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Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing (1992)

Chapter: 4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS

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Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
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4
BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS

Several beam techniques have been incorporated or show promise of applicability in microelectronics manufacture. As a result, this highly competitive industry is one that is most likely to benefit early from the process integration discussed in this report. This chapter reviews important microelectronics applications of beam technologies and outlines uses of these technologies in semiconductor device manufacturing.

BEAM APPLICATIONS IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE MANUFACTURE

Many of the well-developed and widely used applications of beam technologies are in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. The continuous need to produce smaller and more complex structures with higher quality and yield has provided the major emphasis for much of the development of sophisticated beam processes and beam processing equipment. Some of the applications of beam technologies in the fields of integrated circuit and optoelectronics fabrication are reviewed here to illustrate the capabilities and advantages of these technologies over previous manufacturing techniques.

Silicon Integrated Circuits

Although the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs) is a very precise and complex process, only a few general types of operations are performed. These operations involve deposition, patterning, etching, cleaning, doping by ion implantation, oxidation, diffusion, and heat treatment. A typical sequence of steps is illustrated in Figure 4-1, a sequence performed many times to fabricate a complete circuit. The beam technologies used for the various operations are listed in Table 4-1. Specific examples of some uses of beam technologies are described in the sections that follow.

Beam Technologies For Materials Deposition

Continuous improvement in the speed and functionality of IC has been achieved by a dramatic reduction in the sizes of transistors and interconnection elements. Key to achieving this reduction has been the ability to improve the thickness and compositional uniformity of the metals, dielectrics, and semiconducting materials deposited on the substrate.

Over the past 10 years, sputtering has replaced evaporation as the technology of choice for depositing thin films of metal on IC. Sputtering offers advantages of better control of alloy composition, such as from an Al-Cu-Si alloy target, as well as in situ sputter etching, good thickness uniformity, and superior adhesion. In addition, deposition of refractory metals is generally achieved much better by sputtering than by evaporation.

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

Figure 4-1 Typical IC processing sequence.

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

Table 4-1 Beam Applications in Silicon IC Manufacture

Deposition Technologies

 

Material

Uses

CVD

 

Si Epitaxy

Growing controlled layers of semiconductors

 

 

Polysilicon

Gate electrodes. capacitor plates, interconnects, resistors

 

 

SiO2

Insulator. diffusion or implant mask

 

 

Si3N4

Insulator, oxidation mask

 

 

W

Via plugs, interconnects

PACVD

 

Silicon

TFTs, resistors, photovoltaics

 

 

SiO2

Insulator, diffusion or implant mask

 

 

Si3N4

Insulator, oxidation mask, passivation

PVD

 

Al, Au

Interconnects

PAPVD

 

Al, Ti, W

Interconnects, barriers

 

 

Ni-Cr, SiCrO, TaN

Resistors

 

 

SiO2

Insulator

 

 

Si3N4

Insulator

 

 

Silicon

TFTs, resistors, photovoltaics

Ion beam

 

B, P, As

Controlled semiconductor doping

Patterning Technologies

 

 

Uses (ultimate resolution)

X-ray

 

 

Masked resist exposure, feature size of 0.1 µm

FIB

 

 

Direct deposition or etching, feature size of 0.1 µm

Optical

 

 

Masked photoresist exposure, feature size of 0.25 µm

e-beam

 

 

Direct write resist exposure, feature size of 0.1 µm

Etching Technologies

Etching Gas

Material

Uses

Plasma etching

C2F6

SiO2

Diffusion and implant windows, vias

 

CF4/SF4

Si3N4

Diffusion and oxidation windows

 

CF4/SF6

Silicon

Trench isolation, polysilicon interconnect

 

Cl2/BCl3

Aluminum

Metal interconnect

 

CF4/SF6

Tungsten

Metal interconnect

Plasma etching,

C2F6

SiO2

Spacers, planarization

unpatterned

CF4

Si3N4

Masking layer removal

 

CF4

Polysilicon

Storage capacitors, three-dimensional structures

 

CF4/SF6

Tungsten

Via plugs

Sputter etching

Ar

Any

Cleaning, surface layer removal

Cleaning Technologies

 

 

 

Sputtering

Ar

Any

Surface cleaning prior to deposition

O2

O2

Photoresist

Photoresist removal and surface cleaning

H2 plasma

H2

SiO2

Surface cleaning prior to epitaxy

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is another major technological improvement of the past 10 years. By reducing the deposition pressure to the 1- to 10-Tort range, significant improvements in film quality, cleanliness, and uniformity have been achieved for dielectric and polysilicon depositions. Thickness uniformities of 2 to 3 percent are routinely achieved by batch LPCVD systems. The ability of LPCVD to uniformly and conformally cover very large aspect ratio features has been a major contributor to the ability to manufacture megabit random access memories (RAMs). Selective LPCVD of tungsten shows great promise for improving the reliability of IC interconnections and for increasing their performance (Bertagnolli et al., 1988; Kaanta et al., 1988). Figure 4-2 illustrates interconnect cross-sections with and without tungsten via plugs. An extension of the via-fill method has been used to form a fully planarized refractory metal interconnect scheme (Thomas et al., 1988).

Ion implantation has replaced diffusion for almost all semiconductor doping process steps. It allows controlled impurity profiles and dopant concentrations to better than ±3 percent. The resulting implant doping profiles are not as dependent on temperature and solid solubility as are diffusion doping profiles. Implantation also allows a major reduction of the thermal budget for temperature-sensitive process steps and permits buried-layer profiles, which cannot be readily accomplished with thermal diffusion.

Figure 4-2 Metal step coverage improvement by selective via filling using LPCVD.

Beam Technologies For Patterning

Essentially all of the patterning of silicon ICs is performed by optical lithography, with an optical step-and-repeat lithography sequence being the technology of choice for advanced circuit fabrication. As feature sizes are reduced, the limits of optical lithography will be reached. Electron beam (EB) lithography is used currently in some circuit designs for defining small features and also in some small-volume commercial applications. Because of its high resolution, EB pattern generation is the technology of choice for producing complex optical and x-ray photomasks. Improved EB

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

capabilities or perhaps use of ion beam writing systems will be required to produce the x-ray masks of the future. Because serial EB is slow, its application to conventional IC production is very limited.

An apparent successor to optical lithography is x-ray lithography. Present research demonstrates that existing x-ray technology can achieve 0.1-µm lithographic features. Although many technical problems remain, the capabilities and costs of production-type x-ray equipment are well enough understood that several industrial and university groups are building or using synchotron x-ray sources to develop IC fabrication processes (Warlaumont, 1989). Electron and ion beams, both focussed and masked, have merit in overcoming some of these lithography problems.

Beam Technologies For Etching

Fine-geometry circuit elements have been made possible by major advances in dry etching. All present methods for dry etching depend on the use of a plasma to generate chemically active radicals in the low-pressure gas ambient. This provides the unique capability to etch highly anisotropically, which allows preparation of much smaller feature dimensions and gives the ability to create three-dimensional structures. The combination of LPCVD deposition and anisotropic etching has led to recent increases in dynamic RAM (DRAM) density (Ema et al., 1988; Shen et al., 1989). The anisotropic capability of dry etching also allows fabrication of several key features in IC circuits, as shown in Figures 4-3 through Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-3 Schematic of a spacer-protected metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor formation.

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

Figure 4-4 Schematic of a stacked ''fin'' capacitor formation process. (a) transister formation; (b) SiN deposition; (c) SiO2, polysilicon, SIO2 deposition; and contact hole formation; (d) polysilicon; (e) storage electrode patterning; (f) SiO2 removal by hydrofluoric acid solution; (g) capacitor film growth, polysilicon deposition, cell plate, and bit line formation. No extra mask process is necessary to form fin structure; the number of fins can be easily changed.

Figure 4-5 Schematic trench-capacitor cell structure.

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

BEAM TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTOR ICs

Most of the processing technologies used for compound semiconductor IC fabrication are identical to those used for silicon ICs. Newer device structures, such as heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs) and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), depend heavily on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and MBE beam technologies to create highly uniform, precisely controlled epitaxial layers of different materials (Asbeck et al., 1987; Ng et al., 1989). Table 4-2 describes additional beam technologies that are applied to the fabrication of compound semiconductor Ics.

Table 4-2 Beam Applications for Compound Semiconductor IC Processing

Deposition Technologies

 

Material

Uses

MOCVD

 

GaAs

Buffer layers, FET channels

MBE

 

AlGaAs

Super lattice buffers, heterojunction transistors

 

 

InGaAs

Heterojunction transistors, contacts

 

 

InAlAs

Heterojunction transistors, contacts

Etching Technologies

Etching Gas

Material

Uses

Plasma etching

Cl2

GaAs

Selective material removal, backside vias

Ion milling

Ar

Gold

Interconnect etching

Heating

Ambient

 

Uses

Rapid optical anneal

Ar, AsH3, N2

 

Implant activation, contact formation

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

Beam Technologies For Materials Deposition

The two highly precise growth technologies, developed to prepare epitaxial layers of compound semiconductor with the extremely precise control of stoichiometry, doping, and thickness required for high-performance devices, are MBE and MOCVD. Figure 4-6 shows two of these complex structures.

Figure 4-6 Illustration of complex transistor structures.

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

Beam Technologies For Heating

The abrupt interfaces and bandgap engineering necessary to produce heterostructure devices must be preserved during device processing. Prolonged high-temperature annealing will cause layer mixing and loss of interface abruptness. To minimize these problems, rapid thermal annealing is often used to activate the implants of heterostructure devices. Heat-up and cool-down times of a few seconds are accomplished by optical heating of the substrate with large banks of high-intensity lamps. The same technique is often applied to form ohmic contacts to GaAs and to Si ICs when the thermal budget is tight.

OPTOELECTRONICS

Processing techniques to fabricate optoelectronic components are similar to those used to fabricate heterojunction compound semiconductor devices. GaAs-AIGaAs heterojunction layers have been in use for over 20 years. In the past most such devices were fabricated by liquid-phase epitaxy or chloride-transport vapor-phase epitaxy. Today, MBE and MOCVD techniques provide the capability to fabricate higher-performance yet more complex devices that use superlattices and quantum-well confinement. These may contain integrated devices employing both GaAs and InP semiconductors.

REFERENCES

Asbeck, E. M., M. F. Chang, K. C. Wang, D. L. Miller, G. J. Sullivan, N. H. Sheng, E. Soveno, and J. A. Higgins. 1987. Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (ED-34), 12Dec.:2571-2579.


Bertagnolli, E., C. Wieczorek, J. Berthold, W. Rosner, B. Hoffman, and H. Schaber. 1988. Low Resistance Via Hole Filling by Blanket W-CVD. Proceedings of the Fifth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnect Conference, pp. 324-330. IEEE, New York.


Ema, T., S. Kawanago, T. Nishi, S. Yoshida, H. Nishibe, T. Yubu, Y. Kodama, T. Nakano, and M. Taguchi. 1988. 3-Dimensional Stacked Capacitor Cell for 16M and 64M DRAMS. International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, pp. 592-595. IEEE, New York.


Kaanta, C., W. Cote, J. Cuoninik-Holland, P. Lee, and T. Wright. 1988. Submicron Wiring Technology with Tungsten Planarization. Proceedings of the Fifth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnect Conference, pp. 21-28. IEEE, New York.


Ng, G., D. Pavlidis, M. Tutt, J. E. Oh, P. K. Battacharya. 1989. Improved Strained HEMT Characteristics Using Double-Heterojunction in .65Ga .35As/In .52Al .48As Design. IEEE Electron Devices Letters 10(3):114-116.


Shen, B., G. Chung, I. Chen, D. Coleman, P. Ying, R. McKee, M. Yashino, and C. Teng. 1989. Scalability of a Trench Capacitor Cell for 64 MBIT DRAM. International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, pp. 27-30. IEEE, New York.

Stinton, D. P., T. M. Besmann, and R. A. Lowden. 1988. Advanced Ceramics by Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques. American Ceramic Society Bulletin 67(2):350.

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×

Thomas, D. C., S. S. Wong, D. R. Dinsmore, and R. J. Soave. 1988. A Multilevel Tungsten Interconnect Technology. International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, pp. 466-469. IEEE, New York.


Warlaumont, J. 1989. X-ray Lithography: On the Path to Manufacturing. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. [B]7(6):1634-1641.

Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"4 BEAM APPLICATIONS IN MICROELECTRONICS." National Research Council. 1992. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2006.
×
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Beam technologies play an important role in microelectronic component fabrication and offer opportunities for application in other manufacturing schemes. Emerging beam technologies that incorporate potential for sensors, control, and information processing have created new opportunities for integrated processing of materials and components.

This volume identifies various beam technologies and their applications in electronics and other potential manufacturing processes. Recommendations for research and development to enhance the understanding, capabilities, and applications of beam technologies are presented.

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