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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
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Transforming
Health Care
Scheduling
and Access

______________

Getting to Now

Committee on Optimizing Scheduling in Health Care

Gary Kaplan, Marianne Hamilton Lopez, and J. Michael McGinnis,
Editors

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. HHSP23337008 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Veteran Affairs. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-33919-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-33919-7
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2015947573

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu.

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2015. Transforming health care scheduling and access: Getting to now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
×

Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.
”      

                                                —Goethe

image

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
×

COMMITTEE ON OPTIMIZING SCHEDULING IN HEALTH CARE

GARY KAPLAN (Chair), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Virginia Mason Health System

JANA BAZZOLI, Vice President, Clinical Affairs, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center

JAMES C. BENNEYAN, Director, Healthcare Systems Engineering Institute, Northeastern University

JAMES CONWAY, Adjunct Faculty, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health

SUSAN DENTZER, Senior Policy Adviser, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

EVA LEE, Professor and Director, Operations Research in Medicine and Health Care, School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

EUGENE LITVAK, President and Chief Executive Officer, Institute for Healthcare Optimization

MARK MURRAY, Mark Murray & Associates, LLC

THOMAS NOLAN, Senior Fellow, Institute for Healthcare Improvement

PETER PRONOVOST, Senior Vice President for Patient Safety & Quality, Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health

RONALD M. WYATT, Medical Director, Healthcare Improvement, The Joint Commission

IOM Staff

MARIANNE HAMILTON LOPEZ, Study Director (from April 2015)

MELINDA MORIN, Study Director (until April 2015)

ELIZABETH JOHNSTON, Senior Program Assistant

KATHERINE BURNS, Senior Program Assistant

MINA BAKHTIAR, Senior Program Assistant

LESLIE KWAN, Research Associate

GURU MADHAVAN, Senior Program Officer

J. MICHAEL McGINNIS, Senior Scholar and Executive Director, IOM Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care

Consultants

JOE ALPER, Science writer

REBECCA MORGAN, National Academies Library/Research Center

ROBERT POOL, Copyeditor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
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Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Karen S. Cook, Stanford University

Julie A. Freischlag, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Mark E. Frisse, Vanderbilt University

Christine Hunter, U.S. Office of Personnel Management

Beverley H. Johnson, Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care

Kenneth W. Kizer, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Charles E. Phelps, University of Rochester

Murray Ross, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc.

Vinod K. Sahney, Northeastern University

Katepalli R. Sreenivasan, New York University

Alfred F. Tallia, Rutgers University

Alan R. Washburn, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to Now. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20220.
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Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Georges C. Benjamin, American Public Health Association, and Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania. Appointed by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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According to Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access, long waits for treatment are a function of the disjointed manner in which most health systems have evolved to accommodate the needs and the desires of doctors and administrators, rather than those of patients. The result is a health care system that deploys its most valuable resource--highly trained personnel--inefficiently, leading to an unnecessary imbalance between the demand for appointments and the supply of open appointments. This study makes the case that by using the techniques of systems engineering, new approaches to management, and increased patient and family involvement, the current health care system can move forward to one with greater focus on the preferences of patients to provide convenient, efficient, and excellent health care without the need for costly investment.

Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access identifies best practices for making significant improvements in access and system-level change. This report makes recommendations for principles and practices to improve access by promoting efficient scheduling. This study will be a valuable resource for practitioners to progress toward a more patient-focused "How can we help you today?" culture.

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