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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×

Index

A

Accidental exposure, 42, 139-140

Acute effects, dermatological, 157-167

genital injury, 39, 160, 175, 219,221

of nitrogen mustard, 77-78

ocular, 133-139

respiratory tract, 115-118, 125-126, 127, 399-412

of sulfur mustard, 22, 25, 34, 75-78, 82

Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANL), 102-103, 393-395

African Americans, 36, 41-42

Alexander, Stewart, 44

Animal studies, 222-224

blood disorders, 187-188

carcinogenicity, 88-97, 171-172, 391-396

dermatological effects, 162-164, 167, 171-172

gastrointestinal disorders, 187

immunity disorders, 181-183

ocular effects, 139

reproductive toxicity, 189-190, 192-194

respiratory effects, 117, 118

Anxiety disorders, 200, 207, 211

Arm chamber tests, 40

Arsenals, 3-4, 40-43, 55, 120,

see also Edgewood Arsenal;

Occupational exposure

Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 86-87, 172-173, 192-193

see also Lewisite

Asbestos, 126, 407

Asthma, 119, 336, 409-410

B

Bainbridge, MD, Navy Training Center, 372-373

Bari harbor, Italy, disaster, 4, 10, 43-44, 184-185

Basic training, see Training exercises

Battlefield use, 9-10, 47-48, 142, 173

exposure levels, 33

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×

Iran-Iraq war casualties, 48, 117, 122, 170, 185, 191

WWI casualties, 9, 47, 48, 101-102, 121-122, 135, 137, 140-142, 183 -184, 203, 335-337

Beryllium, 124-125, 406-407

Birth defects, 189-195

Blindness, 140-141

Blisters, 151, 159, 167, 168

Blood counts, 68, 183-185

Blood disorders, 187-188, 220,

see also Bone marrow injury;

Leukemia

Bone marrow injury, 77-78, 167-168, 183-186, 187, 220

Bowen's disease, 169, 171, 172-173

British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), 79, 85, 139

Bronchitis, 119-120, 121-122, 124, 127, 408-409

Bronchopneumonia, 117, 184, 335

Bureau of Mines, 26

C

Camp Sibert, Alabama, 67

Cancer, 4-5, 64, 216-218

respiratory tract, 216, 396-397

skin, 168, 169-170, 171-173, 175, 216-218, 219, 396

see also Carcinogenicity;

Chemotherapy;

Leukemia

Carcinogenicity, 81-82, 88-97, 171-172, 391-396

battlefield exposure, 101-102

of Lewisite, 171-173, 174-175, 216

occupational exposure, 97-101, 103-104, 105, 169-170, 172-173, 397

of sulfur mustard, 47, 78, 82-85, 102, 104, 105, 168-170, 216, 390 -392, 395-397

Cardiovascular diseases, 64

Causality, 4, 19

Centers for Disease Control (CDC), recommended

exposure levels, 33

Chamber tests, 3, 10, 31-33, 35-40, 52-55, 120-121, 379

cancer risk, 105, 216

psychological effects, 211, 221

treatment of subjects, 65-69

Chemical Stockpile Disposal

Program, 49-50

Chemical Warfare Service (CWS), 3-4, 27-29, 31

arsenals, 3-4, 40-43, 55, 120

chamber tests, 39-40

field tests, 66, 373

records, 7, 373-374, 375-377

see also Edgewood Arsenal

Chemotherapy, mustard agents use in, 44-45, 77, 102-103, 122

Chlorine gas, 124, 400-402

Civilian workers, 7, 42-43, 225

Claims, see Disability claims

Claustrophobia, 206

Cleft lip and palate, 191

Clothing, see Protective clothing

Coercion of test subjects, 65-66, 67-68

Combat fatigue, 203

Committee on Medical Research (CMR), 17, 30, 339

Committee on the Treatment of Gas Casualties (CTGC), NRC, 30-31, 42, 339

Conjunctivitis, 144, 219, 336

Contact lenses, 144

Corneal damage, 133, 135-145

passim, 218-219

Cotton dust, 124, 403-405, 410-411

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×

CWS, see Chemical Warfare Service

Cytotoxicity, of Lewisite, 86

of sulfur mustard, 75-77, 85

D

Department of Defense (DoD), 7, 225-226

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 1-2, 6, 51, 204, 224-226

Depression, 207

Dermatological effects, see Skin disorders and injury

Disability claims, 1-2, 10-11, 28, 66

Diseases, listing, 4-5, 217

self-reported, 64-65, 384-385

in VA determination guidelines, 2

Disposal of chemical weapons, 33, 48-50

DNA damage, from arsenite, 86-87

from sulfur mustard, 75-77, 83-84, 163-164, 216

Documentation, classification of, 7-8, 51-52, 226

foreign sources, 18-19

long-term effects, 2, 5-6, 214-215

personnel records, 7, 11, 66-67, 225, 370-377

of tests, 17-18, 215, 371

VA guidelines, 2, 11

Drods, 35

Drop tests, see Patch tests

E

Edgewood Arsenal, 28, 39-40, 42, 46, 140, 376-377

Emphysema, 119-120, 121, 127, 336, 408-409

Erythema, 159

as chamber test end point, 36, 39, 40

Exposure levels, 3, 33, 34, 215

chamber tests, 39-40, 52-55

patch tests, 35

Eye disease and injury, 4-5, 131-132, 142-145, 218-219

acute effects, 133-139

battlefield exposure, 135, 137, 140-142

from Lewisite, 137, 138, 144-145, 219

occupational exposure, 139-140

from sulfur mustard, 133-144, 218-219

treatment, 143-144

F

Field tests, 3, 31, 32, 40-41, 66

Follow-up of test subjects, 34, 6-8, 50-52, 224-225

roster development, 370-377

France, WWI gas casualties, 140

G

Gas chamber tests, see Chamber tests

Gas masks, 3, 36n, 43, 52-55, 215

Gas neurosis, 203

Gastrointestinal disorders, 64, 187, 220

Genetic damage, from Lewisite, 86-87, 104, 192-195

from sulfur mustard, 46-47, 75-77, 83-85, 104, 189-192, 216

Genital injury, 39, 160, 175, 219, 221

Germany, mustard gas use, 9-10

weapons production workers, 169

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×

Gilchrist, Harry L., 28, 29

Glutathione depletion, 77

H

Heat stress, 205n

Hematopoietic depression, see Bone marrow injury

Hodgkin's disease, 45

Hypervigilance, 210

I

Immunity disorders, 179-186, 220

battlefield exposure, 183-186

from sulfur mustard, 181-186

Incineration of chemical

stockpiles, 49-50

Iran-Iraq War, 48, 117, 122, 170, 185, 191

Isocyanates, 124, 405

J

Japan, weapons factory workers, 97-99, 119-120, 169-170, 172, 190-191

Japanese Americans, 36

Johns Hopkins University

Medical School, 42

K

Keratitis, 137, 139, 140, 141-142, 144, 219

L

Leukemia, 102-103, 216, 218, 393-395

Leukopenia, 184-185

Levinstein process, 71-72

Lewis, W. Lee, 25-26

Lewisite, blood effects, 187-188

carcinogenicity, 171-173, 174-175, 216

chemistry and properties, 24, 25-26, 78-79, 84

cytotoxicity, 86

dermatological effects, 153, 164-167, 171-175

gastrointestinal effects, 187

genetic damage, 86-87, 104, 192-195

neurological effects, 188

occupational exposure, 172-173

ocular effects, 137, 138, 144-145, 219

odor threshold, 53

production, 26, 41

reproductive toxicity, 192-195

respiratory effects, 117-118

stockpiles, 48

Limbal vascular damage, 142-143

Lymphosarcoma, 45

M

Man-break tests, 36, 39, 65

Medical exposure, 122-123, 142, 170-171, 173, 393-395

chemotherapy, 77, 102-103, 122

Military personnel, CWS units, 4, 7, 41, 225

Mood disorders, 200

Mutagenicity, of sulfur mustard, 46-47, 84-85, 190-191

N

National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), 17, 30, 339

National Personnel Record Center (NPRC), 371-372

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×

National Research Council (NRC), 26, 338-339

Committee on the Treatment of Gas Casualties (CTGC), 30-31, 42, 339

Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), chamber tests, passim, 36-40, 67 -68, 371-373

records, 371-373, 374-375, 376-377

Nerve agents, 46, 206, 380

Neurasthenic conditions, 28

Neurological disorders, 65, 188, 220

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) depletion, 77

Nitrogen mustard, acute effects, 77-78

carcinogenicity, 77-78, 102-103, 104-105, 216-218, 392-393, 395-396

chemistry, 24

as chemotherapy agent, 44-45, 77, 102-103, 122

dermatological effects, 156, 170

respiratory effects, 122

wartime production, 41

Nuremberg Codes of 1947, 379-381

O

Occupational exposure, 3-4, 7, 42-43, 55, 120, 140, 215, 221-222, 225

carcinogenicity, 97-101, 103-104, 105, 169-170, 172-173, 397

chlorine gas, 401

dermatological effects, 168-170, 172-173

to Lewisite, 172-173

ocular effects, 139-140

reproductive toxicity, 190-191, 194

respiratory effects, 119-120

to sulfur mustard, 97-101, 119-120, 139-140, 168-170

Ocular effects, see Eye disease and injury

Ocular epithelial damage, 144

Odor thresholds, 53

Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), 17, 29-30, 339

Ointments and salves, 10, 35

Online databases, 14-15, 16, 17

Operation TOP HAT, 379-380

P

Patch tests, 10, 31, 33, 35, 66, 171

Physical examinations, 68

Pigmentation disorders, 156-157, 168, 169, 175

Pneumonia, 119

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 200-204, 207-208, 211

Post-WWI period (1919-1940), chemical weapons use, 9-10

research programs, 28-29

Post-WWII period, chemical weapons use, 47-48

research programs, 45-47

Production, see Arsenals;

Occupational exposure

Protective clothing, 10, 36-40, 52, 205n

Psoriasin, 170-171

Psychoactive drug testing, 46, 378-380

Psychological disorders, 5, 65, 199-211, 221

see also Post-traumatic stress disorder

Pulmonary fibrosis, 122-123

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×

R

Racial factors, dermatological effects, 158-159

Rapid screening of hazard (RASH) method, 395-396

Raritan Arsenal, 49

Reproductive toxicity, 189-195, 220-221

of Lewisite, 192-195

occupational exposure, 190-191, 194

of sulfur mustard, 189-192, 220-221

Respiratory tract effects, 4-5, 112-115, 117, 118, 123-127, 218, 399-412

acute, 115-118, 125-126, 127, 399-412

battlefield exposure, 117, 120-122, 335-337

cancer, 216, 396-397

Lewisite, 117-118

of nitrogen mustard, 122

occupational exposure, 119-120

sulfur mustard, 115-123, 127, 218

Reverse assembly, 49

S

Scarring, 152, 160, 168, 219

Secrecy oath, 1, 7-8, 65-66, 226

Septicemia, 117

Service records, 7, 11, 66-67, 225, 371-377

Sexual dysfunction, 5, 65, 175, 219, 221

Shell shock, 203

Silicosis, 125, 407

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) elevation, 84, 86

Skin disorders and injury, 4, 64, 148-157, 162-164, 167-168, 171-172, 174-175, 219-220

acute effects, 157-167

battlefield exposure, 170, 173

cancer, 168, 169-170, 171-173, 175, 216-218, 219, 396

from Lewisite, 153, 164-167, 171-175

from nitrogen mustard, 156, 170

occupational exposure, 168-170, 172-173

sulfur mustard, 151, 153, 154, 156-164, 167-171, 174, 175

see also Erythema

Smoking, 101-102, 411

S.S. John Harvey, 43

Stockpile disposal, 33, 48-50

Stress effects, 204-211, 221

Sulfhydryl peptide depletion, 77

Sulfur dioxide, 123, 402

Sulfur mustard, acute effects, 22, 25, 34, 75-78, 82

carcinogenicity, 47, 78, 82-85, 102, 104, 105, 168-170, 216, 390-392, 395-397

chemistry and properties, 22, 24, 71-78

cytotoxicity, 75-77, 85

dermatological effects, 151, 153, 154, 156-164, 167-171, 174, 175

development, 22, 25

genetic damage, 46-47, 75-77, 83-85, 104, 189-192, 216

immunity effects, 181-186

mutagenicity, 46-47, 84-85, 190-191

occupational exposure, 97-101, 119-120, 139-140, 168-170

ocular effects, 133-144, 218-219

odor threshold, 53

production, 41

reproductive toxicity, 189-192, 220-221

respiratory effects, 115-123, 127, 218

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×

stockpiles, 48-49

WWI casualties, 9, 47, 48, 101-102, 121-122, 135, 137, 140-142, 183 -184, 335-337

WWI casualty studies, 335-337

WWI use, 9

T

Testing, see Animal studies;

Chamber tests;

Field tests;

Patch tests

Three-Mile Island accident, stress effects, 209-210

Training exercises, 31, 42

Treatment of test subjects, 65-69, 211

Tuberculosis, 336-337

U

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), 204-205

Unitary munitions stockpiles, 49

United Kingdom, weapons factory workers, 99-101, 119, 139-140, 170

WWI veterans, 101, 121-122, 140

U.S.S. Bistera, 43-44

V

VA, see Department of Veterans Affairs

Vapor cup tests, 35

Vedder, E.B., 28

Vietnam War, post-traumatic stress syndrome, 204, 207

W

War Department, see Chemical Warfare Service (CWS)

Wear tests, 40

Women in CWS supply units, 41-43

Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, 41-42

World War I (WWI), combat

stress reactions, 203

gas casualties, 9, 47, 48, 101-102, 121-122, 135, 137, 140-142, 183 -184, 335-337

research programs, 26-28

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
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Page 421
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×
Page 422
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×
Page 423
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×
Page 424
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
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Page 425
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
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Page 426
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
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Page 427
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2058.
×
Page 428
Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Get This Book
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Recently, World War II veterans have come forward to claim compensation for health effects they say were caused by their participation in chemical warfare experiments.

In response, the Veterans Administration asked the Institute of Medicine to study the issue. Based on a literature review and personal testimony from more than 250 affected veterans, this new volume discusses in detail the development and chemistry of mustard agents and Lewisite followed by interesting and informative discussions about these substances and their possible connection to a range of health problems, from cancer to reproductive disorders.

The volume also offers an often chilling historical examination of the use of volunteers in chemical warfare experiments by the U.S. military--what the then-young soldiers were told prior to the experiments, how they were "encouraged" to remain in the program, and how they were treated afterward.

This comprehensive and controversial book will be of importance to policymakers and legislators, military and civilian planners, officials at the Department of Veterans Affairs, military historians, and researchers.

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