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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society (1993)

Chapter: Appendix A

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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APPENDIX A
Data Base of Federal Programs and Their Budgets for Fiscal Year 1990

IAN D. MACGREGOR

National Science Foundation

INTRODUCTION

In the management of federal science programs it is important to have a broad perspective of the range and scale of other comparable activities. This is particularly critical in the solid-earth sciences because federal agencies use a wide range of earth science subdisciplines to accomplish a variety of national goals. In order to gain a perspective and sense of the diversity I have collected a data base that provides information on the scope of the solid-earth science disciplines as they are supported and used by U.S. federal agencies in achieving their mission goals.

METHODOLOGY

A questionnaire (which appears at the end of this Appendix) was sent to all federal agencies that make use of or support the solid-earth sciences. In order to make the data as quantitative as possible, numerical data were requested for each category assigned in the questionnaire. The categories included identification of federal programs, total solid-earth science budgets, institutional distribution, subdisciplinary fields, functional goals, geographic region, and instrumentation and facilities. It is estimated that about 85 to 90 percent of the overall effort was captured.

QUALITY OF DATA

Any data base has its limitations and, correspondingly, the current effort needs to be used with caution. Problems that may be readily identified are listed below as follows.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
  • Definitions. Interpretation of the categories listed in the data tables (see questionnaire) have been left to the perception of the program officer providing the data. Correspondingly, the data suffers from the problem that program directors who provided data may use the defined categories somewhat differently leading to unconstrained overlap in definitions. Since a uniformly unambiguous acceptance of definitions is an intractable task, it was felt, that in the compromise between rigor and the efficacy of collecting the data, that a more flexible approach was acceptable. However, it should be noted that the program staff providing data are professionals, who have a comprehensive grasp of their fields and the diversity of federal support. In addition, a fair amount of information exchange and shared programs among the different program managers assures that each manager has a reasonable grasp of the scope and style of other federal programs leading to comparable definitions.

  • Research Category under Agency Functional Goals. The category, ''Research," listed as one of the functional goals of the agencies has not been expanded to identify the ultimate purpose of the research. Correspondingly, it is not possible to identify how the research budget relates to the agencies' missions as shown in their functional categories.

  • Classification of "Solid-Earth Sciences. " By design the classification of "solid-earth sciences" that has been used in very broad. For example the areas of soil science, cartography, and bathymetry have been included. The data base includes all applied areas that may benefit from the application of skills derived from training in the basic disciplines of the solid-earth sciences, or use basic solid-earth science information as essential components to accomplishing mission goals. But, the data base can be used more selectively, because separate categories can be individually identified.

  • Programs Not Included in the Data Base. There are a few programs from which data were not collected and there is always the possibility that programs have not been identified. In terms of the total expenditures it is estimated that essentially 85 to 90 percent of the solid-earth science activities are reported. Unidentified programs are probably small because the major efforts are well known.

These points caution judicious use of the data base. One may not expect accounting accuracy and the exact figures in each pigeon hole should be assigned some error. An estimate of error is difficult but is probably reasonable to expect that values are within ten percent of the true numbers. The best use of the data is to get a qualitative to semiquantitative estimate of the scope of the federal agencies in the solid-earth sciences. In the latter sense the data are the only comprehensive accumulation of solid-earth science information that is currently available. Moreover, the information has been accumulated at the working level where there is a high degree of knowledge for the technical and scientific contributions and programmatic content of the federal solid-earth science effort.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

DATA

The data are available on disk in spreadsheet format and each program or agency may be examined in terms of any of the parameters collected in the data base. As an illustration of the overall effort summary graphs of the distributions by Agency Function and Discipline are included for the total federal effort and for each agencies. The breakdown by Agency Function gives a visual description of the use of solid-earth scientists in accomplishing the missions of the agency, and the disciplinary divisions show the distribution of the types of skills that are needed. The Table gives a quantitative indication of the expenditures for each agency.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

QUESTIONNAIRE

I.

Program Description

 

 

1. Hierarchical position within agency (top down)

 

 

Agency

Organization

Officer

Telephone

 

 

2. Address

 

3. Narrative description of program (Short: 1 to 3 sentences)

 

4. Comments on collection/maintenance of solid-earth science data base

II.

Budget Information

 

1. Total Budget (in thousands)

 

 

Program level

 

 

For FY 1989, FY 1990, and FY 1991 list

 

 

 

Internal

External

Total

 

 

Element

FTE/$

$

$

 

2. Budget devoted to solid-earth sciences (in thousands)

 

 

Program level

 

 

For FY 1989, FY 1990, and FY 1991 list

 

 

 

Internal

External

Total

 

 

Element

FTE/$

$

$

 

3. Total external funds for solid-earth sciences (from #2), distributed by institution (industry, university, federally funded research laboratory) for FY 1989, FY 1990, and FY 1991

III.

Subdisciplinary Fields of the Solid-Earth Sciences (FY 1990)

Estimate percentage support of the total solid-earth science budget.

___Geochemistry

 

___Analytical geochemistry

 

 

___Isotopes

 

 

 

___Stable

 

 

 

___Radioactive

 

 

___Rock/mineral/fluid major element chemistry

 

 

___Rock/mineral/fluid trace element chemistry

 

___Biogeochemistry (rock/organism interactions)

 

___Cosmochemistry and meteoritics

 

___Experimental geochemistry

 

___Igneous geochemistry

 

___Metamorphic geochemistry

 

 

___High-temperature (>200° C)

 

 

___Low-temperature (<200° C)

 

___Organic geochemistry

 

___Volcanology

___Geology

 

___Archeology

 

___Geomorphology

 

___Mathematical geology and geostatistics

 

___Quaternary geology

 

___Sedimentology

 

___Stratigraphy

 

___Structural geology

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

 

___Surficial geology

 

 

___Processes

 

 

___Remote sensing

 

___Tectonics

___Geophysics

 

___Geophysical modeling

 

___Mineral physics

 

___Physical properties of rocks

 

___Potential field

 

 

___Geodesy and gravity

 

 

___Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism

 

 

___Heat flow

 

___Seismology/acoustics

___Glaciology

___Hydrology

___Mineralogy/crystallography

___Paleobiology

 

___Paleoecology

 

___Paleontology

 

 

___Invertebrate

 

 

___Paleobotany

 

 

___Vertebrate

___Other (specify)

IV. Functional (Multidisciplinary Mission-Related) Goals of the Solid-Earth Sciences (FY 1990)

Estimate percentage support of the total solid-earth science budget.

___Basic Research (Sensu strictu)

___Economic geology

 

___Mineral resources

 

 

___Metals

 

 

___Nonmetals

 

___Energy resources

 

___Hydrocarbons

 

 

___Coal

 

 

___Oil and gas

 

___Geothermal

 

___Hydrological resources

 

 

___Groundwater reservoirs

 

 

___Surface reservoirs

___Education and Human Resources

___Engineering Geology

 

___Construction

 

___Land use/urban geology

 

___Mining engineering

 

___Mining technology/mineral extraction

 

___Petroleum engineering

___Global Change Studies (solid-earth components only)

___Natural Hazard Reduction

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

 

___Earthquakes

 

 

___Engineering

 

 

___Geology/geophysics/geochemistry

 

___Floods

 

___Landslides

 

 

___Engineering

 

 

___Geology/geophysics/geochemistry

 

___Subsidence

 

 

___Engineering

 

 

___Geology/geophysics/geochemistry

 

___Volcanoes

___Planetology (exclusive of Earth)

 

___Planetary surfaces

 

___Planetary interiors

___Regulatory Geology

 

___Environmental geology

 

___Toxic wastes

 

 

___Chemical

 

 

___Radioactive

___Soils

 

___Resources

 

___Processes (chemical, physical, biogeochemical, and mineralogical)

___Other (specify)

V. Geographic Classification of Solid-Earth Science Support (FY 1990)

Estimate percentage support of the total solid-earth science budget.

___Extraterrestrial

 

___Meteorites

 

___Planets

___Terrestrial

 

___Continental (non Polar regions)

 

___Marine

 

 

___Geology

 

 

___Geophysics

 

___Polar Regions

 

 

___Arctic

 

 

___Antarctic

___Other (specify)

VI. Instrumentation and Facilities for the Solid-Earth Sciences (FY 1990)

Estimate percentage support of the total solid-earth science budget.

___Instrumentation (Items < $500,000)

 

___Geochemical

 

___Geological

 

___Geophysical

___Facilities (Items > $500,000)

 

___Geochemical

 

___Geological

 

___Geophysical

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

TABLE A.1 Summary of Federal Agency Expenditures in the Solid-Earth Sciences (FY 1990)

Agency Totals

Facilities and Instrumentation

Education

 

$ millions

Percentage

 

$ millions

Percentage

 

$ millions

Percentage

USDA

276.04

20.18

USDA

3.51

0.26

USDA

 

0

DOD

61.15

4.47

DOD

25.09

1.83

DOD

 

0

DOE

161.07

11.77

DOE

7.57

0.55

DOE

0.41

0.03

DOI

582.25

42.56

DOI

32.67

2.39

DOI

10.29

0.75

DOS

0.50

0.04

DOS

 

0

DOS

0.00

0

EPA

36.22

2.65

EPA

1.51

0.11

EPA

0.91

0.07

NASA

66.47

4.86

NASA

15.74

1.15

NASA

 

0

NOAA

41.85

3.06

NOAA

0.60

0.04

NOAA

 

0

NRC

7.77

0.57

NRC

 

0

NRC

 

0

NSF

134.70

9.85

NSF

52.46

3.83

NSF

2.75

0.20

Total

1368.01

100.00

 

139.16

10.17

 

14.37

1.05

USDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture; DOD, Department of Defense; DOE, Department of Energy; DOI, Department of the Interior; DOS, Department of State; EPA, Environmental Protection Agency; NASA, National Aeronautical and Space Administration; NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; NRC, Nuclear Regulatory Agency; NSF, National Science Foundation.

FIGURE A.1 Individual agency expenditures in the solid-earth sciences in FY 1990 expressed as a percentage of the total ($1,368 million); see Table A.1 for details.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

FIGURE A.2 Percentage of the solid-earth science expenditures within selected agencies as related to their mission goals. A, DOE; B, DOI; C, EPA; D, NASA; E, NSF; F, all agencies in survey. The mission goals include research, soils, cartography, energy, regulatory geology, engineering geology, remediation, defense, natural hazards, mineral resources, global change, education and human resources, nuclear monitoring, land management, planetary geology, and other.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

FIGURE A.3 Percentage of the solid-earth science expenditures within selected agencies subdivided according to discipline. A, DOE; B, DOI; C, EPA; D, NASA; E, NSF; F, all agencies in survey.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 319
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 320
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 321
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 322
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 323
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 324
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 325
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 326
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 327
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 328
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×
Page 329
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As environmental problems move upward on the public agenda, our knowledge of the earth's systems and how to sustain the habitability of our world becomes more critical. This volume reports on the state of earth science and outlines a research agenda, with priorities keyed to the real-world challenges facing human society.

The product of four years of development with input from more than 200 earth-science specialists, the volume offers a wealth of historical background and current information on

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This well-organized and practical book will be of immediate interest to solid-earth scientists, researchers, and college and high school faculty, as well as policymakers in the environmental arena.

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