersrud. 1970. The vitamin E-deficiency syndrome in pigs. I. Pathological changes. Acta Vet. Scand. 11:452-480. Reid, I. M., R. H. Barnes, W. G. Pond, and L. Krook. 1968. Methionine responsive liver damage in young pigs fed a diet low in protein and vitamin E. J. Nutr. 95:499-508. Robinson, K. L., and W. E. Coey. 1951. A brown discoloration of pig fat and vitamin E deficiency. Nature 168:997-998. Swahn, O., and B. Thafvelin. 1962. Vitamin E and some metabolic diseases of pigs. Vit. Horm. 20:645-657. Tollersrud, S. 1973. Changes in the enzymatic profile in blood and tissue in pre-clinical and clinical vitamin E-deficiency in pigs. Acta Agric. Scand. Suppl. 19:124-127. Tollersrud, S., and I. Nafstad. 1970. The vitamin E-deficiency syndrome in pigs. II. Investigations on serum and tissue en- zyme activity. Acta Vet. Scand. 11:495-509. Vitamin K Brooks, C. C., R. M. Nakamura, and A. Y. Miyahara. 1973. Effect of menadione and other factors on sugar-induced heart lesions and hemorrhagic syndrome in the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 37:1344- 1350. Fritschen, R. D., O. D. Grace, and E. R. Peo, Jr. 1971. Bleeding pig disease. Nebr. Swine Rep. E. C. 71-219:22-23. Muhrer, M. E., R. G. Cooper, C. N. Cornell, and R. D. Thomas. 1970. Diet related hemorrhagic syndrome in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1025. (Abstr.) Neufville, M. H., H. D. Wallace, and G. E. Combs. 1973. Vitamin K supplementation of swine diets. J. Anim. Sci. 37:288. (Abstr.) Osweiler, G. D. 1970. Porcine hemorrhagic disease. Proc. Pork Producers Day. Iowa State Univ. AS3531. Seerley, R. W., O. W. Charles, H. C. McCampbell, and S. P. Bertch. 1976. Efficacy of menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite as a source of vitamin K in swine diets. J. Anim. Sci. 42:599-607. Shendel, H. E., and B. C. Johnson. 1962. Vitamin K deficiency in the baby pig. J. Nutr. 76:124-130. Speer, V. C. 1971. Interrelationships of mycotoxins, vitamin E and K in the pig. Proc. Dist. Feed Res. Conf. 26:39-46.

50 Nutrient Requirements of Swine Thiamin Ellis, N. R., and L. L. Madsen. 1944. The thiamine requirements of pigs as related to the fat content of the diet. J. Nutr. 27:253-262. Hughes, E. H. 1940. The minimum requirements of thiamine for the growing pig. J. Nutr. 20:239-241. Miller, E. R., D. A. Schmidt, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1955. The thiamine requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 56:423-430. Wintrobe, M. M., M. H. Miller, R. H. Follis, Jr., V. Najjar, and S. Humphreys. 1942. A study of thiamine deficiency in swine. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 71:141-162. Riboflavin Briggs, J. E., and W. M. Beeson. 1951. The supplementary value of riboflavin, calcium pantothenate and niacin in a practical mixed animal and plant protein ration containing B,2 and aureomycin for weanling pigs in drylot. J. Anim. Sci. 10:813- 819. Forbes, R. M., and W. T. Haines. 1952. The riboflavin require- ment of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 47:411-424. Hughes, E. H. 1939. The role of riboflavin and other factors of the B vitamin complex in the nutrition of the pig. J. Nutr. 17:527-533. Hughes, E. H. 1940. The minimum requirement of riboflavin for the growing pig. J. Nutr. 20:233-238. Krider, J. L., S. W. Terrill, and R. F. VanPoucke. 1949. Response of weanling pigs to various levels of riboflavin. J. Anim. Sci. 8:121-125. Lehrer, W. P., Jr., and A. C. Wiese. 1952. Riboflavin deficiency in baby pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 11:244-250. McMillen, W. N., R. W. Luecke, and F. Thorp, Jr. 1949. The effect of liberal B-vitamin supplementation on growth of weanling pigs fed rations containing a variety of feedstuffs. J. Anim. Sci. 8:518-523. Miller, C. O. and N. R. Ellis. 1951. The riboflavin requirement of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 10:807-812. Miller, C. O., N. R. Ellis, J. W. Stevenson, and R. Davey. 1953. The riboflavin requirement of swine for reproduction. J. Nutr. 51:163-170. Miller, E. R., R. L. Johnston, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1954. The riboflavin requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 52:405- 413. Mitchell, H. H., B. C. Johnson, T. S. Hamilton, and W. T. Haines. 1950. The riboflavin requirement of the growing pig at two environmental temperatures. J. Nutr. 41:317-337. Robinson, K. L., W. E. Coey, and G. S. Burnett. 1952. Some effects of procaine penicillin and of certain vitamin supple- ments on food consumption and live weight gain of pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 3:448-454. Seymour, E. W., V. C. Speer, and V. W. Hays. 1968. Effect of environmental temperature on the riboflavin requirement of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 27:389-393. Terrill, S. W., C. B. Ammerman, D. E. Walker, R. M. Edwards, H. W. Norton, and D. E. Becker. 1955. Riboflavin studies with pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 14:593-603. Wintrobe, M. M., W. Bushke, R. H. Follis, Jr., and S. Humphreys. 1944. Riboflavin deficiency in swine with special reference to the occurrence of cataracts. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 75:102-110. Niacin Dunne, H. W., R. W. Luecke, W. N. McMillen, M. L. Gray, and F. Thorp, Jr. 1949. The pathology of niacin deficiency in swine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 10:351-356. Firth, J., and B. C. Johnson. 1956. Quantitative relationships of tryptophan and nicotinic acid in the baby pig. J. Nutr. 59:223- 234. Harmon, B. G., D. E. Becker, A. H. Jensen, and D. H. Baker. 1970. Nicotinic acid-tryptophan nutrition and immunologic implications in young swine. J. Anim. Sci. 31:339-342. Hughes, E. H. 1943. The minimum requirements of nicotinic acid for the growing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 2:23-26. Luce, W. G., E. R. Peo, Jr., and D. B. Hudman. 1966. Availability of niacin in wheat for swine. J. Nutr. 88:39-44. Luce, W. G., E. R. Peo, Jr., and D. B. Hudman. 1967. Availability of niacin in cor n and milo for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 26:76-84. Luecke, R. W., W. N. McMillen, F. Thorp, Jr., and C. Tull. 1948. Further studies on the relationship of nicotinic acid, tryp- tophane and protein in the nutrition of the pig. J. Nutr. 36:417-^24. Powick, W. C., N. R. Ellis, L. L. Madsen, and C. N. Dale. 1947. Nicotinic acid deficiency and nicotinic acid requirements of young pigs on a purified diet. J. Anim. Sci. 6:310-324. Powick, W. C., N. R. Ellis, and C. N. Dale. 1948. Relationship of tryptophan to nicotinic acid in the feeding of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 7:228-232. Yen, J. T., A. H. Jensen, and D. H. Baker. 1977. Assessment of the availability of niacin in corn, soybeans and soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 45:269-278. Pantothenic Acid Bamhart, C. E., D. V. Catron, G. C. Ashton, and L. Y. Quinn. 1957. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid levels on the wean- ling pig. J. Anim. Sci. 16:396-403. Catron, D. V., R. W. Bennison, H. M. Maddock, G. C. Ashton, and P. G. Homeyer. 1953. Effects of certain antibiotics and B,2on pantothenic acid requirements of growing-fattening swine. J. Anim. Sci. 12:51-61. Davey, R. J., and J. W. Stevenson. 1963. Pantothenic acid re- quirement of swine for reproduction. J. Anim. Sci. 22:9-13. Ellis, N. R., L. L. Madsen, and C. O. Miller. 1943. Pantothenic acid and pyridoxine as factors in the occurrence of locomotor incoordination in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 2:365. (Abstr.) Hughes, E. H., and N. R. Ittner. 1942. The minimum require- ment of pantothenic acid for the growing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 1:116-119. Luecke, R. W., W. N. McMillen, and F. Thorp, Jr. 1950. Further studies of pantothenic acid deficiency in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 9:78-82. Luecke, R. W., J. A. Hoefer, and F. Thorp, Jr. 1952. The relation- ship of protein to pantothenic acid and vitamin B,2 in the growing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 11:238-243. McKigney, J. I., H. D. Wallace, and T. J. Cunha. 1957. The influence of chlortetracycline on the requirement of the young pig for dietary pantothenic acid. J. Anim. Sci. 16:35-43. Palm, B. W., R. J. Meade, and A. L. Melliere. 1968. Pantothenic acid requirement of young swine. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1596-1601. Pond, W. G., E. Kwong, and J. K. Loosli. 1960. Effect of level of dietary fat, pantothenic acid, and protein on performance of growing-fattening swine. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1115-1122. Stothers, S. C., D. A. Schmidt, R. L. Johnston, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1955. The pantothenic acid requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 57:47-54.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine 51 Teague, H. S., W. M. Palmer, and A. P. Grifo, Jr. 1970. Pan- tothenic acid deficiency in the reproducing sow. Ohio Agric. Res. Devel. Center Anim. Sci. Mimeo. 200. Ullrey, D. E., D. E. Becker, S. W. Terrill, and R. A. Notzold. 1955. Dietary levels of pantothenic acid and reproductive performance of female swine. J. Nutr. 57:401-414. Wintrobe, M. M., R. H. Follis, Jr., R. Alcayaga, M. Paulson, and S. Humphreys. 1943. Pantothenic acid deficiency in swine with particular reference to the effect on growth and on the alimentary tract. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 73:313. Vitamin B ,2 Anderson, G. C., and A. G. Hogen. 1950. Requirements of the pig for vitamin B,» J. Nutr. 40:243-250. Barber, R. S., R. Braude, J. E. Ford, M. E. Gregory, K. G. Mitchell, and J. W. G. Porter. 1960. Vitamin B,2 content of piglets and of milk from sows fed on rations containing animal or vegetable protein. Br. J. Nutr. 14:43-48. Bauriedal, W. R., A. B. Hoerlein, J. C. Picken, Jr., and L. A. Underkofler. 1954. Pig nutrition: Selection of diet for studies of vitamin H,:, depletion using unsuckled baby pigs. Agric. Food Chem. 2:468-471. Catron, D. V., D. Richardson, L. A. Underkofler, H. M. Maddock, and W. C. Friedland. 1952. Vitamin B,2 requirement of wean- ling pigs. II. Performance on low level of vitamin BU and requirements for optimum growth. J. Nutr. 47:461-468. Catron, D. V., R. W. Bennison, H. M. Maddock, G. C. Ashton, and P. G. Homeyer. 1953. Effects of certain antibiotics and B,2 on pantothenic acid requirements of growing-fattening swine. J. Anim. Sci. 12:51-61. Frederick, G. L. 1965. Intestinal absorption of cyanocobalamin in sows as influenced by size of oral dose, pregnancy, and lactation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 45:22-28. Frederick, G. L., and G. J. Brisson, 1961. Some observations on the relationship between vitamin BU and reproduction in swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 41:212-219. Gjone, E. 1974. Recent research on vitamin B,2 (Reports from a Dumex Symposium, Jan. 24-26,1974). Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 9:Suppl. 29. Grifo, A. P., Jr., H. S. Teague, and B. A. Dehority. 1964. Vitamin B,2 for growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 23:771-774. Hendricks, H. K., H. S. Teague, D. R. Redman, and A. P. Grifo, Jr. 1964. Absorption of vitamin B,2 from the colon of the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 23:1036-1038. Luecke, R. W., W. N. McMillan, F. Thorp, Jr., and J. R. Boniece. 1949. The effect of vitamin B,2 concentrate on growth of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean diets. Science 110:139-140. Luecke, R. W., J. A. Hoefer, and F. Thorp, Jr. 1952. The relation- ship of protein to pantothenic acid and vitamin BU in the growing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 11:238-243. Nesheim, R. O., J. L. Krider, and B. C. Johnson. 1950. The quantitative crystalline B,2 requirement of the baby pig. Arch. Biochem. 27:240-242. Richardson, D., D. V. Catron, L. A. Underkofler, H. M. Maddock, and W. C. Friedland. 1951. Vitamin B,2 requirement of male weanling pigs. J. Nutr. 44:371-381. Choline Dyer, I. A., and J. L. Krider. 1950. Choline versus betaine and expeller versus solvent soybean meal for weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 9:176-179. Johnson, B. C., and M. F. James. 1948. Choline deficiency in the baby pig. J. Nutr. 36:339-344. Kornegay, E. T., and T. N. Meacham. 1973. Evaluation of sup- plemental choline for reproducing sows housed in total con- finement on concrete or in dirt lots. J. Anim. Sci. 37:506-509. Kroening, G. H., and W. G. Pond. 1967. Methionine, choline and threonine interrelationships for growth and lipotropic action in the baby pig and rat. J. Anim. Sci. 26:352-357. Molitoris, B. A., and D. H. Baker. 1976. Assessment of the quantity of biologically available choline in soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 42:481-189. NCR-42 Committee on Swine Nutrition. 1976. Effects of sup- plemental choline on reproductive performance of sows: A cooperative regional study. J. Anim. Sci. 42:1211-1216. Nesheim, R. O., and B. C. Johnson. 1950. Effect of a high level of methionine on the dietary choline requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 41:149-152. Neumann, A. L., J. L. Krider, M. R. James, and B. C. Johnson. 1949. The choline requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 38:195-214. Stockland, W. L., and L. G. Blaylock. 1974. Choline requirement of pregnant sows and gilts under restricted feeding conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1113-1116. Vitamin B, Hughes, E. H., and R. L. Squibb. 1942. Vitamin B, (pyridoxine) in the nutrition of the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 1:320-325. Miller, E. R., D. A. Schmidt, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1957. The pyridoxine requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 62. 407-119. Ritchie, H. D., E. R. Miller, D. E. Ullrey, J. A. Hoefer, and R. W. Luecke. 1960. Supplementation of the swine gestation diet with pyridoxine. J. Nutr. 70:491-496. Sewell, R. F., D. Nugara, R. L. Hill, and W. A. Knapp. 1964. Vitamin B6 requirement of early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 23:694-699. Wintrobe, M. M., M. H. Miller, R. H. Follis, Jr., H. J. Stein, C. Mushatt, and S. Humphreys. 1942. Sensory neuron degenera- tion in pigs. IV. Protection afforded by calcium pantothenate and pyridoxine. J. Nutr. 24:345-366. Wintrobe, M. M., R. H. Follis, Jr., M. H. Miller, H. J. Stein, R. A. Alcayaga, S. Humphreys, A. Suksta, and G. C. Cartwright. 1943. Pyridoxine deficiency in swine with particular reference to anemia, epileptiform convulsions and fatty liver. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 72:1. Yen, J. T., A. H. Jensen, and D. H. Baker, 1976. Assessment of the concentration of biologically available vitamin H,. in com and soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 42:866-870. Biotin Anderson, P. A., D. H. Baker, and S. P. Mistry. 1978. Bioassay determination of the biotin content of corn, barley, sorghum and wheat. J. Anim. Sci. 47:654-659. Brooks, P. H., D. A. Smith, and V. C. R. Irwin. 1977. Biotin supplementation of diets: The incidence of foot lesions and the reproductive performance of sows. Vet. Rec. 101:46-50. Cunha, T. J., D. C. Lindley, and M. E. Ensminger. 1946. Biotin deficiency syndrome in pigs fed desiccated egg white. J. Anim. Sci. 5:219-225. Hanke, H. E., and R. J. Meade. 1970. Biotin and pyridoxine additions to diets for pigs weaned at an early age. 1970-71. Minn. Swine Res. Rep. H-210. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Lehrer, W. P., Jr., A. C. Wiese, and P. R. Moore. 1952. Biotin deficiency in suckling pigs. J. Nutr. 47:203-212.

52 Nutrient Requirements of Swine Meade, R. J. 1971. Biotin and pyridoxine supplementation of diets for growing pigs. 1970-71 Minn. Swine Res. Rep. H-218. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Washam, R. D., ]. E. Sowers, and L. W. DeGoey. 1975. Effect of zinc-proteinate or biotin in swine starter rations. J. Anim. Sci. 40:179. (Abstr.) Folic Acid Cunha, T. J., L. K. Bustad, W. E. Ham, D. R. Cordy, E. C. McCullock, I. F. Woods, G. H. Corner, and M. A. McGregor. 1947. Folic acid, para-aminobenzoic acid and anti-pernicious anemia liver extract in swine nutrition. J. Nutr. 34:173-187. Ford, J. E., K. J. Scott, B. F. Sansom, and P. J. Taylor. 1975. Some observations on the possible nutritional significance of B,r and folate-binding proteins in milk. Absorption of (MCo) cyan- cobalamin by suckling pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 34:469-492. Herbert, V. 1967. Biochemical and hematologic lesions in folic acid deficiency. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 20:562-569. Johnson, B. C., M. F. James, and J. L. Krider. 1948. Raising newborn pigs to weaning age on a synthetic diet with attempt to produce a pteroylglutamic acid deficiency. J. Anim. Sci. 7:486-493. Ascorbic Acid Bowland, J. P., R. H. Grummer, P. H. Phillips, and G. Bohstedt. 1949. The vitamin A and vitamin C content of sow's colostrum and milk. J. Anim. Sci. 8:98-106. Braude, R., S. K. Kon, and J. W. G. Porter. 1950. Studies on the vitamin C metabolism of the pig. Br. J. Nutr. 4:186-197. Brown, R. G., J. G. Buchanan-Smith, and V. D. Sharma. 1975. Ascorbic acid metabolism in swine. Effects of frequency of feeding and level of supplementary ascorbic acid on swine fed various energy levels. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 55:353-358. Cromwell, G. L., V. W. Hays, and J. R. Overfield. 1970. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on performance and plasma cholesterol levels of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 31:63-66. Dvorak, M. 1974. Effects of corticotrophins, starvation and glu- cose on ascorbic acid levels in the blood plasma and liver of piglets. Nutr. Metab. 16:215. Gipp, W. F., W. G. Pond, F. A. Fallfelz, J. B. Tasker, D. R. Van Campen, L. Krook, and W. J. Visek. 1974. Effect of dietary copper, iron and ascorbic acid levels on hematology, blood and tissue copper, iron and zinc concentrations, and copper-64 and iron-59 metabolism in young pigs. J. Nutr. 104:532-541. Grummer, R. H., C. K. Whitehair, G. Bohstedt, and P. H. Phillips. 1948. Vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin levels in the blood of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 7:222-227. Hutagalung, R. I., G. L. Cromwell, V. W. Hays, and C. H. Chaney. 1969. Effect of dietary fat, protein, cholesterol and ascorbic acid on performance, serum and tissue cholesterol levels and serum lipid levels of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 29:700- 705. Mahan, D. C., R. A. Pickett, T. W. Perry, T. M. Curtis, W. R. Featherston, and W. M. Beeson. 1966. Influence of various nutritional factors and physical form of feed on esophogogas- tric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 25:1019-1023. Riker, J. T., III., T. W. Perry, R. A. Pickett, and C. J. Heidenreich. 1967. Influence of controlled temperatures on growth rate and plasma ascorbic acid values in swine. J. Nutr. 92:99-103. WATER Alsmeyer, R. H., T. J. Cunha, and H. D. Wallace. 1955. Prelimi- nary observation on the effect of source of water on rate of gain of growing fattening pigs. Fla. Agric. Exp. Stn. Anim. Husb. Mimeo. Ser. No. 55-5. Barber, R. S., R. Braude, and K. G. Mitchell. 1963. Further studies on the water requirements of the growing pig. Anim. Prod. 5:277-282. Berg, R. T., and J. P. Bowland. 1960. Salt water tolerance of growing-finishing swine. Press Bull., Univ. Alberta 45:14-16. Bohstedt, G., and R. H. Grummer. 1954. Salt poisoning of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 13:933-939. Bowland. J. P. 1964. Wet versus dry feeding of market pigs. Univ. Alberta 43rd Annu. Feeders' Day Rep. pp. 3-5. Bowland, J. P. 1965. Water restriction of market pigs. Univ. Alberta 44th Annu. Feeders' Day Rep. pp. 18-20. Bowland, J. P., and J. F. Standish. 1966. Influence of fasting, water deprivation and stress on carcass shrink of pigs and rats. J. Anim. Sci. 25:377-380. Braude, R., and J. G. Rowell. 1967. Comparison of dry and wet feeding of growing pigs. J. Agric. Sci. 68:325-330. Cunningham, H. M., and D. W. Friend. 1966. Effects of water restriction on nitrogen retention and carcass composition of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 25:663-667. Friend, D. W. 1971. Self-selection of feeds and water by swine during pregnancy and lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 32:658-666. Garner, F. H., and H. G. Sanders. 1937. The water consumption of suckling sows. J. Agric. Sci. 27:638-643. Garrigus, U. S. 1948. A study of the influence of quality of protein on water needs in rats and swine. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana. Holme, D. W., and K. L. Robinson. 1965. A study of water allowances for the bacon pig. Anim. Prod. 7:377-384. Houseman, R. A., I. McDonald, and K. Pennil. 1973. The mea- surement of total body water in living pigs by deuterium oxide dilution and its relation to body composition. Br. J. Nutr. 30:149-156. Kornegay, E. T., and G. W. Vander Noot. 1968. Performance, digestibility of diet constituents and N-retention of swine fed diets with added water. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1307-1312. Leitch, M. A., and J. S. Thomson. 1944. The water economy of farm animals. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. 14:197-223. Mount, L. E., C. W. Holmes, W. H. Close, S. R. Morrison, and I. B. Start. 1971. A note on the consumption of water by the growing pig at several environmental temperatures and levels of feeding. Anim. Prod. 13:561-563. Seerley, R. W., C. E. Meeks, H. C. McCampbell, and R. D. Scarth. 1973. Effect of feeding lysine in solution to growing pigs and rats. J. Anim. Sci. 38:91-94. Teague, H. S., A. P. Grifo, Jr., and W. M. Palmer. 1965. Addition of copper to feed and water for growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 24:905. (Abstr.) Wahlstrom, R. C., A. R. Taylor, and R. W. Seerley. 1970. Effects of lysine in the drinking water of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 30:368-373.

SF95 .N32no. 2, 1979c.2 Nutrient requirements of swine / —. DATE LOANED BORROWER S NAME DATE RETURNED '

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