National Academies Press: OpenBook

Issues in Risk Assessment (1993)

Chapter: Agricultural Chemicals

« Previous: Application to the Case Studies
Suggested Citation:"Agricultural Chemicals." National Research Council. 1993. Issues in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2078.
×

MODELING

R. Costanza and D. Mauriello

The group examined the case studies with regard to their use or nonuse of models. Each was evaluated according to the answers to these questions:

  • Were models used?

  • If models were not used, would they have improved the assessment?

  • If models were used, could their use have been improved?

The group also considered some general issues regarding the use of mathematical models in risk assessment and risk management.

Use of Models in the Case Studies
Tributyltin

Models were not used in the hazard identification phase. They were used to predict the rate of leaching of TBT into the water from ships painted with antifouling paint. The decision to ban the use of the paints in Virginia was based only on hazard assessment. Such a decision might not have been made if the vulnerable organisms had not included commercially valued species.

Agricultural Chemicals

This case study described a rigorous approach to hazard identification and exposure-response assessment. Models were extensively used in determinations of the sensitivity of end- point species to pesticide exposure. The case study paper pointed out that little basic knowledge is available on the overall ecology of agroecosystems and that this would be a fertile subject for future modeling efforts. The discussion group agreed that larger-scale models are required to deal with geographic variability and to guide future research in pesticide ecotoxicology.

Suggested Citation:"Agricultural Chemicals." National Research Council. 1993. Issues in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2078.
×
Page 324
Next: Northern Spotted Owl »
Issues in Risk Assessment Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $65.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The scientific basis, inference assumptions, regulatory uses, and research needs in risk assessment are considered in this two-part volume.

The first part, Use of Maximum Tolerated Dose in Animal Bioassays for Carcinogenicity, focuses on whether the maximum tolerated dose should continue to be used in carcinogenesis bioassays. The committee considers several options for modifying current bioassay procedures.

The second part, Two-Stage Models of Carcinogenesis, stems from efforts to identify improved means of cancer risk assessment that have resulted in the development of a mathematical dose-response model based on a paradigm for the biologic phenomena thought to be associated with carcinogenesis.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!