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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry

Ninth Revised Edition, 1994

Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Board on Agriculture

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington , D.C.
1994

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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ÿþ

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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SUBCOMMITTEE ON POULTRY NUTRITION

JERRY L. SELL, Chair,

Iowa State University

F. HOWARD KRATZER,

University of California, Davis

J. DAVID LATSHAW,

The Ohio State University

STEVEN L. LEESON,

University of Guelph

EDWIN T. MORAN,

Auburn University

CARL M. PARSONS,

University of Illinois

PARK W. WALDROUP,

University of Arkansas

COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION

HAROLD F. HINTZ, Chair,

Cornell University

DONALD C. BEITZ,

Iowa State University

GARY L. CROMWELL,

University of Kentucky

DANNY G. FOX,

Cornell University

ROGER W. HEMKEN,

University of Kentucky

LAURIE M. LAWRENCE,

University of Kentucky

LARRY P. MILLIGAN,

University of Guelph, Canada

OLAV T. OFTEDAL,

National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.

JERRY L. SELL,

Iowa State University

ROBERT P. WILSON,

Mississippi State University

Staff

MARY I. POOS, Project Director

DENNIS BLACKWELL, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE

THEODORE L. HULLAR, Chair,

University of California, Davis

PHILIP H. ABELSON,

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

JOHN M. ANTLE,

Montana State University

DALE E. BAUMAN,

Cornell University

WILLIAM B. DELAUDER,

Delaware State University

SUSAN K. HARLANDER,

Land O'Lakes, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota

PAUL W. JOHNSON, Natural Resources Consultant,

Decorah, Iowa

T. KENT KIRK,

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin

JAMES R. MOSELEY,

Jim Moseley Farms, Inc., Clark Hills, Indiana, and Purdue University

DONALD R. NIELSEN,

University of California, Davis

NORMAN R. SCOTT,

Cornell University

GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR.,

Colorado State University

PATRICIA B. SWAN,

Iowa State University

JOHN R. WELSER,

The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan

FREDERIC WINTHROP, JR., The Trustees of Reservations,

Beverly, Massachusetts

Staff

SUSAN OFFUTT, Executive Director

JAMES E. TAVARES, Associate Executive Director

CARLA CARLSON, Director of Communications

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Preface

Formulation of balanced diets is fundamental to economical poultry production, and this process depends on a knowledge of nutrient requirements of poultry and the nutritional attributes of nutrient sources. Thus, a compilation of information on nutrient requirements and sources that can be used by feed formulators as a guideline is an important resource. This ninth revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Poultry contains a reassessment of data used in the previous edition and incorporates new information. The committee conducted an extensive review of the literature, and documentation of most of this literature is included in this ninth edition. Note, however, that the review of literature was completed and the nutrient requirements data compiled by the committee in September 1991.

The committee found that scientifically based knowledge about many nutrient requirements was incomplete. Consequently, calculations and interpolations were necessary to derive estimated requirements for some nutrients. These estimated requirements are identified in the requirements tables. In some instances, the committee decided that estimation of the requirements was inappropriate and a question mark was used in the tables to indicate the absence of data.

Nutrient requirements given herein were derived, in most instances, from empirical observations of responses of poultry to changes in dietary concentrations or intakes of specific nutrients. In some instances, nutritional models were used to estimate amino acid requirements. Criteria used in establishing nutrient requirements included growth, reproduction, and feed efficiency and, where possible, poultry health and quality of poultry products.

This report, as compared with previous editions, contains additional information on feedstuffs, including a description of procedures used to determine metabolizable energy values and methods to estimate amino acid contents of feed ingredients. A detailed discussion of dietary fat sources has been added, and the data presented on the nutrient composition of feedstuffs have been expanded to include true metabolizable energy values and coefficients of true amino acid digestibility.

This ninth edition was prepared by the Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition, which was appointed in 1989 under the guidance of the Board on Agriculture's Committee on Animal Nutrition. The Committee on Animal Nutrition, the Board on Agriculture, and several other experts reviewed the report. The subcommittee is grateful to these individuals for their efforts. The subcommittee also thanks Roseanne Price for her editorial assistance and Mary Cochran and Ann Shuey of Iowa State University for their secretarial assistance in preparing many drafts of the report.

JERRY L. SELL, Chair

Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Tables and Figure

 

TABLES

1-1

 

Water Consumption by Chickens and Turkeys of Different Ages

 

16

1-2

 

Guidelines for Poultry for the Suitability of Water with Different Concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids

 

17

1-3

 

Xanthophyll and Lutein Content of Selected Ingredients

 

17

2-1

 

Nutrient Requirements of Immature Leghorn-Type Chickens as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

20

2-2

 

Body Weight and Feed and Water Consumption of Immature Leghorn-Type Chickens

 

21

2-3

 

Nutrient Requirements of Leghorn-Type Laying Hens as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

23

2-4

 

Estimates of Metabolizable Energy Required per Hen per Day by Chickens in Relation to Body Weight and Egg Production

 

24

2-5

 

Typical Body Weights, Feed Requirements, and Energy Consumption of Broilers

 

26

2-6

 

Nutrient Requirements of Broilers as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

27

2-7

 

Nutrient Requirements of Meat-Type Hens for Breeding Purposes as Units per Hen per Day

 

32

2-8

 

Nutrient Requirements of Meat-Type Males for Breeding Purposes as Percentages or Units per Rooster per Day

 

34

3-1

 

Nutrient Requirements of Turkeys as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

36

3-2

 

Growth Rate and Feed and Energy Consumption of Large-Type Turkeys

 

37

3-3

 

Body Weights and Feed Consumption of Large-Type Turkeys during the Holding and Breeding Periods

 

39

4-1

 

Nutrient Requirements of Geese as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

40

4-2

 

Approximate Body Weights and Feed Consumption of Commercially Reared Male and Female Geese to 10 Weeks of Age

 

41

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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5-1

 

Nutrient Requirements of White Pekin Ducks as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

42

5-2

 

Approximate Body Weights and Feed Consumption of White Pekin Ducks to 8 Weeks of Age

 

43

6-1

 

Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

44

6-2

 

Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail (Coturnix) as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

45

6-3

 

Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet

 

45

7-1

 

Biochemical and Physiological Measurements for Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies in Chickens and Turkeys

 

47

7-2

 

Signs of Deficiency in the Embryo

 

48

7-3

 

Nutrients Associated with Various Signs of Deficiency in Growing Birds

 

49

8-1

 

Toxic Dietary Concentrations of Inorganic Elements and Compounds for Poultry

 

59

9-1

 

Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

 

62

9-2

 

Amino Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

 

66

9-3

 

Ranges in Weights per Unit of Volume for Selected Feedstuffs at Standard Moisture

 

68

9-4

 

Estimation of Amino Acids from Protein Content of Feed Ingredients

 

71

9-5

 

Estimation of Amino Acid Composition of Feed Ingredients from Proximate Components

 

72

9-6

 

True Digestibility Coefficients (percent) for Selected Amino Acids in Poultry Feedstuffs

 

74

9-7

 

Nitrogen Concentration, Crude Protein Equivalents, and Nitrogen-Corrected Metabolizable Energy Values for Amino Acids

 

75

9-8

 

Average Fatty Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

 

75

9-9

 

Characteristics and Metabolizable Energy of Various Sources of Fats and Selected Carbohydrates Occurring in Feed

 

76

9-10

 

Element Concentrations in Common Mineral Sources (data on as-fed basis)

 

78

10-1

 

Formulas for Reference Diets for Chicks

 

81

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry

Ninth Revised Edition, 1994

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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