National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE H-1 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Nutrients: Children Participating in WIC

Nutrient Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean)
10th   25th   Median   Mean   75th   90th   % Inadequate  
Calcium (mg/d) 617   781   995   1,018   1,246   1,505   7.6  
Iron (mg/d) 6.3   7.9   10.1   10.8   12.7   15.4   1.3  
Potassium (mg/d) 1,456   1,708   2,018   2,047   2,372   2,746    
Vitamin C (mg/d) 37   57   90   104   135   189   0.6  
Folate (μg DFE/d) 161   203   259   284   328   403   2.1  
Vitamin D (IU/d) 148   210   292   302   391   500   76.5  
Total fiber (g/d) 6   7   9   10   12   15    

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for children 1–4.9 years of age participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 643). See additional notes for Tables H-1 through H-5 following Table H-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE H-2 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Nutrients: Children Not Participating in WIC

  Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean)
Nutrient 10th   25th   Median   Mean   75th   90th   % Inadequate  
Calcium (mg/d) 580   731   919   956   1,142   1,387   13.3  
Iron (mg/d) 7.0   8.6   10.6   11.3   13.0   15.3   3.4  
Potassium (mg/d) 1,297   1,555   1,877   1,955   2,239   2,601    
Vitamin C (mg/d) 38   54   76   85   105   137   0.9  
Folate (μg DFE/d) 178   222   279   301   350   430   2.8  
Vitamin D (IU/d) 112   165   238   261   328   423   87.1  
Total fiber (g/d) 6   8   10   11   13   16    

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for children 1–4.9 years of age not participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 462). See additional notes for Tables H-1 through H-5 following Table H-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE H-3 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Nutrients: Women Participating in WIC

  Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean)
Nutrient 10th   25th   Median   Mean   75th   90th   % Inadequate  
Calcium (mg/d) 646   793   974   953   1,174   1,369   27.1  
Iron (mg/d) 8.7   10.8   13.5   15.5   17.3   22.2   14.7  
Potassium (mg/d) 1,344   1,713   2,187   2,239   2,732   3,286    
Vitamin C (mg/d) 26   44   75   81   119   170   45.4  
Folate (μg DFE/d) 222   276   342   372   420   503   42.9  
Vitamin D (IU/d) 99   140   201   209   279   366   91.1  
Total fiber (g/d) 7   9   13   14   18   23    

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for women 19–50 years of age participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 96). See additional notes for Tables H-1 through H-5 following Table H-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE H-4 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Nutrients: Women Not Participating in WIC But WIC-Eligible

  Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean)
Nutrient 10th   25th   Median   Mean   75th   90th   % Inadequate  
Calcium (mg/d) 536   689   897   1,078   1,150   1,423   36.2  
Iron (mg/d) 9.8   11.5   13.7   15.6   16.3   19.0   9.3  
Potassium (mg/d) 1,451   1,921   2,457   2,578   3,006   3,511    
Vitamin C (mg/d) 18   37   72   104   128   201   52.0  
Folate (μg DFE/d) 263   312   377   426   452   531   34.5  
Vitamin D (IU/d) 93   128   175   207   232   293   98.3  
Total fiber (g/d) 8   11   15   16   19   23    

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for women 19–50 years of age identified in the survey as being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum but not participating in WIC at the time of the survey (n = 51). See additional notes for Tables H-1 through H-5 following Table H-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE H-5 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Nutrients: Women Not Participating in WIC and Ineligible to Participate

  Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean)
Nutrient 10th   25th   Median   Mean   75th   90th   % Inadequate  
Calcium (mg/d) 499   632   807   842   1,018   1,246   48.2  
Iron (mg/d) 7.8   9.6   11.9   12.8   14.5   17.4   19.5  
Potassium (mg/d) 1,379   1,702   2,104   2,183   2,563   3,037    
Vitamin C (mg/d) 26   40   63   76   98   141   46.6  
Folate (μg DFE/d) 212   257   315   338   384   456   51.2  
Vitamin D (IU/d) 64   94   140   158   201   270   98.6  
Total fiber (g/d) 7   10   12   13   16   20    

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for women 19–50 years of age identified in the survey as not being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum and not participating in WIC at the time of the survey (n = 1,379). See additional notes for Tables H-1 through H-5 following this table.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

NOTES FOR TABLES H-1 THROUGH H-5: DFE = dietary folate equivalents. Nutrients presented are “nutrients of concern” as presented in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (USDA/HHS, 2010); % Inadequate is calculated from Dietary Reference Intakes as defined in Table E-1. An AI, rather than an EAR, was set for potassium and total fiber; thus, it is not possible to calculate a percent of the population with inadequate intakes for these nutrients. All population groups are ≤ 185 percent of the poverty-income ratio. In all of the data analyses, the data were weighted to population values by using the method of balanced repeated replication and constructed the replicated weight sets as described by Fuller (2009). To assess nutrient adequacy, the usual intake distributions were estimated using methods that account for the statistical properties of the data (intra-individual variation and reported data that are normally distributed [Carriquiry, 1999; IOM, 2000]). The approach of the Institute of Medicine (2000) was applied in which, when combining groups with different EARs, intakes in one of the groups are re-scaled so that they can be compared to the EAR of the other group. Underreporting of intake in the NHANES survey has been well documented (Archer et al., 2013). Food intakes from which nutrient intakes are determined are obtained by one to two 24-hr recalls, which can be useful for assessment of dietary intakes by groups (IOM, 2000).

DATA SOURCES FOR TABLES H-1 THROUGH H-5: NHANES 2007–2010 (USDA/ARS, 2007–2010).

REFERENCES

Archer, E., G. A. Hand, and S. N. Blair. 2013. Validity of U.S. Nutritional Surveillance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey caloric energy intake data, 1971-2010. PLoS ONE 8(10):e76632.

Carriquiry, A. L. 1998. Assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Public Health Nutrition 2(1):23-33.

Fuller, W. 2009. Sampling Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2000. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

USDA/ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service). 2007–2010. What we eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349 (accessed December 15, 2014).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Nutrient Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 70
Next: Appendix I: Nutrient Profiles »
Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $40.00 Buy Ebook | $31.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher assesses the impact of 2009 regulation to allow the purchase of vegetables and fruits, excluding white potatoes, with a cash value voucher on food and nutrient intakes of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) population and to consider whether white potatoes should be permitted for purchase with the voucher. This report considers the effects on diet quality, the health and cultural needs of the WIC population, and allows for effective and efficient administration nationwide in a cost-effective manner. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher recommends that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should allow white potatoes as a WIC-eligible vegetable, in forms currently permitted for other vegetables, in the cash value voucher pending changes to starchy vegetable intake recommendations in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!