COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH
RICHARD L. ATKINSON Since 1986, he has been Professor of Internal Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School and Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development at the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Hampton, Virginia. He received an M.D. degree from the Medical College of Virginia. His research interests are in nutrition, particularly in obesity and the regulation of body weight and energy balance.
WILLIAM R. BEISEL In 1985, he joined the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, teaching courses as a part-time Adjunct Professor. This followed retirement after 43 years as an Army Physician (Internist) and Senior Executive civilian. While with the Army, he did comprehensive basic and clinical research studies to define the complex of metabolic, endocrine, physiologic, and nutritional responses to infection, and their interrelationships with the immune system.
VALERIE McC. BREEN (FNB Staff, Project Assistant) is currently Project Assistant for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, Washington, D.C. She has a bachelor of science degree in biological and physical sciences from Indiana University. Before coming to the Institute of Medicine she was on a three year diplomatic assignment in Paris, France.
JOHANNA T. DWYER (Food and Nutrition Board, Liaison) is Professor of Medicine and Community Health at Tufts University School of Medicine and also at the Tufts School of Nutrition. She is also Senior Scientist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts. She holds the D.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health. Research interests include energy balance, dietary aspects of disease, and special physiological stresses and diet.
JOEL GRINKER is currently a Professor in the Human Nutrition Program, School of Public Health, a Professor in Pediatrics at the Medical School, and a member of the Center for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan. She received a Ph.D. in experimental social psychology from New York University and was the recipient of a Russell Sage Foundation Fellowship at the Rockefeller University in biochemistry, biology, and behavior. After 15 years at Rockefeller University in the laboratory of Human Behavior and Metabolism, she moved to the University of Michigan to become Chair of the Program in Human Nutrition. Major areas of interest are in obesity, specifically the development and maintenance of obesity through the life span.
EDWARD S. HORTON is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont. He is a graduate of Harvard Medical School and received his training in internal medicine, and endocrinology and metabolism, at Duke University. Since 1967, he has been at the University of Vermont where his major research has involved studies of the regulation of energy expenditure in humans, the interrelationships between obesity and diabetes mellitus, and the mechanisms of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. He is particularly interested in the effects of exercise and physical conditioning on insulin sensitivity, and the regulation of glucose transport and metabolism in skeletal muscle. He is immediate Past President of the American Diabetes Association and a Past President of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition.
G. RICHARD JANSEN is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Science and formerly Head of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University. His Ph.D. in biochemistry was from Cornell University. His research interests deal primarily with protein nutrition, and he has co-authored a book on diet and health issues. Prior to his appointment at Colorado State, he was a research fellow at the Merck Institute. He served in the United States Air Force from 1950 to 1953.
GILBERT A. LEVEILLE is Vice President of Research and Technical Services for Nabisco Brands, Inc. Prior to joining Nabisco in 1986 he was Director of Nutrition and Health for General Foods, and from 1971 to 1980
was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University. He holds a Ph.D. in nutrition and biochemistry from Rutgers University. His areas of research interest include carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, obesity and metabolic adaptations to diet.
BERNADETTE M. MARRIOTT (FNB Staff, Program Director) is Program Director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. She has a Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and a B.Sc. degree in biochemistry/immunology and postdoctoral laboratory experience in trace mineral nutrition. Prior to joining the Institute of Medicine staff, she held university and medical school faculty positions at Johns Hopkins University, the University of Puerto Rico, and Goucher College. Her areas of research interest include bioenergetic modeling and social influences of food selection in human and nonhuman primates.
JOHN A. MILNER Since 1989 he has been Professor and Head of the Nutrition Department at The Pennsylvania State University. He has a Ph.D. degree in nutrition from Cornell University. He has a broad background in both fundamental and applied nutrition. His own research deals with the role of the diet as a modifier of cancer risk.
ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Committee Chairman) He retired as Vice President, Science and Technology, for the Quaker Oats Company, Chicago, Illinois, in 1983, and in 1991, as President of Advanced Healthcare, Inc., Monterey, California. He earned a Ph.D. degree in nutrition from the University of Illinois and has had extensive experience in research management. He has been involved in food and nutrition issues for many years, serving on many national committees, including the Food and Nutrition Board and the Food Advisory Committee, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Nutrition.
JAMES G. PENLAND is a Research Psychologist at the USDA Agriculture Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center and Adjunct Professor of Psychology at the University of North Dakota, where he received a Ph.D. in experimental cognitive psychology in 1984. For the past six years, his research has focused on the effects of trace element nutrition on neurophysiologic, cognitive, and emotional function relevant to performance demands placed on adults in our society. Recent research has addressed dietary involvement in brain electrophysiology during sleep and waking, attention and memory performance, mood states, sensory function, and menstrual and menopausal distress. His research program includes both human and animal studies.
JOHN E. VANDERVEEN Since 1975, he has been the Director, Division of Nutrition at the Food and Drug Administration. He is responsible for planning, developing, and implementing programs that provide scientific knowledge required to carry out the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to the field of nutrition. His duties also include providing scientific counsel in the formation of regulations and regulatory programs in the broad field of nutrition and food labeling, as well as providing nutritional review of petitions submitted for regulatory actions, exemptions and/or food additive approvals. He earned a Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the University of New Hampshire.
ALLISON A. YATES is Dean of the College of Health and Human Sciences at the University of Southern Mississippi and associate professor of foods and nutrition. She has a Ph.D. degree in nutrition from the University of California at Berkeley, and an M.S. in public health from UCLA, and is a registered dietitian. She currently serves as Project Director for the Division of Applied Research of the National Food Service Management Institute. Her areas of expertise are in food habits, diet composition, and protein and energy interrelationships.
LAWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG is Assistant Professor of Exercise Sciences at the Human Performance Laboratory of The University of Connecticut, with a joint appointment in the Department of Physiology and Neurobiology. From 1983 to 1990 he conducted human research at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Heat Research Division, Natick, Massachusetts. He is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the American Physiological Society and the Aerospace Medical Association. He serves as an Editorial Board member and/or reviewer for five scientific journals, including the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. He is the Past President of the New England Chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine.
ELDON W. ASKEW is Chief of the Military Nutrition Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. Colonel Askew received his doctoral degree in nutrition sciences and biochemistry from the Michigan State University, and has served in many key positions in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. His areas of specialization include biochemical adaptation to exercise training, the role of nutrition in exercise, and nutrition in environmental extremes.
ELSWORTH R. BUSKIRK is Professor of Applied Physiology Emeritus at the Pennsylvania State University. He received his Ph.D. in physiological hygiene from the University of Minnesota in 1954 and spent the next three years at the Environmental Research Laboratories, Natick, Massachusetts. He subsequently moved to the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases at the National Institutes of Health where he worked on metabolic problems, primarily obesity. In 1963 he organized the Laboratory for Human Performance Research at Penn State, became its first director, and was instrumental in establishing a graduate program in physiology that continues. In 1988 he was granted an endowed professorship at Penn State as the Mrs. Robert A. Noll Professor of Human Performance. He is a past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and has served two terms as editor of its professional journal. He has also been active in the affairs of the American Physiological Society having served on several of its committees and as an associate editor for the Journal of Applied Physiology. He remains active with the American Heart Association as a member of its Research Committee.
PRISCILLA M. CLARKSON is a Professor of Exercise Science at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. She is a member of the Exercise Countermeasures Group at Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a member of the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, and an inducted member of the American Academy of Physical Education. Her research interests include muscle soreness and exercise-induced muscle damage, sports nutrition, especially with regard to vitamin and mineral requirements, and dance medicine.
WILLIAM C. CURTIS, JR. is a Research Medical Officer in the Thermal Physiology and Medicine Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. With an M.D. degree from Howard University, he completed both residency training and served as physician-in-charge of the Hypertension Clinic at Cook County Hospital. His areas of specialty include anti-hypertension drugs, heat tolerance of former heat injured patients, and test volunteer safety and performance.
RALPH P. FRANCESCONI is a Supervisory Research Chemist and Chief of the Comparative Physiology Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. In this capacity much of his research effort has been focused on endocrinological responses of humans during and subsequent to acute or recurrent exercise in hot environments, and he has written extensively on this subject.
CARL V. GISOLFI is Professor of Exercise Science and Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Iowa. He earned his Ph.D. degree in anatomy and physiology at Indiana University. He is a past president of the American
College of Sports Medicine. His research interests include (a) the role of gastrointestinal function in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis during rest and exercise, (b) mechanisms of circulatory insufficiency during heat stroke, and (c) molecular mechanisms of thermotolerance and heat-acclimatization.
BARRY G. GREEN is a Member of the Monell Chemical Senses Center where he heads the program in Sensory Irritation. An experimental psychologist with an expertise in physchophysical measurement, he has researched a wide variety of topics in the areas of human somatosensation and the chemical senses since 1975. His current work focuses on the chemical sensitivity of the skin and its relationship to the senses of taste, olfaction, temperature, and pain.
C. PETER HERMAN is Professor of Psychology at the University of Toronto, Canada. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University, taught at Northwestern University, and has been at the University of Toronto since 1976. His research specialty is behavioral aspects of eating and dieting in humans.
EDWARD S. HIRSCH is Research Psychologist at the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. He received a Ph.D. in physiological and comparative psychology from Rutgers University. His interest in environmental influences on human feeding behavior stems from his earlier work on ecological influences on energy intake and patterns of ingestion in non-human animals.
ROGER W. HUBBARD is a Supervisory Biological Scientist and Director of the Environmental Pathophysiology Directorate at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. He has pioneered the use of the laboratory rat as an appropriate model for human heatstroke and has also proposed the energy depletion model of heat injury. He has authored or co-authored multiple signal works on the mechanisms and etiology of heat injury.
RICHARD F. JOHNSON is Research Psychologist in the Military Performance and Neuroscience Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), Natick, Massachusetts. He received his Ph.D. in psychology (1970) from Brandeis University, where he was both a National Aeronautics and Space Administration Trainee and a Woodrow Wilson Dissertation Fellow. Prior to joining USARIEM in 1984, he served as a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps (1970–1972), was a National Institute of Mental Health grantee (1972–1976), and was a research psychologist with the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories (1976–1983). He is senior lecturer in psychology at Northeastern University and is the author of numerous publications in areas of psycho-
physiology, experimental research methodology, hypnosis, and stress. He is a fellow of both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society, and is Past President of the Natick Chapter of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. He is currently studying the effects of environmental extremes (cold, heat, humidity) and protective systems (protective clothing, treatment drugs, training) on vigilance and psychomotor behavior.
CARL L. KEEN is a Professor of Nutrition and Internal Medicine at the University of California at Davis. He earned his doctoral degree in Nutrition with a specialty in physiological biochemistry at the University of California at Davis. His research interests include the study of the influence of maternal diet on embryonic and fetal development, and the functional consequences of stress and disease-induced changes in mineral metabolism.
F. MATTHEW KRAMER is currently a Research Psychologist at the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center. He received a Ph.D. in counseling psychology from the Pennsylvania State University, and completed postdoctoral work at the University of Minnesota and the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Kramer's interests focus on understanding human food habits, that is, the factors underlying food selection, intake, and acceptability.
NATALIE M. LEVA is a Biochemistry Technician in the Comparative Physiology Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. She has a bachelor's degree in science from the University of Massachusetts, and specializes in the areas of radioimmunoassay and biological statistics.
WILLIAM T. MATTHEW has served as a Research Biologist with the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine since 1968 and is currently a member of the Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division. His primary area of interest is environmental stress assessment methodologies and their application to military training and operational settings.
DONNA J. MERULLO, nee McMenemy, is currently a Research Psychologist with GEO-CENTER, INC. assigned to the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). She received a B.S. degree from Tufts University in 1983 and began working as a research assistant for the Boston University Center for Technology and Policy. In 1985, she joined the USARIEM Health and Performance Division as a research psychologist. She has been a representative to the Office for Military Performance Assessment Technology and is a member of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. She has participated in numerous research studies investigating the effects of extreme environments, nutrition, and medications on human performance.
ROBERT J. MOORE is currently a Research Biochemist with the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research at Ft. Sam Houston, Texas. Captain Moore received the Ph.D. from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and was commissioned in the Medical Service Corps in 1988. His areas of specialization include carbohydrate nutrition and its role in load-bearing and endurance, nutrient requirements while working in the heat, and energy expenditure.
KENT B. PANDOLF is the Director of the Environmental Physiology and Medicine Directorate at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, and holds the rank of Adjunct Professor of Health Sciences at Boston University and Adjunct Clinical Professor of Sports Biology at Springfield College. He received his Ph.D. and M.P.H. from the University of Pittsburgh in environmental/exercise physiology. His current research interests involve the physiological evaluation of human performance during environmental and/or exercise stress.
MICHAEL N. SAWKA currently holds the positions of Chief, Thermal Physiology and Medicine Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, and Associate Professor at Massachusetts General Hospital. He received B.S. (1973) and M.S. (1974) degrees from East Stroudsburg University and his Ph.D. (1977) degree from Southern Illinois University. Dr. Sawka's research interests are in the areas of environmental and exercise physiology as well as rehabilitation medicine.
PATRICIA C. SZLYK is a Research Physiologist in the Comparative Physiology Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. With a doctoral degree in cardiovascular/ respiratory physiology from the State University of New York, Buffalo, she has published extensively in multidisciplinary journals on the effects of environmental stress on performance/thermal physiology.
C. BRUCE WENGER has been a Research Pharmacologist at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts since 1984. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Yale University. His research interests include human circulatory responses to thermal stress, and the epidemiology and pathophysiology of heat illness.
ANDREW J. YOUNG is a Research Physiologist and Leader of the Cold Physiology Working Group in the Thermal Physiology and Medicine Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. He attended the Virginia Military Institute where he received a B.S. in biology in 1974, and the North Carolina State University where he received a Ph.D. in physiology in 1977. Dr. Young's major research interest concerns the physiological basis of adaptations in human performance during acclimatization to environmental extremes of high altitude, heat, and
cold. He is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, and a member of the Scientific Research Society of North American and the American Physiological Society. In addition to serving as a reviewer for such journals as Arctic, Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, and The Journal of Applied Physiology, Dr. Young is on the Editorial Board of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.