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Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE J-1 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Food Groups: Children Participating in WIC


Food Group Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean) Recommended Intake

10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th

Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.4
Fruits (c-eq/d) 0.6 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.5 1.2
Grains (oz-eq/d) 2.0 2.7 3.7 4.0 4.9 6.1 4.1
Dairy (c-eq/d) 1.2 1.7 2.4 2.5 3.2 4.1 2.4
Protein foods (oz-eq/d) 1.4 2.0 2.7 2.8 3.6 4.6 3.1
Added sugars (tsp-eq/d) 3.9 6.2 9.7 10.2 14.3 19.6 NA
Oils (g-eq/d) 4.7 7.0 10.3 11.1 14.6 19.3 16.5
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 17.2 21.9 27.9 28.5 35.1 42.6 NA

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for children 1–4.9 years of age participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 643). Recommendations are weighted in a 1:3 ratio using 1,000 and 1,300 (averaged from 1,200 and 1,400) calorie food patterns, following methodology applied by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2011). See additional notes for Tables J-1 through J-5 following Table J-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE J-2 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Food Groups: Children Not Participating in WIC


Food Group Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean) Recommended Intake

10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th

Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.4
Fruits (c-eq/d) 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.7 2.2 1.2
Grains (oz-eq/d) 2.8 3.6 4.5 4.6 5.5 6.6 4.1
Dairy (c-eq/d) 0.9 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.8 3.6 2.4
Protein foods (oz-eq/d) 2.0 2.4 2.9 3.1 3.5 4.1 3.1
Added sugars (tsp-eq/d) 5.8 8.4 12.1 12.5 16.6 21.7 NA
Oils (g-eq/d) 7.8 9.8 12.4 12.4 15.4 18.3 16.5
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 16.3 21.9 29.0 29.6 37.2 45.3 NA

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for children 1–4.9 years of age not participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 462). Recommendations are weighted in a 1:3 ratio using 1,000 and 1,300 (averaged from 1,200 and 1,400) calorie food patterns, following methodology applied by the IOM (2011). See additional notes for Tables J-1 through J-5 following Table J-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE J-3 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Food Groups: Women Participating in WIC


Food Group Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean) Recommended Intake

10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th

Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.5
Fruits (c-eq/d) 0.4 0.7 1.1 1.0 1.7 2.4 2.0
Grains (oz-eq/d) 3.8 4.9 6.4 6.6 8.1 9.9 6.0
Dairy (c-eq/d) 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.6 2.2 2.6 3.0
Protein foods (oz-eq/d) 2.9 3.8 4.8 5.1 6.1 7.4 5.5
Added sugars (tsp-eq/d) 6.5 10.6 16.7 19.0 24.6 33.5 NA
Oils (g-eq/d) 9.2 12.4 16.6 17.5 21.5 26.5 27.0
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 20.7 27.6 36.2 35.3 45.9 55.3 NA

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for women 19–50 years of age participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 96). See additional notes for Tables J-1 through J-5 following Table J-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE J-4 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Food Groups: Women Not Participating in WIC But WIC-Eligible


Food Group Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean) Recommended Intake

10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th

Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.7 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.5 2.5
Fruits (c-eq/d) 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.3 1.6 2.3 2.0
Grains (oz-eq/d) 4.6 5.4 6.3 7.1 7.3 8.3 6.0
Dairy (c-eq/d) 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.4 3.0
Protein foods (oz-eq/d) 2.8 4.0 5.6 5.6 7.4 9.2 5.5
Added sugars (tsp-eq/d) 9.6 14.1 20.1 20.3 27.0 34.1 NA
Oils (g-eq/d) 13.1 18.0 24.9 25.0 33.7 43.3 27.0
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 23.2 29.3 37.0 38.0 45.5 53.8 NA

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for women 19–50 years of age identified in the survey as being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum but not participating in WIC (n = 51). See additional notes for Tables J-1 through J-5 following Table J-5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE J-5 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Food Groups: Women Not Participating in WIC and Ineligible to Participate


Food Group Intake Distribution (percentiles and mean) Recommended Intake

10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th

Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.5 2.0 2.5
Fruits (c-eq/d) 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.6 2.0
Grains (oz-eq/d) 3.3 4.2 5.4 5.6 6.7 8.1 6.0
Dairy (c-eq/d) 0.6 0.9 1.4 1.4 1.9 2.5 3.0
Protein foods (oz-eq/d) 2.8 3.6 4.6 4.9 5.8 7.0 5.5
Added sugars (tsp-eq/d) 7.5 11.8 18.3 19.7 26.8 36.6 NA
Oils (g-eq/d) 10.5 13.9 18.5 19.3 24.4 31.1 27.0
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 17.6 23.2 30.7 31.9 39.6 49.2 NA

NOTES: Analysis sample was data for women 19–50 years of age identified in the survey as not being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum and not participating in WIC (n = 1,379). See additional notes for Tables J-1 through J-5 following this table.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

NOTES FOR TABLES J-1 THROUGH J-5: All population groups are ≤ 185 percent of the poverty-income ratio. c-eq/d = cup-equivalents/d; g-eq/d = gram-equivalents/d; NA = not applicable; oz-eq/d = ounce-equivalents/d; tsp-eq/d = teaspoon-equivalents/d.

Intakes for vegetables, fruits, and dairy are measured in cup-equivalents per day. Intakes for grains and protein foods are measured in ounce-equivalents per day. Intakes for oils and solid fats are measured in gram-equivalents per day. Intakes for added sugars are measured in teaspoon-equivalents per day. Recommended intakes are from Appendix 7 of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Specific recommended intake values are not provided for solid fats and added sugars. (USDA/HHS, 2010).

DATA SOURCES FOR TABLES J-1 THROUGH J-5: NHANES 2007–2010 (USDA/ARS, 2007–2010).

REFERENCES

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Child and adult care food program: Aligning dietary guidance for all. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

USDA/ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service). 2007–2010. What we eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349 (accessed December 15, 2014).

USDA/HHS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2010. Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Food Group Distributions." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 82
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Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher assesses the impact of 2009 regulation to allow the purchase of vegetables and fruits, excluding white potatoes, with a cash value voucher on food and nutrient intakes of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) population and to consider whether white potatoes should be permitted for purchase with the voucher. This report considers the effects on diet quality, the health and cultural needs of the WIC population, and allows for effective and efficient administration nationwide in a cost-effective manner. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher recommends that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should allow white potatoes as a WIC-eligible vegetable, in forms currently permitted for other vegetables, in the cash value voucher pending changes to starchy vegetable intake recommendations in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

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