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Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report (2015)

Chapter: Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis

« Previous: Appendix K: Healthy Eating Index 2010 Assessment
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE L-1a Sensitivity Analysis Example Considering the Addition of 0.09 Cup-Equivalents per Day of White Potatoes: WIC Children

Food Groups and Nutrients Current At-Home Intake Current Total Intake Recommended Intake Intake as % of Recommendation
Starchy Vegetable Subgroups (c-eq/d)

Total potatoes

0.16 0.23

Potentially WIC- eligible potatoes

0.09 0.12

Other starchy vegetables

0.05 0.06
Total Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.21 0.29 0.45 64.7
Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.02 0.02 0.13 16.9
Red-Orange Vegetables (c-eq/d)

Total tomatoes

0.12 0.15

WIC-eligible tomatoes

0.06 0.08

Other red-orange

0.04 0.04

Total red-orange

0.16 0.20 0.41 48.1
Other Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.10 0.14 0.32 42.8
Fruit (c-eq/d)

Total

1.32 1.45 1.00 144.8

Without juice

0.66 0.73
Change in cost
Energy (kcal) 1,566 1,300
Potassium (mg) 2,036 3,200
Total Fiber (g) 10.9 20.5
Calcium (mg) 992 775
Vitamin D (IU) 276 600
Iron (mg) 11.9 7.8
Vitamin C (mg) 82.4 17.5
Folate (μg DFE) 443 163

NOTES: c-eq/d = cup-equivalents/d; DFE = dietary folate equivalents. Food group recommendations are for 1,300 kcal diet weighted for 1-to 4.9-year-olds per the method outlined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2011). Change per day is based on at-home consumption; 0.09 c-eq/d for potatoes was used in this example with a 6 percent decrease in other vegetable categories and no change in fruit. Cost calculations are in Table L-3 and based on all fresh substitutions.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Cost per c-eq Change in Intake Cost of Change per Month Revised Intake Revised Intake as % of Recommendation Change in % Recommendation
$0.19 0.09 0.51 0.32
1.17 0.00 -0.10 0.05
0.38 84.0 19.35
1.37 -0.001 -0.04 -0.02 16.1 -0.83
1.07 -0.010 -0.31 0.19 45.7 -2.34
0.42 -0.006 -0.07 0.13 40.9 -1.88
1.45 144.8 0.00
0.25 0.000 0.00 0.73
-0.02
11 1,577
44 2,080
0.2 11.1
1 993
0 276
0 12.0
1 83.1
1 444

DATA SOURCES: NHANES 2007–2008 and NHANES 2009–2010 data for low-income children 1–5 years of age (USDA/ARS, 2007–2010); food group recommendations per 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (USDA/HHS, 2010), weighted in a 1:3 ratio using 1,000 and 1,300 (averaged from 1,200 and 1,400) calorie food patterns, following methodology applied by the IOM (2011). Nutrient intakes were compared to the RDA/AI for children 1–3 years of age and 4–8 years of age as listed in Table E-1.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE L-1b Projected Changes in Nutrient Intake Considering the Addition of 0.09 Cup-Equivalents per Day of White Potatoes: WIC Children

Nutrients Current Intake/d Recommended Intake/d Nutr/c-eq White Potatoesa Nutr/c-eq Other Starchy Vegetableb
Energy (kcal) 1,566 1,300 126 158
Potassium (mg) 2,036 3,200 553 360
Dietary fiber (g) 10.9 20.5 2.7 4.0
Calcium (mg) 992 775 14 5
Vitamin D (IU) 276 600 0 0
Iron (mg) 11.9 7.8 0.8 0.7
Vitamin C (mg) 82.4 17.5 11.5 9.1
Folate (μg DFE) 443 163 21 38.0
At-home food grp intake (current), c-eq/d 0.16 0.01
Change in food grp intake, c-eq/d 0.09 0.00

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalents; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGV = dark green vegetable; Nutr = nutrients; Red-Or = red and orange vegetable.

a Weighted average of boiled white potatoes without peel and baked white potatoes with peel in a 2:1 ratio.

b Nutrients are for boiled sweet yellow corn.

c CNPP draft nutrient profiles for the 2015 USDA Food Patterns

d Weighted average of apple, banana, watermelon, and orange in a 4:2:0.5:0.5 ratio.

e Assuming +0.09 c-eq of white potatoes (starchy veg), and −6 percent of other vegetable food groups (no change in fruit groups).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Nutr/c-eq Red-Orc Nutr/c-eq DGVc Nutr/c-eq Other Vegetablec Nutr/c-eq Fruitd Change in intake Revised Intake/d % Change in Intake
43 33 48 81 11 1,577 0.7
443 377 266 255 44 2,080 2.2
2.4 3.3 2.6 2.9 0.2 11.1 1.9
24 75 38 13 1 993 0.1
0 0 1 0 0 276 0.0
1.3 1.5 0.7 0.2 0.1 12.0 0.4
20.0 47.5 17.0 15.3 0.7 83.1 0.9
19 137 37 15 1 444 0.3
0.14 0.02 0.09 0.68
-0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00

DATA SOURCES: Nutrient intake data are for low-income children identified as participating in WIC from NHANES 2007–2010 (USDA/ARS, 2007–2010). CNPP draft nutrient profiles (Personal communication, P. Britten, USDA/CNPP, December 9, 2014); nutrient profiles from selected food items from USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27 (USDA/ARS, 2014).

Nutrient intakes were compared to the RDA/AI for children 1–3 years of age and 4–8 years of age as listed in Table E-1.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE L-2a Sensitivity Analysis Example Considering the Addition of 0.14 Cup-Equivalents per Day of White Potatoes: WIC Women

Food Groups and Nutrients Current At-Home Intake Current Total Intake Recommended Intake Intake as % of Recommendation
Starchy Vegetable Subgroups (c-eq/d)

Total potatoes

0.18 0.33

Potentially WIC-eligible potatoes

0.14 0.20

Other starchy vegetables

0.06 0.12
Total Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.24 0.45 0.71 62.6
Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.04 0.06 0.21 28.0
Red-Orange Vegetables (c-eq/d)

Total tomatoes

0.14 0.23

WIC-eligible tomatoes

0.11 0.17

Other red-orange

0.04 0.01

Total red-orange

0.18 0.24 0.79 30.9
Other Vegetables (c-eq/d) 0.22 0.20 0.57 34.3
Fruit (c-eq/d)

Total

0.90 0.98 2.00 49.0

Without juice

0.43 0.47
Change in cost
Energy (kcal) 2,019 2,000
Potassium (mg) 2,334 4,700
Total Fiber (g) 15.8 25
Calcium (mg) 908 1,000
Vitamin D (IU) 148 600
Iron (mg) 14.4 18
Vitamin C (mg) 83 75
Folate (μg DFE) 543 400

NOTES: c-eq/d = cup-equivalents/d; DFE = dietary folate equivalents. Food group recommendations are for 2,000 kcal diet. Change/day is based on at-home consumption. 0.14 c-eq/d for white potatoes was used in this example with a 6 percent decrease in all other vegetable categories and no change in fruit. Cost calculations are in Table L-3 and based on all fresh substitutions.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Cost per c-eq Change in Intake Cost of Change per Month Revised Intake Revised Intake as % of Recommendation Change in % Recommendation
0.19 0.14 0.80 0.47
1.17 0.00 -0.12 0.11
0.58 81.7 19.11
1.37 -0.003 -0.10 -0.06 26.8 -1.18
1.07 -0.011 -0.34 0.23 29.6 -1.35
0.42 -0.013 -0.16 0.18 32.0 -2.30
0.25
0.07
16.2 2,035
68.3 2,402
0.3 16
1.2 909
0.0 148
0.1 14
1.1 84
2.0 545

DATA SOURCES: NHANES 2007–2008 and NHANES 2009–2010 data for WIC women 19–50 years of age (USDA/ARS, 2007–2010). Food group recommendations per 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (USDA/HHS, 2010); Nutrient intakes were compared to the RDA/ AI as listed in Table E-1.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE L-2b Projected Changes in Nutrient Intake Considering the Addition of 0.14 Cup-Equivalents per Day White Potatoes: WIC Women

Nutrients Current Intake/d Recommended Intake/d Nutr/c-eq White Potatoesa Nutr/c-eq Other Starchy Vegetableb
Energy (kcal) 2,019 2,000 126 158
Potassium (mg) 2,334 4,700 553 360
Dietary fiber (g) 15.8 25.0 2.7 4.0
Calcium (mg) 908 1,000 14 5
Vitamin D (IU) 148 600 0 0
Iron (mg) 14.4 18.0 0.8 0.7
Vitamin C (mg) 83.0 75.0 11.5 9.1
Folate (μg DFE) 543 400 21 38
At-home food grp intake (current), c-eq/d 0.19 0.05
Change in food grp intake, c-eq/d 0.14 0.00

NOTES: c-eq/d = cup-equivalents/d; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGV = dark green vegetable; Nutr = nutrients; Red-Or = red and orange vegetable.

a Weighted average of boiled white potatoes without peel and baked white potatoes with peel in a 2:1 ratio.

b Nutrients are for boiled sweet yellow corn.

c CNPP draft nutrient profiles

d Weighted average of apple, banana, watermelon, and orange in a 4:2:0.5:0.5 ratio.

e Assuming +0.14 c-eq of white potatoes (starchy veg), and –6 percent of other vegetable food groups (no change in fruit groups).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Nutr/c-eq Red-Orc Nutr/c-eq DGVc Nutr/c-eq Other Vegetablec Nutr/c-eq Fruitd Change in intake Revised Intake/d % Change in Intake
43 33 48 81 16 2,035 0.8
443 377 266 255 68 2,402 2.9
2.4 3.3 2.6 2.9 0.3 16.1 2.0
24 75 38 13 1 909 0.1
0 0 1 0 0 148 0.0
1.3 1.5 0.7 0.2 0.1 14.5 0.6
20.0 47.5 17.0 15.3 1.1 84.1 1.3
19 137 37 15 2 545 0.4
0.19 0.03 0.14 0.41
-0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00

DATA SOURCES: Nutrient intake data are for low-income children identified as participating in WIC from NHANES 2007–2010 (USDA/ARS, 2007–2010). CNPP draft nutrient profiles (Personal communication, P. Britten, USDA/CNPP, December 9, 2014). Nutrient profiles from selected food items from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27 (USDA/ARS, 2014).

Nutrient intakes were compared to the RDA/AI for women 19–50 years of age as listed in Table E-1.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE L-3 Cost Calculation of Fruit and Vegetable Groups

Food group Food item Fresh Only Fresh, Canned, and Frozen
Cost/c-eq Percent weight Cost/lb Cost/c-eq Percent weight Cost/lb
White potatoes White potatoes, fresh 0.19 100.0 0.48 0.19 100.0 0.48
Weighted cost/c-eq 0.19 0.19
Other starchy veg Corn, yellow, fresh 1.17 9.8 1.80 1.17 0.0 1.80
Corn, yellow, canned 0.37 0.0 0.69 0.37 9.8 0.69
Green peas, frozen 0.51 0.0 1.34 0.51 5.3 1.34
Green peas, canned 0.43 0.0 0.74 0.43 5.3 0.74
Weighted cost/c-eq 1.17 0.42
Red-orange veg Tomatoes, fresh 1.28 70.9 2.94 1.28 70.9 2.94
Tomatoes, canned 0.41 0.0 0.77 0.41 70.9 0.77
Carrots, fresh 0.25 17.9 0.77 0.25 17.9 0.77
Weighted cost/c-eq 1.07 0.60
Dark green veg Broccoli, fresh 0.63 39.3 1.84 0.63 39.3 1.84
Leafy greens 1.95 25.0 0.40 1.95 25.0 0.40
Spinach, fresh 2.02 23.0 3.92 2.02 23.0 3.92
Spinach, frozen 0.96 0.0 1.51 0.96 23.0 1.51
Weighted cost/c-eq 1.37 1.29
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Other veg Lettuce, fresh 0.26 22.3 0.99 0.26 22.3 0.99
Green beans, fresh 1.03 10.5 3.23 1.03 0.0 3.23
Green beans, canned* 0.42 0.0 0.80 0.42 10.5 0.80
Onions, fresh 0.28 16.0 0.67 0.28 16.0 0.67
Cabbage, fresh 0.27 5.7 0.62 0.27 5.7 0.62
Weighted cost/c-eq 0.42 0.30
Fruit, no juice Apples 0.28 18.5 1.07 0.28 18.5 1.07
Bananas 0.21 12.8 0.45 0.21 12.8 0.45
Watermelon 0.17 5.2 0.26 0.17 5.2 0.26
Oranges 0.34 5.2 0.57 0.34 5.2 0.57
Weighted cost/c-eq 0.25 0.25

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalents. Only food items contributing 5 percent or more to the food group are included in the cost calculation. Percent weights reflect the percent contribution of the specific vegetable or fruit to the general vegetable or fruit subgroup. To calculate the weighted costs per cup-equivalent, these percents were rescaled so that they summed to 100 percent.

*Average of cut and whole canned green beans.

DATA SOURCES: Percent weight from Personal communication, P. Britten, USDA/CNPP, September 24, 2014; Cost data from USDA/ERS (2011).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

REFERENCES

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Child and adult care food program: Aligning dietary guidance for all. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

USDA/ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service). 2007–2010. What we eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349 (accessed December 15, 2014).

USDA/ARS. 2014. USDA national nutrient database for standard reference, release 27. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl (accessed December 15, 2014).

USDA/ERS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Economic Research Service). 2011. Fruit and vegetable prices. Washington, DC: USDA/ERS. http://ers.usda.gov/data-products/fruitand-vegetable-prices.aspx (accessed December 15, 2014).

USDA/HHS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2010. Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 87
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 88
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 89
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 91
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 92
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 94
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 96
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 97
Suggested Citation:"Appendix L: Background Example Data for Sensitivity Analysis." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 98
Next: Appendix M: Committee Biosketches »
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Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher assesses the impact of 2009 regulation to allow the purchase of vegetables and fruits, excluding white potatoes, with a cash value voucher on food and nutrient intakes of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) population and to consider whether white potatoes should be permitted for purchase with the voucher. This report considers the effects on diet quality, the health and cultural needs of the WIC population, and allows for effective and efficient administration nationwide in a cost-effective manner. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher recommends that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should allow white potatoes as a WIC-eligible vegetable, in forms currently permitted for other vegetables, in the cash value voucher pending changes to starchy vegetable intake recommendations in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

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