National Academies Press: OpenBook

Solid-Earth Sciences and Society (1993)

Chapter: Index

« Previous: Appendix B
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

Index

A

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), 95, 251

development and availability needs, 307

Acid rain, 222

and meteorite catastrophe, 128

Adaptive radiation, 124

Advanced Photon Source (APS), 252

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) , 182

Advection, 140

Aerial photography, 253

Africa, 72

Agency for International Development, 260, 263

Agriculture, 146-148, 219-220

Air pollution, 222, 225

coal combustion, 173-175

Alaska, 163, 208, 209

Alaska earthquake of 1964, 59, 195, 208, 209, 210

Alberta Basin, 167

Aleutian Islands, 211

Aleutian Trench, 101

Alkenones, 111

Alps, 79

Amazon Basin, 121

Amosite, 218

Amphibole, 71

Andes, 102, 211

Andesite, 70

Anoxic conditions, 163, 165

Anticlines, 167-168

Aquifers, 146-149

Archaeopteryx, 126

ARISTOTELES, 182

Asbestos, 217-218, 300

Asteroids, 52-53

Asthenosphere, 54

Aswan Dam, 148

Atlantic Ocean, 75, 98, 100

Atmosphere, early development, 117

Atmospheric processes

carbon cycle origin, 108-109

models, 129

research needs, 130

B

Bacteria, 290

Bahamas, 101

Basalt, 49, 56, 63, 75

Basin and Range province, 74-75, 119

Bengal fan, 79

Beryllium, 82

Biological evolution, 25-26, 115, 120-127

adaptive breakthroughs, 131

research needs, 134, 284, 312

see also Adaptive radiation;

Speciation

Biometallurgists, 156

Biosphere, 187

Biotic interactions, 124

Black smokers, 66, 67, 141, 158

Borah Peak, Idaho, 204

Bureau of Mines, 259, 310

C

Calcareous nannoplankton, 109

California, 148, 205, 209, 210

Cape Hatteras, 100, 197

Carbon and carbon cycle, 108-109, 112-113, 117

research needs, 132-133

Carbon dioxide, 108-109

Carbon-14, 95

Carcinogens, 217-218

Caribbean land bridge, 121

Carrying capacity, 139, 229

Cascade Range, 120, 211, 212

Catastrophes, 127-128

research needs, 231

CD-ROM, 265

Chelation, 144

Chemical geodynamics, 88

Chesapeake Bay, 94, 197

Chicxulub crater, 52, 128, 213

Chile, 208

Chlorite, 71

Chromium, 150

Chrysotile, 217-218

Cigar Lake, Saskatchewan, 157

Circum-Atlantic Project, 260

Circum-Pacific Map Project, 260

Circumantarctic Current, 111

Cladistic analysis, 127

Clean Air Act, 223

Climate

Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) project , 110

research needs, 133

Climatic fluctuations, 25-26

earth orbit variations, effect, 20

El Niño, 195

glaciation effects, 49-50

global warming, 131

global warming and mineral deposition, 154-155

indicators of past changes, 113

mountain building, effects on, 119-120

and orbital cycles, 105

research needs, 133, 301

Tibetan plateau influence, 80

and volcanism, 65, 210

volcano effects, research needs, 231

Coal, 113, 172-175, 222, 225

accessible resources, assessment needs, 181

mining and environment, research needs, 230

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

pollution control technologies, research needs, 174-175

Coastal areas and processes, 196-197

Cold slabs, 55-56, 81

Colleges and universities, solid-earth scientists employed, 239

Columbia River Plateau, 63

Comets, 52-53

Community Climate Model, NCAR, 120

Computer simulations, see Models and modeling

Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP), 71, 203, 292

Computers

advanced supercomputing capability needs, 182, 290, 294

international cooperative data programs, 266

computational and modeling capabilities, 290, 309

three-dimensional seismology, 171, 172

Comstock lode, Nevada, 159

Construction materials, 216

Construction sites, 214

Consulting firms

solid-earth scientists employed, 239

Continental collision, 78-80

Continental evolution and structure, 29-32, 70, 71-84, 107-108

research needs, 290-293

terranes, 120

Continental margins, 78, 100-103

Continental rifts, 74-75, 85, 86

Continental Scientific Drilling Program, 257

Continental shields, 76-77

Convection, 49, 52, 53-71, 72, 81-83

fluid dynamics, 140

magma-groundwater interaction, 140-141

mantle convection, research needs, 313

Convergent plate boundaries, 69-71, 86, 87, 155

sediment deposition, 101-102

volcanism, 211-212

earthquakes, 199-200

Cool-temperature anomalies, 49

Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP), 114

research needs, 133

Copper, 157

Core-mantle dynamics, 32, 34

boundary processes, 58, 88

research needs, 286-288, 296

water in mantle and core, 82-83

Craters, 52-53

Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, 51-53

Crocidolite, 218

Crustal dynamics, 29-32, 48

active crustal deformation, research needs, 290-293

continental evolution, 71-84

crustal fluids, research needs, 180, 286-288

extensional deformation, 74-75

mountain building, 73-74

petroleum sedimentary basins formation, 165

recycling of crust, 81-83

research needs, 135, 313

D

Data bases, see Data collection and management

Data catalogs, 255

Data collection and management, 5, 8, 42-43

accessibility of industry and DOD data, 254-255

common data exchange format, 265

data base access and standards, 135, 253-255

data base development and access, 307-309

digital data, 253-255

geological map data base, 183

geochemical/geophysical data base, 231

geophysical data bases, 183

global seismic networks, 249, 259

international cooperative earth science programs, 266-267

national interactive earth science data system, 264, 315

on-line national data directory, 265

paleoenvironmental data bases, development, 285-286

paleontological data base, 308-309

petroleum industry data availability, 253

space-based data, 253

topographic data base, 183

tsunamis field data, 209

water quality data, collection problems, 145

Data format standards, 253-255

Data preservation, 254, 255

Dating techniques, 87, 92-93, 95, 106, 119

isotopic dating, research needs, 179

laser probe, 73-74

new techniques, 136

tectonic processes, research needs, 228, 292

Deccan Traps, India, 63, 127

Decompression melting, 66-67

Dedicated drilling, 293

Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), 258, 288

Deforestation, 195, 219-220

Deltas, 78, 100

Department of Defense (DOD), 237-238, 293

Department of Energy (DOE), 222, 242, 250, 293, 310

Deserts, 98

Detachment systems, 75

Developing countries

solid-earth science education, international support, 261, 263

Diagenesis, 167-168, 178

Diamonds, 62, 83

Dinosaurs, 52-53, 125-126, 213

Discontinuities, 53

DNA hybridization, 127

Drainage basins, research needs, 135

Drought, 148

Dynamic topography, 56-57

E

Earth core, 262

formation, 49, 52-54, 57-58

magnetic field, 88

research needs, 294

Earth crust, 84

research needs, 87

age, 76

Earth Observing System (EOS), 182, 311

Earth orbital cycles, 20, 105

climatic effects, research needs, 301

Earth origin, 50-51

early history, 116

Earth system, 16-18

integrated model, 292

Earthquakes, 37, 58-61, 87, 197-208

hazard assessment and prediction, research needs, 226-227, 293, 299 -300, 313

intraplate earthquakes, 200

reservoir safety, research needs, 228

silent earthquakes, 61

East African rift, 74

East Texas oilfield, 169

Eclogite, 56

El Niño, 65, 195, 210

Electric generating plants, 222, 225

coal combustion emission control technologies, 174-175

Elementary and secondary education, earth science courses and teachers , 244

Energy resources, 34-36, 162-177

research needs, 297

Engineered structures, 215-216

Engineering geology, 263

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 145, 217-219

Erosion, 48, 98, 190

Estuaries, 100, 197

Evaporites, 113

Exclusive Economic Zone, 238, 252

Extinctions, 51-53, 93, 120-127

and catastrophes, 127-128

mass extinctions, 125-126

research needs, 133, 283-286

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

Extraterrestrial impacts

giant impacts, consequences, 213-214

and mass extinctions, 50-52, 213

moon formation, 50-51

research needs, 300

F

Faults, 58-59

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 224, 271

Federal Emergency Management Agency, 293

Federal funding, 44, 270, 309

Feedback mechanisms, 108

Fellowships, 310

Fertilizers, 219

Floods, 97, 196

Fluid dynamics, 28-29, 48-49, 83-84, 86

crustal fluids, research needs, 180, 286-288

earth core, 57-58

magmas, 62-63

mineral transport, 157-158

and mountain building, 73-74

petroleum migration within basins, 166-68

research needs, 135, 288-290, 312-313

rock-fluid interactions, 140-141

Fluid inclusions, 155

Fluxes, 70, 71, 85-86, 94, 116, 128

hydrologic cycle transfer fluxes, 142

Foreign policy, 263

Foreland basins, 101-102

Fossil fuels, 162

Fossil pollen, 98

Fossils, 92-93, 111, 117-127, 253

anomalous distributions, 120

eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, 115

Funding of research, 8, 39-40, 309-311

basic research training, funding need, 263

federal funding, 309

industry support of university research, 309-310

G

Gas chromatography, 250

Geobarometry, 73

Geochemical cycles, 26-28, 81-83, 107-109

research needs, 286-288, 312

Geochemistry

atmospheric and oceanic changes, research needs, 130-131

engineered bacterial species for leaching metals, 156

genetic ore deposition studies, 155-156

instrument development and availability, 307

instruments and facilities, 250-252

interface geochemistry, 84, 86, 299

mineral-water interface geochemistry, research needs, 135

modeling, 86

research needs, 178, 230, 299

Geochronology, 92, 128

Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT), 238

Geodetic studies, 292

Geographic information systems (GIS), 19-20, 195

development needs, 229, 290, 307-309

Geological archives, 308

Geological hazards, 36-37, 187-213

hazard assessment and prediction, research needs, 226-230, 299-300

interactive natural hazards, research needs, 229

Geological site analyses, 215-216

Geological Society of America, 245, 252, 260, 309

Geological Survey of Canada, 257

Geomagnetism, 18, 57-58, 119, 262

ocean floor magnetism mapping, 237-238

research needs, 296

Geomorphology, 94-95

Geophysics, 203

crustal deformation research techniques, research needs, 292-293

engineering geophysics, 217

mineral detection techniques, 160-161

subsurface exploration, research needs, 229

GEOSCOPE project, 259

Geothermal energy, 176-177

concealed fields location, research needs, 182

Geothermometry, 73

Geysers, 159

Giant clams, 67, 156

Glaciation, 98, 103, 113, 196

and orbital cycles, 105

research needs, 133, 284

Sahara region, 111

sea level, effects on, 94

uplifts as cause of, 120

Global Change Research Program, 262, 271, 276

Global environmental change, 25-26, 223

research needs, 227, 230-231, 283-286, 312

Global geological cycles, 26-28, 103-115, 312

research needs, 133, 283-286

Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) Project, 257

Global Positioning System (GPS), 19, 61, 87, 212, 248-249

Global Seismographic Network (GSN), 257, 259

Global seismic networks, 249, 257, 259, 296, 309

Glomar Challenger, 258

Gold, 150-151, 153, 157, 159-160

Gondwana, 49, 79-80, 108, 111, 154, 163-164

Government agencies, solid-earth scientists employed, 239

Gravity, 294

Great Lakes, 196

Great Rift Valley, 98

Green River Formation, Utah, 165

Greenhouse effect, 104-105, 117, 131, 195

Greenland, 293

Groot Island, Australia, 155

Groundwater, 178, 195

magma-groundwater interaction, 140

research needs, 230

water quality national network, 297-298

Groundwater contamination, 38, 84, 144-145, 180, 219, 221, 223

research needs, 300-301, 314

Gulf of Mexico, 94, 163, 171, 192

encroachment upon Mississippi delta, 94

H

Habitats, 93

Hawaii, 62-63, 192, 208-209, 212

Hazardous waste, 230

Health regulations

asbestos, 217-218

radioactive waste disposal, 221-222

radon, 218-219

zinc, 219

Health risks, 217-219

research needs, 230

Heavy metals, 144-145

Heterogeneities, 55, 83

High Plains, 148

High-pressure apparatus, 55, 88, 251-252, 296, 307

High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, 182

High-spatial-resolution instruments, 251, 292

High-temperature apparatus, 55, 88, 251-252, 290, 296

Himalayas, 79, 101, 120

Historical record, earthquake documentation, 200-201

Hot-spots, see Mantle plumes

Hot springs, 159

Human activities, 20, 93-94, 195, 214-215, 223-225

Hurricane Andrew, 198

Hydraulic fractures, 140

Hydrologic cycle, 142-145, 148-149, 222-223

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

Hydrology, 142-149, 223, 284

Hydrothermal circulation of ocean water, 67

I

Ice cores, 308

Imaging techniques, 19-20, 53-58, 93

multispectral satellite imagery, 193

sonar images of seafloor, 61

Income, solid-earth scientists, 241

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 259, 293

Indus River, 101

Insolation, 105

Instruments and facilities, 5, 19-20, 31, 41-42, 75

accelerator mass spectrometry, 95

current applications, 248-252

development needs, 136, 248-252, 307, 315

earliest earthquake detection instrument, 203

earthquake detection instruments, 203, 205

micromagnetic measuring instruments, need for, 89

mineral exploration, research needs, 182

ocean bottom instruments, need for, 89, 209

overseas facilities of multinational corporations, 261

paleontology, new equipment, 136

soil formation measurement, 95

submarine features measurement, 101

tectonic strain measurement, 61

see also Dating techniques;

Imaging techniques;

Seismic data and imaging;

Satellites;

Space-borne instruments

International assistance

solid-earth science education, international support, 261

International cooperation, 8, 44-45, 79, 93, 210, 224, 255-263, 266 -267, 316

International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 224, 256

International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), 65, 212, 226, 257

International Geodynamics Project (IGP), 256

International Geological Congress (IGC), 252, 256

International Geological Correlation Program (IGCP), 257

International Geophysical Year (IGY), 254, 256

International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), 65, 224, 257, 276

International Lithosphere Program (ILP), 256, 262

International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), 256, 262

International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), 256, 260

Interplanetary probes, 19

Ion microprobes, 89, 251

Iridium, 52, 93, 125, 127-128

Iron, 52, 117, 153-154

Irrigation, 146-148

Isotopic analysis, 28, 95, 107-109, 111, 117, 118, 155-156, 250-251, 296, 307

J

Japan, 159, 208

Joint ventures, see International cooperation

K

Kerogens, 165

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, 64, 211-212

Kimberlite, 62

Kodiak Island, Alaska, 210

Komatites, 153

Krakatoa, 63

L

Lahars, 212

Lake Baikal, 98

Lakes, 98-99

Land use, 214

Landfills, 230

Landforms, 94-95

research needs, 135, 293

Landsat, 79, 99

research needs, 182, 231

Landslides, 191-195

prediction and prevention, research needs, 228, 300

Lascar volcano, 65

Laterites, 25, 113

Laurasia, 79-80

Laurentia, 154

Leachates, 221

Lead, 150-152

Lesser Antilles Trench, 101

Life, origin, 116

Limestone, 101, 119

Liquefaction, 202, 206, 207

Lithosphere, see Continental evolution and structure;

Crustal dynamics;

Earth crust

Lunar rocks, 308

M

Magellan probe, 52

Magma, 61-66, 86

arc magmas, 70-71

fluid dynamics, research needs, 288-290

groundwater-magma interaction, 140-141

ocean, 51

Magnetic field, 52, 57-58, 88

research needs, 301

Magnetic surveys, 160-161

Mammals

species impoverishment, 120-121

Manganese, 154

Mantle dynamics, 32, 34, 53-71, 81-83, 84-85, 87, 251-252, 262

convection, research needs, 313

discontinuities, 54

mantle mixing, 81-83

mantle melting, 68, 69, 72-73

material transport by convection, 53-57, 88

research needs, 293-296

see also Core-mantle dynamics;

Mantle plumes

Mantle plumes, 18, 48-49, 53, 55, 56, 62, 67-69

Maps and mapping, 19, 69, 88, 92, 237-238

geological maps, development and availability needs, 307-308

digital topographic data sets, need, 308

volcanoes, 213

climatic map of world 18,000 years ago, 110

geological site analyses, map needs, 215

mineral deposit formation, research needs, 180

volcano mapping, research needs, 228

Marianas Trench, 101

Marine reefs, 113

Mars, 98

Mathematics, inversion techniques, 203, 205

Mercury, 150

Mercury poisoning, 144-145

Metals, 158

in situ mining, research needs, 180

Metamorphic petrology, 73

Metamorphism, 73-74, 87

Meteorites, 116, 128, 213, 308

Microorganisms

genetically-engineered microbes for waste treatment, 180

Microtectites, 127-128

Middle East, 79, 163-166

Mineral dusts, 218

Mineral resources, 34-36, 149-178

distribution and concentrations, 149-152

epigenetic and syngenetic ore deposits, 152-153

exploration, 150-152, 158-162

research needs, 297

see also Energy resources;

Metals;

Mining and mining industry;

Sand and gravel;

Quarried rock

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

Minerals

concealed ores detection, research needs, 181

deposit occurrence prediction, research needs, 180

deposit formation, research needs, 180-181

and mountain building, 73-74

Minerals Management Service, 265

Mining and mining industry, 218, 219, 265

in situ and traditional techniques, 161-162

funding of research, 310

solid-earth science education support, 261

solid-earth scientists employed, 239

Mining law, 265

Minorities, 244

Mission to Planet Earth, 262

Mississippi delta, 94, 100

Mississippi River, 97, 100, 191

Models and modeling, 15, 31, 50, 53, 92-93

advanced computational and modeling facilities, 182, 309

climatic models. 114-115

continental-scale modeling, research needs, 87

earth system modeling problems, 128-129, 292

earthquake rupture mechanisms, 60

earthquakes, 205-206

energy-balance model, 114-115

evolutionary change models, 122-123

extraterrestrial giant object impact, consequences, 213

extraterrestrial impacts, 52

general circulation models (GCMs), 57, 105

glaciation periods, 129

global geological change, research needs, 133-136

landform changes, research needs, 135

mantle convection, 57

mantle plumes, 68

meteorite catastrophe, 128

mineral deposits, 153, 156-158

mineral occurrence and deposit formation, research needs, 180

mountain building, 73-74

ocean spreading centers, 67, 291

organic material maturation and diagenesis, 168, 178

sedimentary basin fluid flow, 168

tsunamis, 209

volcanic eruptions, 211

water flow, research needs, 180

Molybdenum, 151

Mono Lake, California, 148

Moon, 50-51, 116, 213

Mount Pinatubo, 193, 223, 299-300

Mount St. Helens, 63, 191, 211, 212, 299-300

Mountain building

climatic effects, 119-120

research needs 290-292

Mountain ranges, 73-74, 87

Mudflows, 212-213

Multinational corporations, 261

Museum curation and storage, 308

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 224, 262

National Center for Atmospheric Research, 120

National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP), 293, 300

National Geological Mapping Act, 308

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 300

National laboratories, solid-earth scienti employed, 239

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 252

National Science Foundation (NSF), 209, 238, 258-259, 271, 300

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 244

National Synchotron Light Source, 252

Natural gas, 79, 163, 224-225

Natural selection, 122-123

Networks

development and availability, 309

earthquake and volcanic eruption warning systems, 37, 208

earthquake parameters assessment networks, 208

global seismic networks, 249, 259

INTERNET, 249

national earth science data system, 264

Neutron activation analysis, 250

Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, 192, 213

New Madrid, Missouri, 200

New Zealand, 159

Nicaragua, 208

Niger delta, 100

Nimbus 7 spacecraft, 65

North America, 80, 122, 196

North American Continent-Ocean Transects Program, 257

Northern Hemisphere, 149

glaciation effects, 94

Nuclear power, 175-176, 225

waste disposal, research needs, 230

Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 293

Nuclear Waste Policy Act, 222

O

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 218

Ocean basin processes, 29-30, 66-71, 74-76, 81

cycles of opening and closing, 107

sediment deposition, 100-103

research needs, 284-285, 290-293

Ocean crust

formation, 69

recycling through mantle, 56

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 75, 118, 182, 258, 259, 275-276, 284 , 288, 290, 293

cores collection, 93

expanded role, 307

Ocean floor

cores collection, 93

research needs, 290-293

sediment deposition in deep ocean, 102-103

Ocean plateaus and ridges, 66, 68-69, 83, 86, 158

volcanic activity, 62

Ocean spreading centers, 66, 76

Oceanic anoxic events, 112

Oceanic Research (SCOR), ICSU, 258

Oceans

atmospheric and oceanic changes, 130-131

currents, 110-113

research needs, 133, 284-285

temperature and current changes, 110-113

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 271

Office of Technology Assessment, 270

Ogallala aquifer, 148

Oil and gas drilling

trends in relation to number of geology majors, 242

Oil shale, 169-170

Oil spills, 139

Olivine, 56, 70

Ontong Java plateau, 69

Orinoco Delta, 100

Orogenies

continental-scale modeling, research needs, 87

Ostracodes, 111

Outgassing, 50, 52, 141

Oxidation, 117

P

Pacific Northwest, 59, 207-208

Pacific Ocean, 98, 155, 208

Paleobiology, 120-127

Paleoceanography, 109-113

research needs, 133

Paleoclimatology, 113

research needs, 133

Paleogeography, 119

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

research needs, 133

Paleomagnetic data, 117

Paleontology, 120-127

Paleoseismology, 60, 201-202

research needs, 228

Pangea, 79-80, 118, 154

Perovskite, 21

Petroleum and petroleum industry, 79, 112-113, 163-172

advanced production and enhanced recovery, research needs, 181

anoxic conditions and petroleum formation, 165

delta resources, 100

exploration, 170-172

exploration, research needs, 181

formation of deposits, 163-166

funding of research, 309-311

lake beds as source, 98

migration through sedimentary basins, 166-168

origin of oil, research needs, 178

resource development and recovery, research needs, 297

solid-earth science education support, 261

solid-earth scientists employed, 239

traps, 168-169

Petroleum geology, 106-107

Phytoplankton, 112

Plagioclase, 51

Plants, 113-114

Plate tectonics, 18-20, 53-71

continental evolution, 71-81

convergent plate boundaries, 101-102

and earthquakes, 58-61

Late Quaternary history, research needs, 228

and mineral deposits, 153

and mountain building, 73-74

ocean basin processes, 66-71

plate motion rates and directions, 69, 87

recycling of plates, 82

research needs, 291, 294, 313

and Southern Hemisphere cooling, 111

volcanic activity, 61-66

Polar regions, 111

Policy recommendations, see Research goals, priorities, and recommendations

Population concentration problems, 192, 214-223

Precambrian period, 115-117

Pressure-temperature (P-T) paths, 73-74

Professional societies, 246-247, 252-253

Project Mohole, 258

Protangulum, 125

Public awareness, 247

Public lands, 264

Q

Quarried rock, 216

Quaternary period, 133, 228

Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine transect, 257

R

Radar, 161

Radioactive decay, 115

Radioactive nuclides, 162

Radioactive waste disposal, 162, 176, 215, 221-222

research needs, 301

Radon, 218-219, 300

Rain forests, 121

Rare earths, 157

Rare metals, 67, 70-71

Real-time geology, research needs, 228

Recycling, of crust, 81-83, 286-287

Red Dog deposit, Alaska, 152

Red Sea, 158

Remote sensing, 92, 106, 130

erosion patterns, 190

geothermal resources identification, 177

mineral detection methods, 161

research needs, 231

volcano observation, research needs, 228

Research goals, priorities, and recommendations, 2-4, 6-7, 9-12, 20-39, 269-316

Research institutions

solid-earth scientists employed, 239

Reservoirs, 228

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 215

Ridge InterDisciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE), 275, 290, 293

Rio Grande rift, 74

Rivers and streams, sediment transport, 96-98

Rock cycle, 104-115

Rocky Mountains, 79, 120

Rubidium, 107-108

S

Sahara, 98, 99

Sahel, 98

Salt domes, 157

Salt Lake City, 199, 201

San Andreas Fault, 58-59, 76-77, 202, 206-208, 299

San Francisco, California, 206

San Joaquin Valley, California, 195

Sand and gravel, 216

Sand dunes, 113

Satellite laser ranging (SLR), 61

Satellites, 19, 61, 65, 93, 106, 295

multispectral imagery, 193

volcano observation, research needs, 228

Sea Satellite (SEASAT), 238

Sea level fluctuations, 94-95, 106-107, 129, 170, 197

Seawater, 109-113

Sediment

ocean deposition, 100-103

oldest, 116

transport and deposition, 33, 87, 96-103, 191

Sedimentary basins

fluid flow models, 168, 290

oil and gas traps, 168-169

petroleum migration, 166-168

petroleum origin, 164-166

research needs, 135, 178-179, 290, 297

Sedimentology, 118-119

Seiches, 209

Seismic data and imaging, 19, 31, 53-58, 60, 106-107, 169, 197-208, 294

cross-well seismology, 172

development of seismological equipment, 256

earthquake detection, 203, 209-210

global seismic networks, 70, 249, 292, 296, 300, 305-306

national and regional seismic networks, need, 300

neotectonic features identification, research needs, 229

petroleum exploration techniques, 170-172

sedimentary basins, 78

seismic reflection profiling, 71, 166, 171, 292

strong ground-motion seismology, 60, 206

teleseismic data, 206

three-dimensional seismology, 170-172

tsunami-detection, 209-210

Seismology, see Seismic data and imaging

Seismometers, see Seismic data and imaging

Selenium, 145

Serengeti Plain, 122

Serpentine, 71, 218

Sewers, 217

Seychelles plateau, 69

Shatsky plateau, 69

Sierra Nevada, 119-120

Silica, 63

Silver, 152, 159

Sinkholes, 195, 230

Slumping, 192

Soil, 94, 113

earthquakes and soil condition, 206

processes, research needs, 133, 228

volume-changing soils, research needs see also Soil degradation;

Soil formation

Soil degradation, 220

see also Erosion

Soil formation, 95-100, 220

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
×

Solar system, 50

Solid waste disposal, 215

Solid-earth science education, 4-5, 43

curricula change needs, 263, 311-312

engineering-earth science curricula bridging, 312

enrollment and graduates, 243-244

graduate and postdorate studies, 263-264

introductory college courses, 245-246

research experience for students, 246

universal availability of earth-science education, 316

Solid-earth scientists

employment by sector and education, 43-44, 239

peer review, 272

supply, demand, and characteristics, 4-5, 225, 237-242, 247-248

South Africa, 150

Southeast Asia, 151

Southern California Earthquake Center, 293

Soviet Academy of Sciences, 260

Soviet Union, 155, 259

Space Research (COSPAR), ICSU, 258

Space-borne instruments, research needs, 315

Space-time scales, 17-18

Speciation, 122-123

Spectrometric techniques, 250-251

see also Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

State geological surveys, 252

State water quality agencies, 145

Stratigraphy, 50, 93, 97, 101, 102

magnetic stratigraphy, 118

seismic stratigraphy, 169

sequence stratigraphy, 106-107

Strontium, 107-108

Subduction, 48-49, 53-71, 81-83

continental evolution, 71-81

and convergent plate boundaries, 101-110

and earthquakes, 58-61

ocean basin processes, 66-71

Submarine canyons, 101

Submarine fans, 101

Submarine navigation, 237-238

Submersibles, 101

Subsidence, 78, 195-196

research needs, 229-230

Sulfur, 174

Sulfur dioxide, 222-223

Superfund, 242

Synchotron facilities, 89, 252

development and availability, 252, 307

T

Tangshan, China, 79, 198

Tar sands, 170

Telecommunications, 254

global seismic networks, 249, 259

international cooperative earth science programs, need, 266-267

national earth science data system, need, 264

Temperature changes, 109-113

Terranes, 76-77, 120

Texas Gulf Coast, 157, 197

Thetford, Quebec, 218

Thistle, Utah, 191

Thrust belts, 169

Tibetan Plateau, 79, 98, 120

Tin, 151

Topography, 183, 186

Total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), 65

Toxic wastes, 215

research needs, 301

water supply contamination, 143-145

see also Radioactive waste disposal

Trenches, 56, 101-102

Triaxial stresses, 252

Tsunamis, 208-210

Tungsten, 157

Tunnels, 216-217

U

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 145, 183, 252, 257, 259, 260, 300, 308

Unconformities, 164, 170-171

Underground space, 229

United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 257

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 257

University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System, 182

Uplift, 196-197

see also Crustal fluid dynamics;

Mountain building

Upper Mantle Project (UMP), 256

Uranium, 153, 157, 162, 175-176

Urban geology, 214

Urbanization problems, see Population concentration problems

V

Varves, 98

Venus, 52

Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI), 61

Vitrinite, 165-166

Volatiles, 63

Volcano Observatory, USGS, 63

Volcanoes, 48, 59, 61-66, 155, 210-213

aborted eruptions, 211

climatic effects, research needs, 231

eruption causes and prediction, research needs, 228, 299-300

intraplate volcanism, 62, 67-69

island arc volcanism, 62, 69-71, 82

W

Warning systems, 37, 208, 210

Wasatch Fault, 199, 201

Waste management, 220, 310

geological assessment needs, 214

research needs, 301

Water quality and pollution, 143-145, 222

estuaries, 197

water quality national network, 297-298, 313

water quality, research needs, 180

see also Groundwater contamination

Water supply and use, 34, 141-149

depletion in western U.S., 147-148

distribution of surface water, 143

drainage basin analysis, research needs, 178-179

water quality national network, 297-298, 313

Water-rock interaction, 178

research needs, 299

Weathering, 48, 95-100

Well logging, 171

Western States, 98, 178-179

water supply problems, 146-148

earthquake hazard research needs, 299

Wind, 98

World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 258

World Data Centres, ICSU, 266

World Stress Map, 257

Worldwide Seismic Networks, 254

Worldwide Standardized Seismic Network (WWSSN), 259

X

Xenoliths, 72

Y

Yellowstone National Park, 159

Yellowstone volcanic area, 65

Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Yugoslavia, 259

Z

Zagros Mountains, 79

Zinc, 152, 219

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1990.
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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society Get This Book
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As environmental problems move upward on the public agenda, our knowledge of the earth's systems and how to sustain the habitability of our world becomes more critical. This volume reports on the state of earth science and outlines a research agenda, with priorities keyed to the real-world challenges facing human society.

The product of four years of development with input from more than 200 earth-science specialists, the volume offers a wealth of historical background and current information on

  • Plate tectonics, volcanism, and other heat-generated earth processes.
  • Evolution of our global environment and of life itself, as revealed in the fossil record.
  • Human exploitation of water, fossil fuels, and minerals.
  • Interaction between human populations and the earth's surface, discussing the role we play in earth's systems and the dangers we face from natural hazards such as earthquakes and landslides.

This volume offers a comprehensive look at how earth science is currently practiced and what should be done to train professionals and adequately equip them to find the answers necessary to manage more effectively the earth's systems.

This well-organized and practical book will be of immediate interest to solid-earth scientists, researchers, and college and high school faculty, as well as policymakers in the environmental arena.

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