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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×

Index

A

Abzymes, 89, 98

Academic research, see University research

Adhesives, 90

Adsorption, 59

Aerobic microorganisms, 70

Affinity, 20, 59-60

Agricultural applications, 72, 73-74, 81-82, 93

see also Pesticides;

Plants

AIDS, 87

Air pollution, 95

Algae, 67, 74, 91

Amplification, 62

Animals, 72, 74

transgenic, 63, 90-91

see also Mammalian host systems

Antibiotics, 14, 61-62

Antibody engineering, 62, 89, 91

Approval, government, see Regulation and approval

Arsenate, 27

Automation technologies, 39, 59, 62, 65-66

Azadirachtin, 67

B

Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), 67

Bacteria, 58, 61, 73

Baculovirus, 86-87

Bioaugmentation, 70

Biodegradation systems, 69, 70, 95, 97-98

Biohydrometallurgy, 72, 74

Biological weapons, 98

Biomass, see Cellulosic products;

Ethanol

Biopharmaceuticals, see Pharmaceuticals

Bioprocess engineering, definition of, 1, 9, 45-46

Biopulping, 24, 25

Biopulp International, France, 25

Bioreactor engineering, 4-5, 68-69, 95, 99-100

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×

Bioregenerative life-support systems, see Life-support systems

Bioremediation, 4, 8, 23, 45, 69, 70-72, 91, 95, 98

Biosensor technologies, 39-40

Bioseparation, see Separation

Biotechnology in a Global Economy, 21, 70

Blood cells, 90

C

Canada, 72, 74

Carbohydrates, 99

see also Fermentation;

Starches

Carbon dioxide (CO2), 92

''Cartapip'' fungal inoculum, 25

Catalytic enzymes, 67, 89, 92

Cell cultures, 39, 96

insect, 86-87

plant, 68, 93-94

transplantation of, 88-90

Cell sorting, 99

Cellulosic products, 23-24, 25-26, 81

see also Ethanol

Chemicals, industrial, 3, 24, 50, 66-68, 91

research needs, 4, 68-69

sales, 66, 67

Chemical weapons, 98

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, 57

Chromatography, 14, 59, 60

Chymosin, 93

Clinton Corn Processing Co., 27

Clonal propagation, 94-95

Coal and coal conversion products, 26, 91

Committee on Life Sciences and Health, FCCSET, 33-34, 82

Competitive grant programs, 7, 80

Competitiveness, 10-12

international, 1-2, 5, 6, 11, 48, 85

Composting, 69

Computer-assisted design, 59, 65

Cooperative education programs, 7, 78-79

Copper leaching, 26

Corn, 23, 24, 26, 27-29, 31, 81

Costs, see Economics of production;

Pricing

Coupled synthesis gas, 29

Cross-disciplinary research, see Multidisciplinary research

Cyanobacteria, 67

D

Deliberate release, 72

Department of Agriculture, 81-82

Department of Defense, 97-98

Department of Energy, 81-82, 97

Design integration, 100

Detergents, 67

Developing countries, 98-99

DNA, see Polymerase chain reaction;

Recombinant DNA

Drugs, see Pharmaceuticals

Dry milling, 24, 26

E

Economics of production, 10-12, 13-14, 30, 31-32, 47, 84

mining, 74

pharmaceuticals, 19, 65

specialty products, 68-69

see also Investment in enterprise;

Pricing;

Sales of biotechnology products;

Scaleup to production

Education, see Training and education;

University research

Eli Lilly and Co., 17, 18

Embryogenesis, 94-95

Engineering Research Center Initiative, NSF, 7-8, 31, 78

Enhanced oil recovery, 26, 29-30, 74-75

Environmental applications, 4, 10, 23, 50, 69-75, 95

military sites, 97-98

research needs, 5, 8, 71, 75, 82, 91

training specialties, 80

Environmental Protection Agency, 70-71

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×

Enzymes, 24-28 passim, 62, 67, 69, 89, 92

Equipment engineering, 79

Erythropoietin (EPO), 18-19

Escherichia coli, 39, 51, 55-58 passim, 62, 81-82, 93

Ethanol, 24-25, 28-29, 81-82, 92

Europe, 2, 6, 41-44, 48, 95

Exchange programs, 6, 40

Extremophiles, 91

Exxon Corp., 70-71

F

Fab fragments, 56, 62

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 2, 33-34, 82

Federal government, laboratories, 7-8, 30-31

R&D support, 2, 5, 6, 7, 33-34, 46-48, 82, 83, 100

regulation, 11-12, 14, 40, 71, 82, 100

see also Department of Agriculture;

Department of Defense;

Department of Energy;

Environmental Protection Agency;

Food and Drug Administration;

National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

National Institutes of Health;

National Science Foundation

Fermentation, 24, 26, 28, 61-62, 68-69

Fiber, see Cellulosic products

Filamentous fungi, 58

Filtration technologies, 59, 95

Food and Drug Administration, 40, 47-48

Food and feed industry, 3, 93

Formulation of products, 63-64

Fraunhofer institutes, Germany, 42-43

Fuels, 3, 92, 93

see also Ethanol

Fungi, 24, 25, 58, 61

Fusion proteins, 59-60

G

Gene expression, 51, 55-56, 58, 61, 62, 86

Generic applied research, 4-5

industrial products, 30-31

pharmaceuticals, 21-22, 81

Genetech, Inc., 16, 17, 18

Gene therapy, 87, 88

Germany, 41-43, 68

Global competitiveness, see Competitiveness

Glucose isomerase, 13, 14, 27-28

Glycobiology, 60-61, 87

Government-industry relations, 45-48, 83

in Japan, 38-39

see also Regulation and approval

Grants, competitive programs, 7, 80

Greenhouse effect, 92

H

Heat-shock proteins, 57

Heterologous proteins, 55-61 passim, 64

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 14, 24, 26, 27-28

Host systems, 51, 55-58

Hot start, 62

Human growth hormone, 18, 51

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 87

Human-resources development, see Staffing;

Training and education

Hybridoma technology, 16, 17-19, 57

Hybrid proteins, 59-60

Hydrocarbons, 3

I

Immunoassays, 64-65, 93

Inclusion bodies, 56-57

Industrial chemicals, see Chemicals, industrial

Insect-cell cultures, 86-87

Insulin, recombinant, 14, 17-18

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×

Integrated manufacturing systems, 65-66, 100

Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Grant Program, NIH, 7, 78

International competitiveness, see Competitiveness

Investment in enterprise, 12, 31, 84, 85

Isolation processes, 58, 88-89

Israel, 68

J

Japan, 27, 38-41, 42, 94

global competitiveness, 2, 6, 48

L

Laboratories, government, 7-8, 30-31

weapons, 97-98

Leaching and leachates, 26, 70, 72, 74

Licensing, 40, 85

Life-cycle environmental responsibility, 95

Life Sciences Division, NASA, 97

Life-support systems, space applications, 32-33, 96-97

"Liftase" pulp drainage aid, 25

Lignocellulose, 23-24, 25-26, 81

Liquid formulations, 63-64

Livestock, 63, 72, 74

Lymphocytes, 89

Lyophilized proteins, 63-63

M

Mammalian host systems, 57, 61, 87, 99

Mammary gland system, transgenic, 63

Mars colony, 32

Medicine, see Pharmaceuticals

Metabolic engineering, 61–62

Metals recovery, 26, 72, 74

Microalgae, 67, 74, 91

Microbial processes, 81-82, 91

bioremediation, 70-72

coal conversion, 26

enhanced oil recovery, 29, 74-75

mining, 72, 74

Microgravity environments, 96, 97

Microgravity Science and Applications Division, NASA, 97

Miles Laboratory, 43

Military bases, hazardous waste on, 97-98

Milk bioprocessing, 63

Mineralization, 70

Mining, 26, 72, 74

Molecular chaperones, 57

Monoclonal antibodies, 62, 89, 91

Moon colony, 32

Moths, 86

Multidisciplinary research, 5, 7, 12, 20-21, 77-78

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 33, 97

National Cancer Institute, 67

National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 7, 78

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 21-22, 81

Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Grant Program, 7, 78

National Research Center for Biotechnology, Germany, 43

National Science Foundation (NSF), 47, 81

Engineering Research Center Initiative, 7-8, 31, 78

Nonrenewable-resource conversion, 23, 26

research needs, 30-32

Nucleotides and nucleotide analogues, 87, 99

O

Oil, see Petroleum

Oligosaccharides, 60

Organ transplants, see Transplants

Organic gases, 95

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×

P

Pacific yew tree, 68

Paper, see Pulp and paper

Penicillin, 13, 14, 15

Personnel, see Staffing;

Training and education

Pesticides, 67, 73, 87, 93

Petroleum, 26, 29-30

enhanced recovery, 26, 29-30, 74-75

ethanol industry and, 28-29

spills, 70-71

Pharmaceuticals, 3, 14, 16-20, 33, 47-48, 50-64, 87, 94

approved bioproducts (list), 52-53, 55

pricing, 19-20

research needs, 4, 20-22, 64-66, 80-81

sales, 10, 16, 20, 51, 52-53

training specialties, 80

Phototropic microalgae, 67

Plants, 67, 72, 73-74, 91

cell cultures, 68, 93-94

somatic embryogenesis, 94-95

Polarity of cells, 88, 90

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 62

Polypeptide tails, 59-60

Polysaccharides, 29, 68

Pricing, 19-20, 30, 35, 66

Protein engineering, 17-19, 59-60, 64

Protein pharmaceuticals, 2, 16-20, 47-48, 51, 55-64, 81

Proteolysis, 56

Protozoa, 67

Pulp and paper, 24, 25

Purification technologies, 4, 47, 58-60, 65, 81

Q

Quality control and testing, 4, 5, 47

R

Radioisotopes, 98

Recombinant DNA (rDNA), 13, 63

pharmaceutical applications, 17-19, 20, 43, 51, 55-56

Regulation and approval, 11-12, 14, 40, 71, 82, 100

pharmaceuticals, 51, 52-53, 55, 63, 91

Renewable-resource conversion, 3, 23-26, 91-93, 98-99

research needs, 30-32, 81-82

training specialties, 80

Repligen-Sandoz Research Corp., 25

Research and development, 4-5, 30-31, 80-82

environmental applications, 5, 8, 71, 75, 82, 91

equipment, 79

federal support, 2, 5, 6, 7, 33-34, 46-48, 82, 83, 100

industrial chemicals, 4, 68-69

in Germany, 42-43

in Japan, 38-41

nonrenewable resources, 30-32

pharmaceuticals, 4, 20-22, 64-66, 80-81

renewable resources, 30-32, 81-82

specialty bioproducts, 4, 68-69

training, 6, 7, 12, 44-45, 47

see also Technology transfer

Ribozymes, 89

Roche Holdings, Switzerland, 16

S

Safety evaluation, 63, 91

Sales of biotechnology products, 44

chemicals, 66, 67

corn-based, 26

pharmaceuticals, 10, 16, 20, 51, 52-53

Scaleup to production, 14-16, 31, 43, 65

Seeds, artificial, 94-95

Separation, 4, 28, 47, 58, 59, 65, 80, 81, 97

Sewage treatment, 69, 72

Soil treatment, 70

Somatic embryogenesis, 94-95

Space applications, 3, 32-33, 96-97

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×

Specialty bioproducts, 3, 30, 50, 66-67, 91

research needs, 4, 68-69

Stability of products, 64, 65

Staffing, 33, 46

Standards, manufacturing, 5

Starches, 24

Streptomyces, 58, 61

Sugars, see Fermentation;

Glucose isomerase

Surface cultures, 81

Synthesis gas, 29

T

Taq DNA polymerase, 62

Tax incentives, 84

Taxol, 68, 94

Team research, see Multidisciplinary research

Technology transfer, 31, 83-85

in Japan, 39

Therapeutic drugs, see Pharmaceuticals

Tissue engineering, 63, 89-90, 91, 96

Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), 18-19

Tobacco, 91

Training and education, 6, 7, 12, 44-45, 47, 77-80, 99

in Germany, 41-43

in Japan, 40

Transgenic organisms, 63, 90-91

Transplants, of cells, 88-90

of organs, 88, 89-90

of transgenic animal tissue, 63, 91

U

Ultrafiltration, 59

University research, 2, 12, 44-45, 78-79, 84-85

cooperation with industry, 31, 40, 78-79, 83, 84-85

in Germany, 42-43

in Japan, 40

Uranium, 74

U.S. government, see Federal government

V

Vaccines, 53, 73, 98

Valdez oil spill, 70-71

Viruses, 73, 86-87

W

Waste treatment, 26, 69, 70-72, 93

Weapons laboratories, 97-98

Wet milling, 23, 24, 26, 27-29

X

Xylose, 27-28, 92

Xylose isomerase, 27-28

Y

Yeast host systems, 58, 61

Yew tree, 68

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×
Page 115
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×
Page 116
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×
Page 117
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×
Page 118
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1992. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2052.
×
Page 120
Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering Get This Book
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The ability of the United States to sustain a dominant global position in biotechnology lies in maintaining its primacy in basic life-science research and developing a strong resource base for bioprocess engineering and bioproduct manufacturing.

This book examines the status of bioprocessing and biotechnology in the United States; current bioprocess technology, products, and opportunities; and challenges of the future and what must be done to meet those challenges.

It gives recommendations for action to provide suitable incentives to establish a national program in bioprocess-engineering research, development, education, and technology transfer.

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